Scientific Method Include a Reliance on the Term Paper

Download this Term Paper in word format (.doc)

Note: Sample below may appear distorted but all corresponding word document files contain proper formatting

Excerpt from Term Paper:

scientific method include a reliance on the empirical approach toward acquiring knowledge, and the skeptical attitude that scientists adopt toward explanations of behavior and mental processes (5). The empirical approach entails relying on direct observation and on objectivity. Once a scientist observes an object or a phenomenon and describes the phenomenon using clearly defined terms, he or she will probably formulate a hypothesis. The hypothesis is generally designed to provide a testable explanation for the phenomenon. Next, the scientist constructs an experiment and uses the hypothesis to predict the results. Finally, the scientist performs tests. The results should ideally be published in scientific journals so that other scientists can replicate the study and subject the hypothesis to the same scrutiny.

The skeptical attitude that scientists adopt assumes that they will accept nothing in the absence of scientific proof. The scientist takes care not to jump to conclusions too early and only relies on hard evidence when reaching conclusions. When encountering new studies, the scientist will make sure that the research has been replicated and validated. The scientist also remains skeptical by only accepting evidence from reputable, trustworthy sources.

Although scientists try to keep open minds, they also must take care to not jump to erroneous conclusions. Skepticism means testing ideas before believing them, relying more on objective measuring instruments than on subjectivity. Eliminating subjectivity in the field of psychology can be especially difficult, which is why scientists try to devise operational definitions that serve the purposes of individual studies.

2. Early psychologists chose the empirical approach as a favored method for psychological investigations because it relies on direct observation rather than on intuition or superstition; and because it relies on experimentation to gather results. Psychology is a relatively new field. One of the main reasons why psychologists favored the empirical approach was to gain acceptance into the broader scientific community, and to ensure that the theories that they developed could be tested and replicated. Behaviorism was perfectly suited for the scientific method because behaviors can be easily measured and observed. Through the empirical models, the human subject can be treated almost as a lab animal, and the variables of the study carefully controlled. Also, early psychologists wanted to help people better understand human behaviors and cognitive processes without relying on superstition or religion; prior to the scientific study of psychology, the study of human behavior and of the mind were largely based on superstitious and religious beliefs.

Through the empirical approach, psychologists could formulate testable hypotheses that could be replicated and applied toward improving people's lives. Even without the framework of behaviorism, psychology remained an empirical science if not a hard one because studies are designed with specific controls and measures that ensure that all results are a product of observation, testing, and analysis.

3. The computer was critical to the development of psychology in the twentieth century particularly because it sparked and influenced the development of cognitive psychology, neuropsychology, and psychophysiology. The development of the personal computer also changed the ways psychologists viewed the human mind and body: the terminology scientists used shifted, as scientists began referring to the brain as the body's computer. For example, in everyday language people refer to emotions or behaviors that are "hard-wired." Therefore, one of the main ways the computer influenced the evolution of the study of psychology was through providing a vibrant, rich metaphor for the human condition.

Second, computers were and still are instrumental to such practical uses as statistical analyses, measurements, and modeling. Computers are essential for performing advanced neuropsychological and psychophysiological tests such as MRIs. Computers have helped scientists better understand the brain and how it works, through sophisticated software systems.

Today, computers are widely used in the field of psychology to do everything from administering perception, cognition, and personality tests, to writing reports to, analyzing complex arrays of data. Moreover, computers have enabled social scientists to have access to numerous academic databases online in order to facilitate research. New and exciting fields related to psychology such as cybernetics and artificial intelligence were inspired by the computer.

4. (1) Social and cultural factors inevitably influence a psychologists' choice of research topics. For example, a female psychologist might be particularly interested in studying…[continue]

Cite This Term Paper:

"Scientific Method Include A Reliance On The" (2005, June 24) Retrieved December 7, 2016, from http://www.paperdue.com/essay/scientific-method-include-a-reliance-on-65281

"Scientific Method Include A Reliance On The" 24 June 2005. Web.7 December. 2016. <http://www.paperdue.com/essay/scientific-method-include-a-reliance-on-65281>

"Scientific Method Include A Reliance On The", 24 June 2005, Accessed.7 December. 2016, http://www.paperdue.com/essay/scientific-method-include-a-reliance-on-65281

Other Documents Pertaining To This Topic

  • Neo Confucianism Is a Philosophy Which Was Born TEST1

    Management and Theory Leadership and coaching go hand in many ways because to coach is to lead, and to lead is to coach others. Indeed, leaders and coaches, whatever the title is really theoretical mentoring within the context of a particular organization or activity. For centuries, scholars and philosophers alike have been trying to find a specific and complete definition for coaching and leadership, but have not had much success. True,

  • Methods of Instruction and Intervention

    proponents of evidence based instruction represent one end of the methods of teaching continuum where practices that have been tested empirically using rigorous research designs are considered to be the only valid method of instruction (Odom et al., 2005). On the other end of the spectrum are methods that may be have some basis for use such an intuition, theory, etc. But have not been subject to empirical scrutiny

  • Developing a Sampling Plan

    Sampling Plan Before discussing a sampling plan, there has to be clear and unambiguous definitions of what a sample and sampling are. Despite diversity in the definition of a sample, the best meaning is that a sample could be considered as a subset of a population, with which a researcher would like to use as participants in a given research study (Landreneau & Creek, 2012). According to Deming (1990), sapling is

  • Start and Run a Successful

    1.7. Key definitions of terms Research process = a sustained effort concentrated around a topic or subject of study aimed at generating new findings, and characterized by identification and labeling of variables, research design, collection of data, analysis of data and evaluation of the problem (Shinde). Qualitative research = Research method through which researchers address the studied phenomenon by observing it in its natural environment and strive to make sense of it

  • Empirically Based Evidence Plays a Crucial

    Thus, the relationship between investigative psychology and forensic psychology is fairly lucid. Investigative psychology largely provides the means of identifying suspects and eventually indicting them. The mechanics of investigative psychology are multi-fold. For instance, in the case of the so-called "D.C. Sniper" in 2002, investigators were able to gain forensic evidence regarding ballistics and fingerprints. The former enabled them to identify the type of weapon that was repeatedly used during

  • Disease A General Medical Practice

    94). The modern legal definition of disease provides a useful starting point for an examination of the concept of disease and how it is regarded by various disciplines. According to Black's Law Dictionary (1990), disease is a "deviation from the healthy or normal condition of any of the functions or tissues of the body. An alternation in the state of the body or some of its organs, interrupting or disturbing

  • Nursing Evidence Based Practice Is a

    Third, lack of attention to evidence-based practice can lead to inconsistent delivery of care services. Evidence-based practice relates to almost every aspect of health care at every stage of a client's relationship with the institution. For example, evidence-based practice informs the types of questions asked during the diagnostic procedures and might even impact the diagnosis itself (Bennett & Bennett, 2000). Evidence-based practice impacts the methods by which infections are prevented


Read Full Term Paper
Copyright 2016 . All Rights Reserved