Note: Sample below may appear distorted but all corresponding word document files contain proper formattingExcerpt from Essay:
Responsibilities as an external consultant to a contract manufacturing organization (CMO)
Research in the field of medicine has contributed to changes in administration of dosage. Initially some administration routes for drugs are considered more convenient than other methods. However this relies and depends on the benefits and shortcomings of the drug administration route. The paper discusses on the possible and the convenient drug administration routes to apply in CMO. The paper also discusses on the methods to improve the physical stability and product chemical in the dosage for CMO
Routes of administration for biological medicinal products
Different routes of administration can be applied for biological medicinal products and generally for contract manufacturing organization (CMO). For instance, enteral, parenteral, and transdermal are the common broad routes of medicinal administration.
Hypodermoclysis administration route
Hypodermoclysis administration route is whereby the dosage is in fluid form and can be referred to as subcutaneous infusion or interstitial infusion. In this case, the dosage is normally in form of glucose or saline solution.
Advantages of Hypodermoclysis
Hypodermoclysis supports or allows for increased rate of drug intake when compared to intravenous infusion. Additionally, this method is cheap and effective. Hypodermoclysis also requires minimal supervision and can even be administered by non-medical personnel. This method is also considered safe since it does not pose serious complications and it is the most effective for the elderly.
Disadvantages of Hypodermoclysis
The major disadvantage of Hypodermoclysis route of drug administration is that it only supports or allows a capacity of 1ml per minute. In essence, it does not support administration of high volumes of dosage.
Transdermal route of administration
This entails the application of the dosage or drug directly to the skin surface and includes the administration of dosage to mucus membrane including lungs, nose, eyes, colon, vagina, and ears. The dose which is administered through this method includes gels, cream, transdermal patches, ointments, and suspensions (Neidle, 2008, p.133).
Advantages of the transdermal
The transdermal route of administration of doses results to less or no side effects. In addition, inhalation sprays through the nose can help in administering doses for curing systemic or local effects since absorption of the drug takes place through the skin (Troy, 2005, p.939). The other advantage is that this route of administration ensures that the blood vessels are stable. The transdermal route of administration also ensures that the first pass metabolism is avoided. An additional advantage of using the transdermal route of administration is that it ensures secure drug level into the system.
Disadvantages of transdermal route
There are cases of local therapeutic problems or effects once this method is used. The other disadvantage is that the dosage is not well absorbed in the lower or deeper skin layer or the mucous membrane. For the case of transdermal, the drug is required to be potent and failure of this might lead to the patch becoming too large.
Enteral route of medicine cover a diversity of methods including oral, sublingual, buccal and rectal.
Oral administration of medicine entails applying transdermally in the mouth and swallowing for absorption through the gastrointestinal track to system circulation (Kasapis, Norton, & Ubbink, 2009, p.603). Common forms of dose which can be administered using the oral route include liquids, tablets, capsules, syrup, solution, suspension, and elixirs.
Advantages of oral administration
The CMO can apply the oral route in administering medicine following its advantages as identified. Oral administration is convenient since it is pain free, self-administered, and easy when taking. The other advantage of oral administration is that absorption occurs along the entire GI tract length. In addition, oral administration is cheap compared to the other parental routes.
Disadvantages of oral administration route
CMO should also understand that oral administration route is bound to some shortcomings. In some cases, oral is considered inefficient since not all the drug is absorbed. Oral also has the disadvantage of effect of first pass which implies that drugs administered using this route pass through the portal vein to the liver. The oral administration route also leads to irritation of the gastric mucosa which eventually results to vomiting and nausea (Neidle, 2008, p.133). More often, the oral route is not recommended for emergency cases since it responds slowly and can not apply in cases where the patient is unconscious. Since some drugs have unpleasant taste, this administration route might be a challenge especially to young children. Digestive and gastric juices contribute towards destruction of the drugs.
Limb perfusion entails a medical technique which is generally applied in delivering anti-cancer dosage through the arm or leg. Blood flow is first stopped for a short duration using a tourniquet and the dosage is the administered directly to the blood in the limb.
Advantages of limb perfusion
Limb perfusion is the most effective method of drug administration in treating cancer. Additionally, limb perfusion ensures quick absorption of the administered drug (Limited, 2003, p.383). This method also ensures administration of high dosage compared to other methods.
Disadvantage of Limb perfusion
Initially, just like the other methods of drug administration, limb perfusion is associated with elevated risk which comprise of persisting impairment concerning the treated limb (Mahdi & Abolfazl, 2011, p.213). Another disadvantage of this method is that it is utilized in treating cancer but it can merely apply in treating other ailments.
The rectal route
This is whereby the drug is administered through enema or subsitory method. Some examples of rectal dosage include theophylline, chlorpromazine, and aspirin (Adikwu, & Esimone, 2009, p.1).
Advantages of rectal route
The rectal route administration of dosage can be used for cases involving children, it is also known to cause little, and in other cases no first pass effect (Adikwu, & Esimone, 2009, p.1). The other advantage of this method of administering dosage is that it works effectively for voting cases and lastly, this method is known to enhance high and rapid concentration.
Disadvantages of rectal route
Rectal route administration of dosage support erratic and slow absorptions. In addition, rectal mucosa suffers from inflammation and irritation once the rectal route s applied in administering dosage. This method of administering dosage is also not convenient.
This is infusion or injection by the use of a catheter or a needle inserted into the body. In this case, the alimentary canal is the one used as the route of administration (Gillespie et al., 2010, p.830). Different types of injectables are used in this case including intramuscular, intravenous, subcutaneous, intra-arterial, intrathecal, intra-articular, and intradermal.
Advantages of parenteral route of administration
The route is convenient for cases where drugs administered orally are destroyed by secretions such as antibiotics and insulin. The route triggers a physiological reaction which may be useful in patient situations, for example, shock or heart attack. The method is convenient because it allows passage of medicines through injections, especially for stubborn patients. Parenteral route allows a patient to feed, in cases where the patient is unable to feed via the mouth.
Disadvantages of parenteral route
The paranteral consumes more time than other routes and also requires skilled persons. While using the route, conformance with various aseptic procedures is required. In addition, the patient cannot avoid the pain at the period of administration. The route is associated with physiological effects which are complex to reverse. The specifications for manufacturing and packaging for parenteral dosage states are expensive compared to other forms.
Advantages of intramuscular route
This administration route ensures uniform absorption. It also facilitates rapid onset of action (Gillespie et al., 2010, p.830). The other advantage of intravascular route is that it can be applied in cases of mild irritants and ensures that first pass is avoided. In addition, the intramuscular route of administration also ensures that gastric factors are avoided.
Disadvantages of intramuscular route
The drug dosage which can be administered using this method if limited to 10ml. local abscess and pain are also experienced when this administration route is applied. The other disadvantage of using this administration route is that it may lead to infection and nerve damage.
Advantages of Intravenous route
This administration route ensures that the desired concentration of blood is achieved. Moreover, it ensures administration of large quantity dosage and can useful in situations of diarrhea and vomiting (Staphylococcus aureus vaccine conjugate -- Nabi: Nabi-StaphVAX, StaphVAX' 2003, p.383). It is also suitable for emergency cases. Intravenous route ensures avoidance of the first pass and gastric manipulation.
Disadvantages of intravenous route
This administration route contributes towards cellulites and irritation. Moreover, it also poses some dangers of infection, expensive, painful, and less convenient (Neidle, 2008, p.133). The other disadvantage is that this administration route has less space and highly depends on technical assistance. It also leads to repetition in injections which are not always feasible as well as leading to thrombophelebitis.
The selection of the best route for CMO
The factors to consider when selecting the route for drug administration depend on the speed for absorption or drug release and the physical distinctiveness of the medicine. In addition,…[continue]
"Responsibilities As An External Consultant To A" (2013, February 24) Retrieved December 3, 2016, from http://www.paperdue.com/essay/responsibilities-as-an-external-consultant-86169
"Responsibilities As An External Consultant To A" 24 February 2013. Web.3 December. 2016. <http://www.paperdue.com/essay/responsibilities-as-an-external-consultant-86169>
"Responsibilities As An External Consultant To A", 24 February 2013, Accessed.3 December. 2016, http://www.paperdue.com/essay/responsibilities-as-an-external-consultant-86169
These claims are virtually all based on the concept that corporations - particularly multinationals -- should be held accountable for their actions within their sphere of operations. "Corporations, for their part, have responded in numerous ways, from denying any duties in the area of human rights to accepting voluntary codes that could constrain their behavior" (Ratner, 2001, p. 436). In fact, this very point is echoed throughout the literature; for
External and Internal Recruitment External recruitment and its strategy at Coca Cola Company Recruitment refers to an act of enabling employees take after the various roles and responsibilities within an organization. The act of selecting and employing procedures that ends in having employees fill up various responsibilities within an organization is referred to as recruitment. External recruitment refers to a recruitment process that the human resource of an organization moves outside the
Training Needs Analysis Practices for Managers: A Study of Saudi Arabia Private Firms Training needs analysis (TNA) is defined by Mabey and Salman (1995:158) as a "process of collecting data which allows an organization to identify and compare its actual level with its desired level of performance." The authors also indicate that this performance could be interpreted as meaning the competencies and attitude necessary for the staff to do the
As shown in Appendix 2 these report gives a complete and detailed picture of candidate's personality type, classifying him to one of five main types: A-director, B - socializer, motivator, people person, C - thinker, analytic, D - supporter, X which means that personality has two types synergized. Interviewing as the most used employee screening skill Another very effective method of prospective employee evaluation is evaluation interview. Evaluation interview was a theme
In this system, in which we must increasingly compete for students and research dollars and create new sources of funding, international university rankings are the utmost importance." (Probert, 2006) it is emphasized in this report that these changes are of great significance toward ensuring "greater strategic capacity within the Faculty." Probert (2006) relates two key changes which have been proposed and states them as follows: 1) the reduction in number
HR as a Strategic Partner Over the years in a lot of organizations Human Resources -HR are considered as a source of competitive edge. An increasing appreciation of the fact that unique competencies are got by way of greatly developed employee skills, unique organizational cultures, management processes and systems. It has been more and more acknowledged that competitive edge can be got by way of high quality personnel that facilitate organizations
Forming a Bank Holding Company - Structure, Governance, and Regulations Understanding Banks Forming and Expanding a Bank Holding Company Financial Holding Company Requirements BHC Regulations Capital Building Options for Bank Holding Companies Pros and Cons of Forming a Bank Holding Company Stocks and Governance Corporate Governance and Banking Law The Role of Bank and Holding Company Audit Committees Data Gathering Method Database of Study Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations Forming a Bank Holding Company - Structure, Governance, and Regulations This research paper describes the process