PTSD Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Is Term Paper

Download this Term Paper in word format (.doc)

Note: Sample below may appear distorted but all corresponding word document files contain proper formatting

Excerpt from Term Paper:

It is difficult to get an accurate record of the actual number of children that have been sexually abused. Many cases never come to light and because of differences in definitions of sexual assault, some cases are missed (658).

Researchers have begun to explore the concept of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder with children and adults that were victims of sexual assault. Many times people associate particular events with particular stimuli. For example, certain orders, colors, sounds, and people can trigger a memory of a past event. This is truer for victims of sexual assault. According to Wolf, Sas, and Wekerle, 'traumatic episodes become associated with particular eliciting stimuli and can lead to maladaptive or a typical reactions. Such conditioning can play an important role in the formation of children's adjustment disorders subsequent to sexual abuse (Wolf et al. 38).'

Because people do not anticipate an abusive episode, there are usually things the victim cannot control. Sexual abuse is such a stressful event to where it has the capability to produce a form of a coping reaction. Since children are impressionable, the perpetrator may threaten the child not to confess. Child victims of child sexual assault are also tortured by nightmares, recurring images of the event, and troubling memories. 'Based on interviews with children who have been exploited by adults through sex rings and pornography, 65 of 60 children reported intrusive thoughts, flashbacks, and nightmares. Physical symptoms (eg. Somatic complaints, sleep problems, excessive crying) and greater social withdraw and distrust of others were also noted among a sizeable proportion of this sample (Wolf et al. 39).'

Posttraumatic Stress Disorder is diagnosed with the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptom Checklist. The test consists of a list of 43 'adjustment problems' with 23 items spanning the range of symptoms characterizing Posttraumatic Stress Disorder as defined in the DSM-III Categories for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder. Participants were considered Posttraumatic Stress Disorder positive if they indicated on the test that they had re-experienced the traumatic event, became avoidant, and had increased arousal. The test also indicated whether or not the participant had a 'moderate problem' or 'partial' Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (Rowan 55).'

PTSD is treated by a variety of forms of psychotherapy and drug therapy. There is no definitive treatment, and no cure, but some treatments appear to be quite promising, especially cognitive-behavioral therapy, group therapy, and exposure therapy. Exposure therapy involves having the patient repeatedly relive the frightening experience under controlled conditions to help him or her work through the trauma. Studies have also shown that medications help ease associated symptoms of depression and anxiety and help with sleep. The most widely used drug treatments for PTSD are the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, such as Prozac and Zoloft. At present, cognitive-behavioral therapy appears to be somewhat more effective than drug therapy. However, it would be premature to conclude that drug therapy is less effective overall since drug trials for PTSD are at a very early stage. Drug therapy appears to be highly effective for some individuals and is helpful for many more. In addition, the recent findings on the biological changes associated with PTSD have spurred new research into drugs that target these biological changes, which may lead to much increased efficacy.


Famularo R, Fenton T, Kinscherff R, Ayoub C, Barnum R. Maternal and child posttraumatic stress disorder in cases of child maltreatment. Child Abuse & Neglect. 1994;18:27 -- 36

Famularo R, Kinscherff R, Fenton T. Symptom differences in acute and chronic presentation of childhood post-traumatic stress disorder. Child Abuse Negl 1990;14:439 -- 44.

Saigh, P.A. (2004). A structured interview for diagnosing Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: Children's PTSD Inventory. San Antonio, TX: PsychCorp.

Walker, J. (2009). Anxiety associated with post traumatic stress disorder: The role of quantitative electroencephalograph in diagnosis and in guiding neurofeedback training to remediate the anxiety. Biofeedback, 37(2), 67-70

Harris, H.N., & Valentier, D.F. (2002). World assumptions, sexual assault, depression and fearful attitudes toward relationships. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 17, 286-305.

Murray, J.B. (1992). Posttraumatic-stress-disorder: A-review. Genetic, Social,& General Psychology-Monographs, 118, 313-338.

Wolf, E.J., Miller, M.W., Orazem, R.J., Weierich, M.R., Castillo, D.T., Milford, J., et al. (2008).…[continue]

Cite This Term Paper:

"PTSD Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Is" (2012, July 16) Retrieved December 8, 2016, from

"PTSD Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Is" 16 July 2012. Web.8 December. 2016. <>

"PTSD Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Is", 16 July 2012, Accessed.8 December. 2016,

Other Documents Pertaining To This Topic

  • PTSD Post Traumatic Stress Disorders and

    In civilian life, such individuals will have gained a traditional ethical education whereas in a combat context, such individuals will have been instructed on the use of lethal force. According to Willis, "habit and practice help the willingness and capacity to kill on command. The new recruit or volunteer may, and likely has, the innate reservation against killing anyone. Yet day in and day out, the 'normal' person is

  • Post Traumatic Stress Disorder Is

    While there are approximately 5 million people suffering from the illness at any one time in America, women are twice as likely to develop PTSD as compared to men. In relation to children and teens, more than 40% has endured at least a single traumatic incident contributing the development of the disorder. However, PTSD has occurred in nearly 15% of girls as compared to the 6% of boys. Causative Factors

  • Post Traumatic Stress Disorder Is Given as

    Post traumatic stress disorder is given as psychological reaction which take place after one has gone through a stressful event .the characteristics of PTSD are anxiety, depression, recurrent nightmares, flashbacks and avoiding things that are a reminder of the event. There have been increased reports of mental health problems among soldiers who have been deployed in war zones like Afghanistan and Iraq. The paper will look at two articles that

  • Posttraumatic Stress Disorder PTSD Has

    , 2010). This point is also made by Yehuda, Flory, Pratchett, Buxbaum, Ising and Holsboer (2010), who report that early life stress can also increase the risk of developing PTSD and there may even be a genetic component involved that predisposes some people to developing PTSD. Studies of Vietnam combat veterans have shown that the type of exposure variables that were encountered (i.e., severe personal injury, perceived life threat, longer duration,

  • Post Traumatic Stress Disorder and Alcoholism Addiction

    Post Traumatic Stress Disorder and Alcoholism/Addiction Narrative Alcoholism and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: Overview PTSD and Co morbidity of Alcoholism: The Role of Trauma Childhood Abuse and Gender Differences in PTSD Association Between Alcoholism and Emotion Genetic and Environmental Influences Models of Assessment/Conclusions Abstract TC "Abstract" f C l "1" This study will examine the relationship between post traumatic stress disorder and alcoholism/addiction. The author proposes a quantitative correlation analysis of the relationship between PTSD and alcoholism be conducted to

  • Post Traumatic Stress Disorder and Risk of

    Post Traumatic Stress Disorder and Risk of Dementia among U.S. Veterans According to Yaffe et al. (2010), Post Traumatic Stress Disorder is a prevalent psychiatric syndrome linked to increased mortality and morbidity rates. This condition is among the most prevalent amid veterans returning from combat. Among veterans returning from Afghanistan and Iraq, the prevalence of post traumatic stress disorder is estimated to be about 17% (Seal et al., 2009). Veterans returning

  • Post Traumatic Stress Disorder Quantitative

    Similarly, researchers should be aware of the consequences of halo, prejudice to the leniency or seriousness of fundamental trend and position or propinquity of deviation from the pace that can artificially increase reliability of measure devoid of improving reaction correctness or validity. (Williams, and Poijula, 2002). Limitations/Strength and Weaknesses The following conditions might have affected the results of the present study: 1. The sample will not be random, 2. all demographic information will

Read Full Term Paper
Copyright 2016 . All Rights Reserved