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In fact, active music engagement leads to a significant decrease in pain, which results in less stress and negative affect, which also reduces any dysfunction of the immune system (Ghetti, 2011).
However, in numerous studies surveyed, there must be both a control and an experimental group to validate results. Controlled experiments are those in which groups are separated into control and experimental. Neither group knows what they are receiving, so they may or may not be receiving a sugar pill or something else. The control group is essential for comparisons - what happens in the control group often determines how the experimental data is interpreted (Scientific Control Group, 2008). Thus, any research on pain alleviation using music must make an ethical decision to purposefully exclude certain individuals from the pain relieving properties in order to validate the double blind study.
The field of Biological Ethics, for example, is part of the overall view of the appropriate manner humans should be used within the paradigm of experimental research. Because of these, and other, issues surrounding the field of Biological Ethics, a number of codes were enacted specifically to deal with the issues surrounding the moral and ethical rubric of utilizing humans for experimentation purposes: The Nuremburg Code (a set of directives establishing basic principles when dealing with human subjects); The National Research Act of 1974 (U.S. mandated legislation protecting human subjects); the HHS Policy for Projection of Human subjects (1981, HHS and FDA regulations); and the National Commission for the Protection of Human Subjects - Also known as the Belmont Report (1979) is the cornerstone document for the protection of human research and includes beneficence, justice, and respect for persons as guiding principles (Goodwin, 2010).
However, it is not always necessary to withhold pain control from patients because there is enough data available regarding pre- and post-operative anxiety and pain issues, that one can use a literature basis to buttress initial arguments. One study, for instance, used patient's elf-reported ratings to evaluate their relaxation, anxiety, pain level, and nausea before and after music therapy sessions. This study was entirely ethical in its approach to the patients - all were given the same opportunities to use music therapy, and then to rate…[continue]
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