Note: Sample below may appear distorted but all corresponding word document files contain proper formattingExcerpt from Essay:
rise of business and the new age of industrial capitalism forced Americans to think about, criticize, and justify the new order -- especially the vast disparities of wealth and power it created. This assignment asks you to consider the nature and meaning of wealth, poverty and inequality in the Gilded Age making use of the perspectives of four people who occupied very different places in the social and intellectual spectrum of late nineteenth-?century America:, the sociologist William Graham Sumner, the writer Henry
George, a Massachusetts textile worker named Thomas O'Donnell, and the steel tycoon
For Andrew Carnegie, wealth was a good thing. In his "Gospel of Wealth," Carnegies talks about the problem of "our age" which is the proper administration of wealth. He has his own philosophy of how wealth has come to be unequally distributed with the huge gap existing between those who have little and those who are stupendously rich. However, Carnegie believes that if administered and propertied in the right way, this gap is not only right but also good.
People are apt to squander their wealth. They are apt to use it on hedonistic pursuits, and, in this way, Carnegie believes that the wealth is improperly used. In the same way, wealth too is improperly used when bequeathed to Charity, for Charity may waste the wealth and direct it to foolish or irrational results.
The best way, Carnegie, believes that the wealth can be used if the owner directs it to philanthropic directions of his own choosing. Carnegie gives the example of millionaires who directed their wealth towards parks and other sustainable projects for the mass. These donors knew how to use their wealth. They had a lot -- more than many others -- but they used it properly for the public good. When used in this way, the chiasm between plenty and poor is lawful and right since the wealth is used for social ends.
The gap between poor and rich is, Carnegie admits, to be deplored. It creates many social ills aside from also envy and conflict between the classes. The Anarchists / Socialists are correct. But this gap is inevitable; some are always going to be wealthier than others. There are always going to be Masters and Workers. Being that we have this inevitability, we may as well direct it in a right way. There are disadvantages, certainly, to this way of living but Carnegie believes that there are advantages too. Advantages include not only the fact that the wealthy has the opportunity of benefiting the masses but that social development occurs since the wealthy can decide to improve their race and the world if they resolve to use their money philanthropically and wisely. One can, Carnegie admits, also pass it on as inheritance but this would only be harming one's children since it would be making them incapable of earning their own living and will be making them idle which are misguided affection. The tendency to tax large estates is, Carnegie believes, a wise step.
Sociologist William Sumners, however, was more scientific and straightforward in his rationalization of some having more than others. This was the Darwinian way of life. It was normal. It was natural. The wealthy could spend their wealth whichever way they desired for they had earned it and they were the fittest who had survived. Sumners was often accused of cold-heartedness, to which he responded:
"The sociologist is often asked if he wants to kill off certain classes of troublesome and bewildered persons. No such interference follows from any sound sociological doctrine, but it is allowed to infer, as to a great many persons and classes, that it would have been better for society and would have involved no pain to them, if they had never been born." (Thomas O'Donnell, Testimony William Graham Sumner "What the Social Classes Owe to Each Other," p. 45)
In other words, that it is of no fault or problem to the wealthy person that this gap exists. Sumner's own father had been a working man, forced to flee England when he could find no work, but Sumner argued against all forms of business regulation, labor unions, or public welfare.
In What Social Classes Owe to Each Other, Sumner argued that:
There is an old ecclesiastical prejudice in favor of the poor and against the rich… It is not uncommon to hear a clergyman utter from the pulpit all the old prejudice in favor of the poor and against the rich, while asking the rich to do something for the poor; and the rich comply, without apparently having their feelings hurt at all by the invidious comparison. (p.55)
It is the rich however who need to be extolled since they are smart, industrious, and thrifty and self-disciplined. Everything starts with labor. The man who made a great fortune deserved it, and race and 'land' as well as good of nation are only abstract entities where money from one who worked hard for it spills unfairly down to someone who squanders it and is idle. It is only when men are left unencumbered to work for and develop their prosperity that he country, in turn, can be developed. Government should therefore interfere in the business of competent man neither by taxes nor by any other kind of intervention.
The interview with MacDougal puts the lie to Sumner's description of the poor man as idle and slovenly. MacDougal is a cotton worker who despite constant hard work earns no more than $15 a week (and less for the last 13 weeks due to a strike) and this hardly enough to feed his wife and children.
My children get along very well in summer time, on account of not having to buy fuel or shoes or one thing and another. I earn $1.50 a day and can't afford to pay a very big house rent. I pay $1.50 a week for rent, which comes to about $6'00 a month' (p.61)
Even his children, young as they are, are put to work.
Poverty brings its own problems:
Our children, of course, are very often sickly from one cause or another, on account of not having sufficient clothes, or shoes, or food, or something. And also my woman; she never did work in a mill; she was a housekeeper, and for that reason she can't help me do anything at Present, as many women do help their husbands down there, by working, like themselves" (ibid.)
MacDougal works every day all the time. His wife has worn her one dress since she got married. Another dress she made herself. The family is careful with their money. MacDougal, 30 years old and healthy, rates himself a good workman. In all the years of his life, he has never yet been fired over disorderly conduct. He has also never seen currency that exceeds a $20 bill and there have been days when he and his family have had to starve. Calms are their main diet. He has no one to support him. His children remain uneducated since not only do they have to work but MacDougal has no money left over for education. MacDougal feels that but with a little help from the government, his family could do somewhat better with their lives and the debacle over child labor would be relieved:
They are forced, these young boys into the mills that should not be in mills at all; forcing them in because they are throwing the mules out and putting on ring-frames' They are doing everything of that kind that they possibly can to crush down the Poor people- the poor operatives there... (p.62)
Their huge lack of money disables them even from pulling themselves out of the hole and helping them endeavor to remedy their…[continue]
"Rise Of Business And The New Age" (2013, March 06) Retrieved October 22, 2016, from http://www.paperdue.com/essay/rise-of-business-and-the-new-age-103304
"Rise Of Business And The New Age" 06 March 2013. Web.22 October. 2016. <http://www.paperdue.com/essay/rise-of-business-and-the-new-age-103304>
"Rise Of Business And The New Age", 06 March 2013, Accessed.22 October. 2016, http://www.paperdue.com/essay/rise-of-business-and-the-new-age-103304
Dramatic Rise in Advertising Usage From 1865 to 1930 Why did the period between 1865 and 1930 see such a dramatic rise in advertising usage? The timeframe from 1865 to 1930 is representing a shift in the nation and society. This is because technological advancements helped to invite transformations from an agricultural society to one that was focused on industrial manufacturing. These changes meant that firms had to offer various reasons for
Business Law in Relation to Age Discrimination According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, almost 50% of the America's working population is 40 years or older. This means that Age Discrimination in Employment Act now covers almost of the American workforce employed in private sector (Neumark, 2008). Keeping in view the current situation, in which the workforce is not graying or growing at a faster pace, employers are in search for qualified
Today the outbound telephone marketing industry has given political campaigns the ability to reach out to a large group of targeted voters in a quick and quiet way, just below the radar. This notion went way beyond the small volunteer call centers that have existed for over forty years. It was essential for the technology to be in place and widely utilized. Political campaigns could not have put into production
Business History and book Comparison: Is it the change of work or the end of work that we face today? Both the texts Change at Work by Peter Cappelli and the various other contributors to Cappelli's 1997 volume of essays, and Jeremy Rifkin in his 1994 text The End of Work attempted to explain how the changes of the technically modern and forward-thinking, dynamic marketplace of the 1990's would evolve both
Removing losses from the company's books made the main corporation look more attractive. Enron appeared to be operating at a profit; a key factor in the valuation of any company's stock. By virtue of this "success," Enron was able to raise even more money for more investments. The architects of all this "growth" profited accordingly. Ken Lay and his associates held large amounts of exceedingly valuable and overvalued stock. When
Strategic Planning in IT IT Impact on Service Industry Performance Cooperative Competitive Competitive Advantage Implementation of IT Innovations 1992 U.S. VALUE-ADDED AND EMPLOYMENT BY INDUSTRY AVERAGE ANNUAL GROWTH IN GDP PER HOUR, MAJOR SECTORS OF THE U.S. ECONOMY Management TASKS IN BUREAUCRACY VS ADHOCRACY ORGANIZATIONS This paper addresses the following problem statement: "Without information technology (IT), a business will not be able to compete globally in any industry, nor in any market it wants to enter. It will
The National League was formed in 1876 and enabled spectators to observe touring athletes play the game. The first World Series was played between the National League and its rival, the American League, in 1903. The popularity of baseball allowed for the financing of large baseball fields such as Fenway Park, Shibe Park, and Wrigley Field (Sports and Leisure, 2011). This era also saw the rise of collegiate football,