• Feeling lack of control because of too many rules and regulations of white institutions.
• Fitting in at school may fail to be a priority.
• Lack of positive interracial relationships before and during college.
• Lack of parental support.
3. Main Factors Affecting Retention and Attrition
Many of the central factors affecting retention and attrition have already been discussed above. As was referred to, preparation is a central factor that was found to be significant across demographic boundaries and especially among various ethnic groups. This refers to social, emotional as well as academic preparedness. Academic preparedness is noted in the literature as being of cardinal importance in continuing to the second year of study: "…those students with higher ACT scores were more likely to return for the second year" ( McDaniel and Graham, 2001).
Motivation and high academic goals were also seen as a primary factor in retention and student persistence. Other factors were monetary constraints that prevented continuation, as well as the important issue of social acceptance and involvement. This last factor was found to play an important part in attrition. Student involvement and engagement, as well as a sense of belonging, were shown in the literature to be important considerations (What Keeps Students in One Place? Study Examines Factors in Student Retention). As has been discussed, gender and ethnicity also influences retention rates in different ways. The difference between resident and local student status was also an influencing factor (What Keeps Students in One Place? Study Examines Factors in Student Retention).
A partial example of these factors can be seen in an Ohio study which found that "Personal adjustment reasons, cost and financial aid, and negative campus experiences were identified from a list of 48 potential reasons, as the reasons that influenced their decision to leave Ohio University" (First-Year Student Attrition at Ohio University 2003-04 to 2004-05…). The same study also found that "Stayers reported having more engagement and more frequent academically-oriented contacts with faculty than leavers"( First-Year Student Attrition at Ohio University 2003-04 to 2004-05…).
Central to the above discussion is the fact that there are many variables and factors that come into play when considering attrition and retention- and that each institution differs in some aspects. This makes developing consistent and universally applicable solutions to this problem extremely difficulty.
On the other hand, there are some solutions that have been shown to have general application. One of these is developmental and remedial courses, which have been shown to better prepare the student for continuation and to help with aspects such as self-confidence and self-esteem, which reduces attrition.
This view is evident in the literature. There is a general consensus that initiatives such as early outreach programs aimed at developing students' academic competencies before admission to college and university, can significantly reduce attrition levels. Other programs, such as orientation programs, can help to "… ease the transition to college that contain academic strategies, social support, and information about campus life" (College Student Retention).
It has also been found that first-semester courses that continue orientation and provide support and information about campus and freshmen interest groups are extremely helpful. An important factor that has also been found to useful in retention is the implementation of academic skills development, such as basic skills, time management, tutoring, and course-specific skills (College Student Retention).
In the final analysis, there is probably no single or simple program that any one institution can promote that will solve the problem of attrition. However, what is also clear from the literature is that there many programs and initiatives that can help to increase retention and reduce attrition and that further research is needed in this field.
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Retention in Higher Education Evolution across the Globe Challenges of Institutes Factors Influencing Student Retention Alignment of expectations and experience Social and academic integration Affordability Academic Performance Attitudes and Satisfaction Academic Engagement Measures to Improve Student Retention Curriculum development Orientation and Induction Authentic Curriculum Student-Centered Active Learning Integration of Study Skills Students from Under-represented Groups Organization of Program Cultural Issues in Classrooms Role of Presidency in Dealing with Retention Accepting the Change Retention Strategies Reasons Given by Students for Withdrawal Conclusion References Abstract This paper is designed to figure out the reasons which cause the failure
Retention of International Students The value of a college education is continually stressed today as an essential component of success in life. However, merely encouraging students to attend college is not enough: measures of student retention are far more critical in assessing the success of an academic program. Universities in Australia, the United States, and the United Kingdom have all had trouble retaining students, particularly from historically underrepresented groups (Lau 2003).
The next three categories deal with the lack of information: 4) lack of information about the career decision-making process, itself; 5) lack of information about one's own capabilities, personal traits or interests; 6) lack of information about occupations and what work is involved and the type of work available; and 7) lack of information about ways of obtaining career information. The final three categories deal with the inconsistent information
Student attrition is the reduction in the student population in a school because of dropouts or transfers. Student attrition has become an important concern for many colleges and universities that has resulted in much research because students who drop out normally suffer from personal disappointments, minimization of career and life goals, and financial setbacks. The research on student attrition or retention has mainly been on the basis of statistical analyses
The shift toward standardized testing has failed to result in a meaningful reduction of high school dropout rates, and students with disabilities continue to be marginalized by the culture of testing in public education (Dynarski et al., 2008). With that said, the needs of students with specific educational challenges are diverse and complex, and the solutions to their needs are not revealed in the results of standardized testing (Crawford &
" (Halpin and Burt, 1998) DuBois states: "The history of the American Negro is the history of this strife -- this longing to attain self-conscious manhood, to merge his double self into a better and truer self. In this merging he wishes neither of the older selves to be lost. He would not Africanize America, for America has too much to teach the world and Africa. He would not bleach
Pantages and Creedon (1978) have reported that the greatest attrition rate occurs among first-year students, and this group is not very likely to return to college at a later date. Even if they do drop out, the longer a student persists in a university or college setting the more likely it is that they will perceive attaining a degree as beneficial (Tinto, 1975). Additionally, retention studies have emphasized that