Portfolio: Patients who express suicidal ideation should always be taken seriously. I have read that the greatest risk factor for suicide in previous attempts. Sometimes suicide can be considered a cry for help, and everyone who expresses some time of suicidal ideation deserves evaluation.
The form of psychotherapy I find the most appealing is the cognitive behavioral approach. It appeals to me since the focus if reparative and based on a desire to change one's behaviors which contribute to the problem which prompted therapy in the first place. Patients who engage in cognitive behavioral therapy require a certain degree of insight into how their behaviors contribute to their own emotions or feelings. The interaction of mind and body can be especially telling; many psychological disorders have physical manifestations and conversely, many chronic medical problems can also manifest emotional symptoms. Cognitive behavioral therapy allows the individual to recognize patterns of distorted thinking like anxiety reactions or feelings of guilt which result in dysfunctional behavior patterns. Therapy allows the individual control over these dysfunctional neural pathways and as they occur, helps the patient to learn to alter the behavior that occurs in result to the distressful stimuli. The cognitive behavioral therapist can help the patient identify the problem and work toward a reparative process in a more timely way than in, say, Freudian Analysis. Additionally, I feel CBT is attractive because the degree of input from the therapist is high and there is a significant degree of interaction on the part of both the therapist and the patient.
Portfolio: I have enjoyed studying the different styles of psychotherapy, and found it challenging to discern the subtle differences between many of them. I believe that the most effective therapist is able to change from style to style slightly without a high degree of distress based on the needs of the patient. I think this makes for a good therapist as well as the most effective counseling experience for the individual patient.
Women are not passive creatures as a rule, and neither should they be considered to be simply passive recipients of media content. It should be noted that women will select what they chose to watch and the reaction will be based upon individual experience as well as frame of reference. A woman viewing sexually explicit pictures in the setting of a date may feel it more off-putting based on the social context, while in the company of female friends she may be less upset than she would have been on the date.
The possibility of emotional or psychological arousal which may be attendant to the review of sexually explicit material may trigger behavior in the women which is frowned upon - for example, a woman is meant to be the passive partner is sex and should the material cause her to express sexual needs to her partner or engage in sexual behavior, then often times her behavior is considered uncomely, "unladylike" or smutty. People are also likely to learn about sexuality from how the media portrays women, and it is possible that women get a message from the context in which the sexually explicit behavior occurs. Is it only the pretty woman who is chosen? When a woman gives herself over to sex, it is often time the woman who is the "victim" whether it be in a morality play or in a submissive position in the sexual activity. Often time's sexually explicit material is based primarily on male fantasy which can be in direct opposition to female desires, essentially objectifying the women into something less than human, and rather as simply a means to an end for male sexual satisfaction. In a social context, women are more likely to feel that the sexual relationship is an element of a broader intimate relationship and is likely to be uncomfortable with images which take place outside that context. This is not to say that women are always uncomfortable with sexually explicit images, but rather that the message given by such media is often in direct opposition to the values women are taught.
Portfolio: Pornography is generally by and for men, and many times women view pornography at the behest of a significant other, as would be evidenced by the relative lack of female centered pornography.
In the Milgram study, the participants were given a reality and told them that this reality was appropriate within the setting and therefore inevitable. So when the study participants were told by others that the administration of shock was part of the experiment and must be done in order to complete the experiment, most of the individuals felt that, even in light of screams of pain from the participant, the pain was to be taken for granted and not to be avoided, and that the screams were inevitable. In society it appears that people are more likely to want to be seen as obedient, rather than morally right. The study shows that ordinary people, in the absence of personal hostility may voluntarily enlist themselves in a horrible process, mostly because an authority figure tells them to. Even when outcomes of the destructive acts become clear, and when asked to continue, very few people are able to summon the moral certainty to work against what they perceive as authority. Milgram felt the subjects who were unable to make decisions left it to the group, who then represents to the individual the acceptable behavioral model for society. Obedience is a strong element in this theory, since in this setting; the individual views himself not so much as the person causing the pain, but more like the person carrying out the wishes of those assigned above him. It is in this way that soldiers are able to go to war, commit acts which are prohibited in the non-military society and still work outside of the normal societal bounds. Obedience to the superior is valued above all in the military society, and the individual surrenders choice for obedience.
Portfolio: I wonder what my response to the Milgram study would be. I hope that I would be the one who said I would not go on. I have a suspicion that it would be difficult for me to purposefully give pain to another because someone in an authority position told me to. I have not been tested in this way. It brings to mind the case of Kitty Genovese, the woman in New York who was slain in the street while over 80 people heard her cries, yet no one intervened. Did that happen because others did not want to get involved, or because others felt it was likely someone else would call for help?
After the study, how do you think the prisoners and guards felt when they saw each other in the same civilian clothes again and saw their prison reconverted to a basement laboratory hallway?
The prisoners must have felt very surreal when they saw their former guards in civilian clothes, attending classes, going on with business as usual. I imagine that some of the guards who really got into the role were a little embarrassed at how they had treated some of the prisoners and may have been unwilling to make contact. Some of the prisoners may have felt they wanted to take revenge on the guards, simply because they had "taken advantage" of the situation and treated the prisoners badly, and may have wanted to physically harm the guards, or expose the behaviors to others. Alternatively, the prisoners may have also been embarrassed to see the guards again, especially if they had broken down, or begged or cried. It also may have taken them back, however briefly, to the time they were in "captivity" and it may have made them feel vulnerable. I guess the reaction would have been based on the pre-experiment personality of the individual, and how severely the experiment had affected them. It may have been very difficult to see the "prison" reconverted, or it may have been comforting. By all accounts the experiment was harrowing for guards and prisoners, and it may have provided a degree of closure when the hallway was reconverted to its original form.
There are several elements associated with increased job satisfaction. Were I the boss, I would try to ensure a good flow of communication from top down and back up again, with employees feeling they had a say in some of the day-to-day workings of the company. I would try to ensure that good work was routinely acknowledged and that employees knew they were valued elements of the organization. I would try to be sure all employees had a sense of security within the job and knew the expectations of the position as well as understanding the work required and the level of responsibility each held. This allows individuals to complete work with a…