Technology has been growing over a period of years due to globalization. All individuals, organizations, and even the society as a whole have been affected by the information and communication uprising. This has even changed their lifestyles. The Information is readily available in the computers mostly through internet technology and telecommunications. The Organizations are able to build their information systems in a variety of formats. A System may be defined as a sequence of functional components which are connected by communication links showing or demonstrating purpose and objective directed performance (Kampov 2010). However, it is important to analyze and discuss systems, informatics theories and DIK model. The paper will also discuss the role of expert system in nursing care, use of decision aids and also the decision support systems. There will be discussion on how the effect of technology on decision making on patient and client management and also the effects of technology on health care and health status
Information Technology in the Health Informatics systems is continually changing and influenced by instantaneous communication and global actions. In a Healthcare setting, it is vital to predict communication outcomes. Whether it is in making decisions on diagnosis or plan, it is important to consider the outcome. In cases where the patients assume their own health through internet research, technology has continued to improve the efficacy of health care in different ways. Computers have managed to integrate technology into the medical field (Greenes, 2009). Each system is unique despite having the same purpose, structure and function. Choosing the best would depend on the one suitable with the health care Organizations making sure it can incorporate the decision support systems.
Health Information Technology introduced a charting system STORC which was designed to facilitate clinical care by enabling data collection and advance patient's safety. This helped in integrating the past data with the existing ones making a single point of health application. The data included admissions, laboratory results, outpatient and inpatient integration, discharge and transfer of data. It provided health decision support relevant to the physicians. The system also provided shortcuts and other tools that help facilitate the speed up of care facilities. It also managed to print documents in customary formats. This system was able to print educational materials for the patients and also their discharge instructions.
Different Organizations use different informatics theories. These are system theories, informative theories, learning theories, and change theories. System theory is a collected set of interrelated parts enclosed in a border. This theory explains the process of learning by using the framework, which inputs the information or data in the system. This helps in analyzing the procedure and measures and then evaluates the output of the system. Information theory normally has two models. The first one is the Shannon and Weaver's information-communication model and the other is Blum's model. Shannon and Weaver's model consists of three key levels. These are the technical, semantic, and effectiveness. This model provides a framework which helps in analyzing the effectiveness and also the efficiency of the information transmit and communication. On the other hand, Blum's model provides a broad analysis of information as it is produced, conveyed and used. Blum's model is responsible for explaining how problems experienced during communication may get resolved (Murphy 2011).
Discussion on the DIK Model
There are no complications in any Organizations until people are cut off from necessary information they require. There is a global myth that believes more information or data is better. Some people say information is a commodity while others believe it is knowledge. The concepts in DIK model include Data which represents reality. There is also Information which includes data that provides applicable clues or news. Knowledge is another concept that consists of the framework for organizing the interactions between parts of information. Lastly we have decisions made from this knowledge. Managing the Data and Information has to be timely, accurate, and relevant just like a watch. It is important to know what the employees really need to know.
The efficiency of transmission is also vital. Paying attention to the form of information as well as being cautious of the communication chain is vital. Generating both soft and hard data as well as recognizing and managing all the information networks are mandatory. The credibility of the source of information is important just to be sure wrong information is not transmitted. The flow and the availability of this information should be consistency in order for a healthy system to work (Kampov 2010). Identifying and acknowledging the unknown would help in researching more information. This can be further aided by creating test models and theories. It has been noted that almost half of the Organization's decisions are never implemented. It is important to enlighten the community on any knowledge and also re-evaluate the role of these reports all the time. Transformation processes should be speeded up since DIK is perishable and people are also able to make good decisions without ideal information. Organizations have been known to generate very useful data but take a long time to implement (Greenes 2009).
The role of expert system in nursing care and medicine
The main purpose of an expert system is to replicate the judgment or the artificial intelligence with that of the human being or Organization that has skilled experience and acquaintance on a certain field. In health care today, everyone is an information junkie. There are solutions that can eliminate the annoying repetitive tasks and accomplish the regular work. They can also add an efficient use of space and improve the health care environment. By an improved access to resources, the safety and efficiency measures will be elevated. An expert system contains a knowledge base that contains accumulated experience and a set of rules for putting into operation the knowledge base to each specific situation that is described to the program.
Examples of expert systems include GeneMapper ID which is used for DNA analysis. There is also True Allele system that is also used for DNA analysis. Medline Plus and WebMD are other systems used for patient and health care use. Blue Cross is a system that is used to automate insurance claims (Murphy 2011). All these are example of very useful expert systems. The expert Health care system is applied as a computerized consultation program and also as an information management system. It helps in not only accurate but fast diagnosis. It also assists in educational aid to the professionals in the health care and also the patients. The basic tasks for these expert systems are prognosis, diagnosing, treatment and also monitoring of the patients.
The expert system is used in hospitals for interpretation of data. At the pharmacy, the system is used to identify any drugs that could be harmful while in the laboratory, the system helps to alert both nurses and doctors of significant laboratory values. Once an expert system detects a problem from a remote distance, it alerts the doctor through small text messages. All these are major roles of the expert system. These systems are however likely to perform tasks and not diagnosis.
The use of decision aids and decision support systems
Decision support systems mostly seek to avoid unpleasant drug reactions. They also help in the prevention of drug dosing. Decision support systems could also help guarantee a minimum standard for excellence of care as part of the execution of practice guidelines by giving patient specific advices after the input of specific clinical variables. This mixture of decision support systems and guiding principles may be particularly effective in combination with the help of the electronic medical records .No high value studies have studied the effect of widespread establishment of decision support, although local studies propose that it may be significant. An assessment of an antibiotic management system in a single 12-bed Intensive Care Unit over a 3-year phase showed that use of the system ended in 24 fewer unfavorable drug response and 194 fewer cases of antibiotic vulnerability mismatch. These outcomes and others propose that national execution of decision support systems could noticeably improve patient protection (Kampov, 2010).
Clinical decision support systems help the physicians to use new information to patient care through the study of patient-specific clinical variables. Most of them are used to enhance diagnostic efforts. Programs like Dxplain offer extensive analytic based on information entered by the physician. There are other forms of decision support systems like antibiotic management programs and anticoagulation dosing calculators which seek to avert medical errors. Study designs have shown that these systems are very effective thought they could be costly. Unlike the normal study and feedback, decision support systems have proved they can transform a physician's behavior and affect the process of care. Though these systems have not been successful in chronic cases, improving technology might be able to resolve this.
The uses of technology for patient and client management
Patient management can be considered as a system used by…