The reason is that today the author gets paid upfront and if people do not read the book, the publisher has to bear the loss. Secondly publishers are able to 'sell the books' to the bookstores' based on 'consignment system', whereby the 'book store' is able to return the books which are unsold against a 'full refund'. (Grossman, 2009) Jeanie Comstock (2009) says that some of the changes that became mandatory include the quality, readability and accessibility of documents. The changes in publishing technology have also called for changes in the roles for technical workers, communicators and even writers. Thus the intervention and role of the technical communicator has changed so that the matter or book published to day is readable, articulate, and navigable both in the printed and in the electronic media. The composite problem is also to keep up the author and reader communication and preserve the authors right on the internet. (Comstock, 2009)
The changes in the labor requirements are consequent to the evolution of publishing technology. There are now a new breed of marketers and technical communicators who shape the influence of the publication and distribution. The publishing technologies and Internet determined the distribution of books and what part must be available to be read online. The bottom line is that while books continue to be in the same format ever since the first book was published, Online publishing technologies is an ever-changing, and the future cannot be predicted, on the other hand it can be harnessed to sell printed books. Marketers and technical communicates have the role to see that readable, articulate work is created that maintains the author-reader relationship. Thus the modern publishing method is yet another avenue for the book publisher with a small dent to the book market. (Oren; Petro, 2004)
The real threat is not the books that could be read online rather the problems of video, visual media and other forms of entertainment that does not leave room for serious reading. The audio visual media and television are the real competitors and are evolving at a larger pace. The reading habits change with the visual time 'and undergo unprecedented textual, technological and political transformations" (Oren; Petro, 2004) The reading habit is dying per se on account of the proliferation of visual media and the consumer is oriented to visual and audio input rather than reading. Thus books in audio format and books that have been made into visual representations are sought after. The technical book s and informative books however retain their demand.
4) Social and Ethical Ramifications of Technology that the Organization May be Propagating
One of the important fall-outs of globalization, and modernization is the awareness of rights and the changes in the use of the digital media. Today authors have more scope of protecting their work on a global level. Copyright violation is frowned upon. However the digital media unlike the print media is more open to piracy. It is contented by B.M. Meera and K.T. Anuradha (2005) that in the 'networked' and 'digital' backdrop, publishers are thinking about how to safeguard their 'products' from the illegal types of usage. Electronic publishing has evolved its own set of contract law there are hassles to libraries that have to enter 'license agreements' for having accessibility towards all kinds of products providing 'electronic information'. This had caused the librarians to learn the nuances of 'License agreements' as well as 'their clauses'. Along with this we have to also consider the plethora of problems that comes associated with electronic media like Intellectual Property Rights, Copyright, License Agreements, and Databases. The copy right law is in mist on account of the digital and networked environment.
Further B.M. Meera and K.T. Anuradha (2005) argue that the 'digital' atmosphere raises 'ethical' and 'economic issues' related to the 'information flow'. They contend that the World Intellectual Property Organization --WIPO must play a crucial role in the media as it is this agency that handles the important 'intellectual property rights' inclusive of 'conventions' relating to 'copyright'. Fair use doctrine is a significant 'doctrine' within 'U.S. copyright law'. This law permits those who use 'copyright' documents such as artists, scholars, students and teachers to make usage of these materials "without seeking permission from the publisher or creator and without making payments for copyright fees. Fair use permits the users to draw upon the work of others." (Meera; Anuradha, 2005) While the copy right laws form the basis of the ethics question the electronic media has removed the trust factor that was prevalent in the books and newspapers.
Readers trusted authors whose works were published in a printed book or journal because of the editing and verification process involved. Inline any one could publish book sand writings in multiple formats -- as blogs, web pages and electronic books. There is no other agency or editor who takes up responsibility along with the author with regard to the authenticity of the publication as well as its contents. Further this is considered to be a great drawback of the electronic media which could be taken advantage of in the print media. 60% of the information on the internet has been declared unreliable. Thus people will be forced to and will like to read physical books and the ethics of the time demands that the publishers who chose the electronic media show the same responsibility that they have in the print media.
5) Your Recommendations on Controlling or Encouraging Technological Change as it Applies to the Organization
The socio economic changes brought about by the changes in technology have affected business transactions, and other technology. The changes have been largely felt and opportunities created in the mid market segments of the industry. The internet has caused traditional media like a newspaper to be published online and in print. This also is true for magazine publishing. However the revenue models differ for each. While the reach of the newspaper or magazine is calculated and the rate for space could be fixed, online editions are not predictable and nor is targeted advertising possible. Most magazines and newspapers thrive on advertisements and this has expanded the activities for marketing the printed space and space online. The audiences in both are different and therefore the clients for both are also different.
Online books are coexistent with physical books and magazines, and the internet could be used effectively to market physical books. The sale of the book could be boosted with video interviews of the author, targeted marketing and using special systems like google adsense to market the product both online and by stores. Other media like Google books, Questia display books online on a limited scale prompting the readers to go for the printed book. Changes therefore must be made to the consignment system, and this will differ from publisher to publisher. The fact that electronic media is impermanent and that it is costly to maintain books in the digital format all go to give the basic advantage to the printed books. The changes in publishing technology have also called for changes in the roles for technical workers, communicators and even writers. The fact that publishers like Doubleday and Houghton are laying off staff on a large scale is not indicative of failure of the book market but the fact that people invest less in books during a recession.
It is therefore recommended that the internet and electronic media be used to popularize books and the stores that sell the books. One argument that the physical books still will sell if there is media hype is the series of Harry Potter novels that are published. All the sequels were made into films and yet the physical book which is by far too big for the average child to read in size get sold out on release. There reverse -- visualize -- see- read seems to operate and the other alternate read- see- reread that is associated with famous books also apply. In either case the Harry Potter phenomenon is evidence that the printed books cannot be eliminated altogether. On the other hand it shows how the emerging media can be used as a platform to sell the book. Thus those readers who read books in kindle marketed by Amazon, or those who read online will have to go for the physical book if they desire to preserve what they read. Therefore the technology can be seen as a boon rather than a curse in the industry.
Comstock, Jeanie. (2009) "The Effect of Changes in Publishing Technologies on Labor and Documentation" Orange Journal, vol. 4, no. 2. Retrieved 18 April, 2009 from http://orange.eserver.org/issues/4-2/comstock.html
Ellonen, Hanna-Kaisa. (2007) "Exploring the strategic impact of technological change
Studies on the role of Internet in magazine publishing" Retrieved 18 April, 2009 from https://oa.doria.fi/handle/10024/31121?locale=lsv&author
Greco, Albert N. (2005) "The book publishing industry"
Grossman, Lev. (2009) "Books Gone Wild: The Digital Age Reshapes Literature" Time