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However, it is not always necessary to withhold pain control from patients because there is enough data available regarding pre- and post-operative anxiety and pain issues, that one can use a literature basis to buttress initial arguments. One study, for instance, used patient's elf-reported ratings to evaluate their relaxation, anxiety, pain level, and nausea before and after music therapy sessions. This study was entirely ethical in its approach to the patients - all were given the same opportunities to use music therapy, and then to rate its efficacy. Using a protocol of music, there was a clear reduction in pain perception, relaxation, and a quicker healing rate than national averages. Although some of this data is qualitative in measure, it was designed to be as includive as possible and used to help make decisions in evidence-based practice using an ethical approach to the patient's overall state of mind and health (Madson and Silverman, 2010).
Most results indicate that there are six different characteristics most associated with positive emotional effect when using music as a pain or stress reduction agent: 1) The music should be slow and flowing, between 60 and 80 beats per minute (the body tries to emulate heart rate with rhythm); 2) Non-lyrical music has more effect (there is less cognitive analysis in non-lyrical music); 3) Maximum volume should be 60 dB; 4) If possible, the patient should choose the genre of music; 5) Appropriate equipment (headphones, etc.) should provide a clear, coherent, sound quality; and, 6) 30 minimutes of music is the minimum duration of the therapy session (Lavitin, 2006).
Finally, the literature in organ transplantation emphasizes the need for intervention when patients are anxious or gloomy about or because of their proceedures. The use of music therapy had clear qualitative results - all patients showed some improvement in self-reported measures of pain, anxiety, relation and nausea. This suggests the need for more longitudinal and quantitative research to validate the assumptions made, as well as try to recruit and maintain a larger demographic contingent.
Ghetti, C. (2011). Active music engagement with emotional-approach coping to improve…[continue]
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"Supplementing Relaxation And Music For Pain After Surgery", 04 May 2012, Accessed.25 October. 2014, http://www.paperdue.com/essay/supplementing-relaxation-and-music-for-pain-57141