Attribution theory is a theory that focuses on creating an understanding of the ways in which people interpret events and the relationship of the events to their thinking and behaviors. The theory was proposed by Heider (1958), Weiner (1972 and 1986), and Weiner (1074). Attribution theory takes into assuption that individuals try to understand why people behave the way they do (attribute causes of events to behaviors). It also creates an understanding of behavior of individuals using three-stage processes that are considered to build the strength of the attribution. Among the processes include the fact that an individual should perceive or see their behavior, individuals should believe that their behaviors were due their intentional circumstances. Finally, individuals should determine whether they believe somebody else forced them to perform or engage in that behavior.
The relationship between these factors creates a web of causation that determines one's behavior. Factors such as the ability, task, difficulty, task, and luck affect individuals' attribution for achievement of their desired personal and professional objectives. Classifying attributions takes into consideration three dimensions of causation that include locus of control, controllability, and stability. Internal locus of control vs. external locus of control forms the locus of control. The locus of stability focuses on determining whether causes of a specific behavior changes over time or not. For example, scholars consider factors such as ability to be stable, effort, or internal cause, thereby, it qualification as locus of stability. Dimension of controllability focuses on contrasting the causes an individual can have control over them such as efficacy and skills (Stewart, 2006).
Attribution theory has a close relationship with the concept of motivation. The relationship arises from the fact that individuals engage in an activity due to internal forces that should be satisfied by performing the action. Attribution theory is applicable across a wide range of fields. For instance, the theory is important in education, clinical psychology, law, and mental health sectors. The applicability of the theory in these fields is highly attributed to the fact that the relationship between achievement and self-concept that influence individual's behavior can be determined and controlled.
There are several strengths and weaknesses of the attribution theory. For example, the fact that theory provides an explanation of the difference between high and low motivation forms the strength of the theory as it is applied across all organizations to understand human behavior. Similarly, the theory creates an understanding of factors behind the actions of the employees within an organization and ways of controlling them. However, the fact that the theory can be used to blame other for their behaviors to evade personal convictions and its ability to demoralize the employees within an organization forms the weaknesses of the theory. Despite the weakness, the theory stands effective in creating an understanding of the ways in which managers and leaders can motivate their employees or superiors (Stewart, 2006).
How we exercise out emotional intelligence
Emotional intelligence or EQ/EI refers to the ability of an individual to understand, manage, and express his/her feeling alongside engage in and navigate successfully with those of other individuals. Emotional intelligence is classified in various ways. Individuals can be classified as the talent smart (90% emotional intelligent), low performers (80%), and poor performers (below 70%). Irrespective of the emotional intelligence level, human beings use their emotional intelligence in their daily lives to execute as expected (Matthews, Zeidner & Roberts, 2002).
As human beings, we exercise our emotional intelligence in a variety of ways. For instance, we employ the use of our emotional intelligence when dealing with our negative emotions. We exercise the use of our emotional intelligence in controlling our internal negative emotions to prevent them from overwhelming out abilities. As such, controlling them enables us to make sound decisions based on our experiences and change our perception towards the presented situations. We also exercise out emotions when we maintain our composure in times of intense stress or pressure. Having control over intense pressure allows us to be assertive rather than reactive to the situation, thereby, ensuring our emotional and social health. Similarly, emotional control during stress makes us understand effective ways of preventing undesired effects of stress to our well-being (Matthews, Zeidner, & Roberts, 2002).
In addition, Goleman, Boyatzis, & McKee (2002) recognize that we exercise our emotional intelligence when we follow the stated organizational policies in making decisions that affect the employee and organizational performance as a whole. Problem solving is a process that entails the consideration of factors such as gathering information, probing for evidence, developing alternatives, and choosing the most effective solution to the problem at hand. As such, following the above steps in solving a problem displays our abilities to exercise our emotional intelligence. Moreover, we exercise our emotional intelligence when we read and understand social cues. Our demonstration to read and understand the social cues is evidenced by our abilities to interpret physical, emotional, and verbal expressions of other people (Zelen, 1991).
Apart from understanding them, we exercise our emotional abilities when we communicate to others using the social cues to others in our society and workplaces. Individuals also exercise their emotional abilities when express their intimate emotions in personal relationships. The ability to express effectively and validate our tender loving and intimate emotions signifies our abilities to exercise our emotional intelligence, as it enables us to build and maintain our close relationships. In addition, we exercise our emotional intelligence when display our abilities to navigate complexities facing us in the workplaces. It also becomes apparent when lead others in adopting the desired behavior for the realization of common organizational goal and success. Therefore, it is beyond doubt that we exercise our emotional intelligence on our daily basis. Similarly, emotional intelligence enables us to behave in accordance with the desired social rules and regulations (Goleman, Boyatzis, & McKee, 2002).
Culture is constantly evolving
Culture changes with time. All cultures irrespective of the background are expected to change and resistant change. The culture of the current contemporary society differs from the culture of the earlier times such as the eighteenth century. The changes in the lifestyles of individuals over time alongside changes in their behavior and interaction within the society are some of the ways that shows changes in culture. Cultural change occurs on a daily basis, and is under a constant influence of various factors such as forces of work in the society, contact between different societies, and the changes occurring in the natural environment that predisposes culture to change
Cultural evolution can also be traced back to the evolution of human beings and changes in their culture witnessed over time. For instance, historical evidence shows that the early man relied on wild fruits and hunted for survival. However, exposure of these individuals to various changes in the environment forced them to change their livelihood to farming and domestication of animals to supplement their basic needs. In addition, cultural change is evidenced by the fact that technological adoption seen in the current century has changed cultural perspectives of different societies across the globe. People of the 18th century relied heavily of autocracy while those of the current society rely heavily on democracy (Macleod, 2004).
Factors such as invention and loss of cultural values cause change in culture of a society. Inventions can be in the form of ideological and technological inventions that bring new ideas and conceptualization of the culture. Replacement of the old cultural values with the modern ones results in the loss of culture. Cultural change occurring due to the interaction between different societies occurs due to the influence of factors such as diffusion, transculturation, and acculturation. Diffusion refers to the transfer of ideas and things from culture to another. Culture loses some of its values as it is…