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In the early days of information technology, some of the industry’s leading professionals were self-taught people who mastered computers as they became increasingly common in the modern workforce. Today’s information technology professionals may have the same independent spirit, but also need to be well-versed in the common computer technology and programs that are used in a variety of organizational settings. Whether you want to work in education, business, government, healthcare, or another type of organization, the best way to start a successful career in modern information technology is through a formal information technology or computer science degree program.

Information technology professionals have to start with the basics of computer programming. Though many people in the field will never actually have to write any programs, but will, instead, work with existing software, understanding programming is a critical part of any information technology job position. Therefore, students must be familiar with C++. This computer language is considered a hybrid language and is general-purpose object-oriented programming language with the convenience of having pre-defined classes. It is used in a wide variety of programming scenarios.

While you may not ever tackle programming in your professional life, there are three areas of information technology study that every computing professional will have to understand: hardware, software, and security. Computer hardware refers to the physical components of a computer or computing system. You are probably already familiar with the hardware that most users have on or in their own computers: motherboards, central processing units (CPU), random access memory (RAM), hard drives, solid state drives, optical drives, video cards, power supplies, monitors, keyboards, mice, heat sinks, data cables, fans, battery backups, webcams, flash drives, printers, speakers, tablets, sound cards, and modems. However, as an IT professional, you will be expected to understand network hardware like: routers, network switches, repeaters, bridges, access points, printer servers, firewalls, and cables or wireless communication devices that allow network computers to communicate with one another.

Software refers to computer data or instructions and is subdivided into two groups: system software and application software. System software runs the computer or network, while application software is task-specific. IT professionals are expected to be proficient with today’s most commonly used software, which includes Microsoft applications for general office usage, but may also include very industry-specific programs in some areas.

Computer security refers to protecting a computer or computer system. Many people think of computer security strictly in terms of protecting the software or the data stored on a computer or network from virtual attacks. While this type of security is important, it is equally important to consider the physical security of hardware; if hardware is accessible, then the data on the computer is vulnerable.

If you explore systems analysis and design, the you will need to combine all three of those components to create a system that balances the need for user-friendliness with the need for security. System designers must be able to anticipate the needs for a system, design the system components, chose the software to run on the system, and possibly design databases that can manage data and help coordinate between users. 

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Defense Information Systems and Wikileaks

Words: 1553 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 88384935

Information Technology in the Era of WikiLeaks
The protection of America’s secrets, military information, data obtained through surveillance, and so on has been a top priority since Edward Snowden, Chelsea Manning and WikiLeaks came on the scene. Julian Assange, now under arrest in England, and wanted in connection with the Manning hacking of federal documents, is the emblem of the information wars being conducted in the Digital Age. For some, Assange is a hero; for others, particularly those with authority in the State, he is an enemy. On the one hand, Assange, Snowden and Manning represent the need and right of the public to know what its governments are doing in the face of so little transparency today. On the other hand, they represent the threat to the security of the State and its defense information systems. This paper will discuss the ethical issues related to the use of…… [Read More]

Cuillier, D. (2017). Government information and leaks. In Social Media and the Law (pp. 159-173). Routledge.
Gabbard, D. (2017). Consolidated Energy: Hillary Clinton and the 2016 US Presidential Campaign. Continental Thought & Theory, 1(2), 1-27.
Munro, I. (2016). Organizational resistance as a vector of deterritorialization: The case of WikiLeaks and secrecy havens. Organization, 23(4), 567-587.
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Access Control Methods for Information Systems

Words: 1339 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 43513414

In the field of information security, access control refers to the selective restriction of access to a resource. It is a security technique that is used to regulate who or what can use or view a resource within a computing environment. Basically, there are two main types of access controls namely logical and physical. Physical access control will limit the physical access to buildings, and IT assets, while logical access will limit connection to computer networks, data, and system files (Younis, Kifayat, & Merabti, 2014). Access control systems are charged with performing identification, authorization, authentication, approval, access, and accountability of the entities by using login credentials. There are three main types of access control that will be discussed in this paper namely mandatory access control, discretionary access control, and role-based access control.
Elements of Access Control
Mandatory access control (MAC) is a security strategy where only the administrator has…… [Read More]

Choi, C., Choi, J., & Kim, P. (2014). Ontology-based access control model for security policy reasoning in cloud computing. The Journal of Supercomputing, 67(3), 711-722.
Fadhel, A. B., Bianculli, D., & Briand, L. (2015). A comprehensive modeling framework for role-based access control policies. Journal of Systems and Software, 107, 110-126.
Kerr, L., & Alves-Foss, J. (2016). Combining Mandatory and Attribute-Based Access Control. Paper presented at the System Sciences (HICSS), 2016 49th Hawaii International Conference on.
Younis, Y. A., Kifayat, K., & Merabti, M. (2014). An access control model for cloud computing. Journal of Information Security and Applications, 19(1), 45-60.
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The Strengths and Weaknesses of Business Process Reeingineering

Words: 1260 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 44414260

Business Process Reengineering Strategy and Information Technology Integration
The purpose of this paper is to provide a review, analysis and synthesis of a series of selected peer-reviewed articles concerning the best practices for incorporating new and established technologies into business operations using business process reengineering (BPR). To this end, the paper presents a review of the relevant literature to provide an introduction of the context of the articles and a description of the operations management strategies evaluated. In addition, an identification of the key themes that emerged from the selected articles is followed by an analysis of the patterns of similarities and differences in how each author has presented each theme.-Finally, an evaluation concerning the implications of operations management strategies on the successful management and leadership of an enterprise is followed by a summary of the research and important findings concerning the foregoing issues in the conclusion.
Review and Analysis…… [Read More]

Boje, D. M. & Hillon, Y. C. (2017, April 1). 21st century university and the failure of business process reengineering. Organization Development Journal, 35(1), 91-95.
Habib, M. N. (2013, March). Understanding critical success and failure factors of business process reengineering. International Review of Management and Business Research, 2(1), 1-4.
Lee, Y. C. & Chu, P. Y. (2009, May). Exploring the relationships between information technology adoption and business process reengineering. Journal of Management and Organization, 15(2), 170-177.
Mathew, G. & Sulphey, M. M. (2015, November 1). Scope of business process reengineering in public sector undertakings. Asian Social Science, 11(26), 129-132.
Ringim, K. J. & Osman, N. H. (2013, September). Exploring the implementation of business process reengineering in banks. Asian Social Science, 9(11), 243-247.
Setegn, D. & Ensermu, M. (2013, January). Assessing the effect of business process reengineering on organizational performance. Researchers World, 4(1), 115-120.
Taher, N. B. & Krotov, V. (2016, Fall). Business process reengineering: Addressing sources of resistance and sabotage tactics. Journal of Competitiveness Studies, 24(3), 145-151.
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Network Proposal for Crete LLC

Words: 2625 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 32241023

Crete LLC’s Windows Server 2012 Network Proposal

Crete LLC is a business organization that produces and distributes solar panel for the consumer market. In the past few years, the solar panel market has experienced tremendous growth because of the increased consumer demands for solar panels. Consequently, Crete LLC seeks to establish itself as a major industry player in order to meet the high demand for solar panels. Therefore, the company seeks to establish offices in three locations i.e. Los Angeles, Houston, and Dallas with the main staff situated at the Houston and Dallas offices. Crete LLC needs to adopt technology in order to enhance success and profitability in the market. Therefore, data security is a priority given that the organization is likely to experience issues relating to patent and trademarks. The sales personnel at firm’s Los Angeles office need secure remote access to the Houston office. This report provides a…… [Read More]

Grillenmeier, G. (2008, February 26). Active Directory Enhancements in Windows Server 2008. Retrieved April 21, 2018, from
Mathers et al. (2017, May 31). Reviewing the Domain Models. Retrieved April 21, 2018, from
Microsoft. (2014, August 12). Secure Remote Access in Small and Midsize Businesses. Retrieved April 21, 2018, from
Moskowitz, J. (2012). Group policy: Fundamentals, security, and the managed desktop. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.
Plett, M. & Poggemeyer, L. (2017, October 16). Windows Server Update Services (WSUS). Retrieved April 21, 2018, from
Tech-FAQ. (2018). Planning and Implementing a DNS Namespace. Retrieved April 21, 2018, from
Tulloch, M. (2004, June 15). Best Practices for Assigning FSMO Roles. Retrieved April 21, 2018, from
Van Vugt, S. (2014, October). The Significance of Windows Server in a Changing IT Landscape. Retrieved April 21, 2018, from
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Relationship Between Infrastructure and Security

Words: 1413 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 62717741

Infrastructure and Security
Relationship Between Infrastructure and Security
Data is the most valuable asset for a data collection and analysis company. Therefore, the security of this data should of utmost importance to the company. The context of data determines its overall value. Information Technology for any company is valued based on its ability to present, store, analyze, manage, and protect the data in order to support the operations of the company. Data might have different value based on the type of data, but all data should be kept safe at all times. The value of data is placed depending on the usability of the said data. While any data can be said to be valuable, corrupted or incomplete data would not be valuable to any company (Chou & Sengupta, 2008). Therefore, there is need to ensure and guarantee the safety of data. The infrastructure that is put in place should…… [Read More]

Chou, D., & Sengupta, S. (2008). Infrastructure and security Practical guide to clinical computing systems (pp. 37-78). Amsterdam, Netherlands: Elsevier.
Huy, H., & Ahn, G.-J. (2015). Virtualizing and Utilizing Network Security Functions for Securing Software Defined Infrastructure. Paper presented at the Looking Beyond the Internet Workshops.
Ibrahim, A. S., Hamlyn-Harris, J., & Grundy, J. (2016). Emerging security challenges of cloud virtual infrastructure. arXiv preprint arXiv:1612.09059.
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Barriers that Prevent Implementation of IoT within Small Businesses

Words: 5252 Length: 18 Pages Document Type: Case Study Paper #: 25628514

Executive Summary
The purpose of this study is to develop timely and informed answers to a series of guiding research questions and subquestions to identify the risks and barriers that are associated with Internet of Things implementations. These types of studies are important today because the Internet of Things is changing the manner in which companies of all sizes and types operate their businesses, and current trends indicate that these implementations are increasing exponentially. The Internet of Things allows conventional computer-based networks to incorporate data collected from everyday objects to provide real-time analyses and new applications for these technologies are being developed every day. Indeed, there are already more mobile devices in use around the world than there are people, and most authorities agree that the Internet of Things deployments will continue to increase well into the foreseeable future. Chapter one of the study provides the rationale in support of…… [Read More]

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Warehouse Management System

Words: 1069 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52013195

Warehouse management is the control and optimization of the various processes in a warehouse. A warehouse management system (WMS) is an internal tool used to control and optimize the flow of materials. The functionality of the WMS is broken down into three operations; put-away, replenishing, and picking (Novák & Kraj?ovi?, 2011; Sahuri & Utomo, 2016). The basic principle for the WMS is directing the three operations to the relevant locations as per user defined criteria. A WMS can be a standalone or integrated with the organizations enterprise resource planning (ERP) system. This paper will focus on a standalone WMS and the discussion will seek to establish both software and hardware requirements for the server-end and client-end, then determine the competitive advantage for using WMS, provide recommendations for improvement and lastly, draw a conclusion.

Server-Side Hardware Requirements
There are various WMS solutions and each has specific requirements. While there are basic…… [Read More]

Atieh, A. M., Kaylani, H., Al-abdallat, Y., Qaderi, A., Ghoul, L., Jaradat, L., & Hdairis, I. (2016). Performance improvement of inventory management system processes by an automated warehouse management system. Procedia Cirp, 41, 568-572.
Kasat, Y., & Yadav, J. J. (2015). Microsoft Dynamics AX Implementation Guide. Packt Publishing Ltd.
Laudon, K. C., & Laudon, J. P. (2016). Management information system. Pearson Education India.
Novák, V., & Kraj?ovi?, M. (2011). Warehouse Management System. TRANSCOM 2011, 23.
Ramaa, A., Subramanya, K. N., & Rangaswamy, T. M. (2012). Impact of warehouse management system in a supply chain. International Journal of Computer Applications, 54(1).
Sahuri, G., & Utomo, F. A. P. (2016). Warehouse Management System. Information System Application, 1(1).
Young, N., (2015). Retail Warehouse Management System Installation Guide, Release 14.1. Oracle Inc.
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Computer and Network Security Analysis

Words: 2033 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Paper #: 18363434

Report of The Analysis and Attack Strategy
Information on the Organization
Bain & Company is a global management consultancy that has its headquarters in Boston. The company offers advice to private, public, and non-profit organizations across the world. Bain & Company advises leaders on marketing, strategy, operations, IT, and organization. Since it is a consultancy organization it has access to sensitive information from the organization that it consults for stored in its company servers. This information ranges from financial records, human resource records, the structure of the organizations, and IT systems used by the organizations. All these are valuable information and records that can be attractive to attackers. Therefore, there is a need to ensure that the information and records are stored securely and there is no possibility of an attack. Records like employee Social Security Numbers, bank information, and place of residence can be used for identity theft. Sensitive…… [Read More]

Bejtlich, R., & Ranum, M. J. (2006). Extrusion detection: security monitoring for internal intrusions. Boston, Massachusetts: Addison-Wesley.
Gibson, D. (2014). Managing Risk in Information Systems. Burlington, Massachusetts: Jones & Bartlett Learning.
Holden, G. (2003). Guide To Firewalls and Network Security: Intrusion Detection and VPNs. Thomson-Course Technology.
Johnson, R. (2014). Security Policies and Implementation Issues. Burlington, Massachusetts: Jones & Bartlett Learning.
Kruegel, C., Valeur, F., & Vigna, G. (2004). Intrusion detection and correlation: challenges and solutions (Vol. 14). New York: Springer Science & Business Media.
Northcutt, S., Winters, S., Frederick, K., Zeltser, L., & Ritchey, R. W. (2002). Inside network perimeter security: The definitive guide to firewalls, VPNs, routers, and intrusion detection systems. Indianapolis, IN: Pearson Education.
Pfleeger, C. P., & Pfleeger, S. L. (2012). Analyzing Computer Security: A Threat/vulnerability/countermeasure Approach. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
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Developing an Intellectual Property Policy

Words: 992 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 85340142

1. Overview
Intellectual property (IP) for the company refers to any copyrights, trademarks, patents, trade secrets, and any other information that is related to the company's services and products (Biagioli, Jaszi, & Woodmansee, 2015). The company is committed to competing fairly in the marketplace. This commitment to fairness will include respecting the intellectual property of our clients, customers, suppliers, business partners, and competitors. No company employee, agent, or independent contractor should steal, misuse, copy or distribute the intellectual property rights owned and maintained by others. The purpose of this policy is to ensure that the company maintains its reputation as a fair competitor, guarantee the integrity of the competitive marketplace in IP, and to comply with the laws regulating IP and industrial espionage.
2. Scope
This policy is applicable to all employees of the company, agents, independent contractors, directors, and officers. Subsidiaries, partnerships, business units, and joint ventures where the…… [Read More]

Biagioli, M., Jaszi, P., & Woodmansee, M. (2015). Making and unmaking intellectual property: creative production in legal and cultural perspective: University of Chicago Press.
Bradner, S., & Contreras, J. (2017). Intellectual Property Rights in IETF Technology (2070-1721). Retrieved from
Soomro, Z. A., Shah, M. H., & Ahmed, J. (2016). Information security management needs more holistic approach: A literature review. International Journal of Information Management, 36(2), 215-225.
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Designing Compliance Within the LAN to WAN Domain

Words: 1148 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 86952279

In order to ensure compliance within the LAN-to-WAN domain it is vital to have protective and security layers. Firewalls, intrusion detection systems, virus scanners, and other protective software would provide assurance that the security policies for the organization are implemented and adhered. Having multiple locations, there will be huge amounts of data that is transmitted between the four locations and this should not be interfered with in order to ensure that employees are able to perform their duties. Therefore, the security solutions implemented should also have a public key to encrypt and decrypt the data. Securing the four locations and allowing for data transmission will require an innovative and secure layout at all locations. Compliance within the four locations will ensure that the facilities are secure and they are operating within the laid-out security policy.
Proposed Solution
The firewall will act as the first layer of protection and filtering for…… [Read More]

Basin, D., Cremers, C., Kim, T. H.-J., Perrig, A., Sasse, R., & Szalachowski, P. (2014). ARPKI: attack resilient public-key infrastructure. Paper presented at the Proceedings of the 2014 ACM SIGSAC Conference on Computer and Communications Security.
Budka, K. C., Deshpande, J. G., & Thottan, M. (2014). Network Security Communication Networks for Smart Grids (pp. 209-225): Springer.
Kaur, K., Kaur, S., & Gupta, V. (2016). Software defined networking based routing firewall. Paper presented at the Computational Techniques in Information and Communication Technologies (ICCTICT), 2016 International Conference on.
Nagendra, V., Yegneswaran, V., & Porras, P. (2017). Securing Ultra-High-Bandwidth Science DMZ Networks with Coordinated Situational Awareness. Paper presented at the Proceedings of the 16th ACM Workshop on Hot Topics in Networks.
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How Healthcare Systems and Vendors are Impacted by Regulations

Words: 1034 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83535938

HIPAA And HITECH Regulations Impact on Implementation of Health Care Systems
Impact of HIPAA And HITECH Regulations on Health Care Systems for The Future with Mention to State and Federal Differences
When the HIPPA act was signed into law many players in the healthcare industry were uncertain of how this would impact their provision of healthcare and obey compliance with HIPPA requirements. HIPPA is mainly focused on the privacy of patient information and guaranteeing its privacy during transmission. Therefore, healthcare systems are required to have encryption in place to ensure that data is not readable if intercepted during transmission. HIPPA regulations only cover the healthcare providers. However, HITECH regulations cover all the entities that deal with healthcare who are referred to as business associates (Weaver, Ball, Kim, & Kiel, 2016). They include any entity that does business with a hospital or doctor. According to HITECH regulations, any business associate must…… [Read More]

Angst, C. M., Block, E. S., D\\\\'arcy, J., & Kelley, K. (2017). When do IT security investments matter? Accounting for the influence of institutional factors in the context of healthcare data breaches. MIS Quarterly, 41(3), 893-916.
Weaver, C. A., Ball, M. J., Kim, G. R., & Kiel, J. M. (2016). Healthcare information management systems. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
Yaraghi, N., & Gopal, R. D. (2018). The Role of HIPAA Omnibus Rules in Reducing the Frequency of Medical Data Breaches: Insights From an Empirical Study. The Milbank Quarterly, 96(1), 144-166.
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Poor Quality Data and Equifax

Words: 1035 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 15761488

Data in information systems allows for businesses to process various actions in a way that is seamless. If one imagines a business as a factory, many businesses main product is data. From hospitals to banks, data is created, stored, transferred, and viewed every single, work day. If this data is of poor quality, it may slow down a business’ processes. For example, a hospital’s medical records are still on paper and have not been transferred to a digital copy. Such an event can trigger easier data breaches and longer wait times for information to be retrieved, copied, and transferred.
What makes data quality poor? There are collectively defined standards that define data quality. They are accuracy, completeness, consistency, uniqueness, and timeliness (Kimball, Ross, Thornthwaite, Mundy, & Becker, 2011). When poor quality data is inaccurate like for example, the last name of a customer in a bank, this leads to service…… [Read More]

Bhansali, N. (2014). Data governance: Creating value from information assets. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.
Buhr, S. (2017, September 27). San Francisco sues Equifax on behalf of 15 million Californians affected by the breach. Retrieved from
Johnson, C. (2018, February 14). Turns out, the Equifax data breach was even worse than we thought. Retrieved from
Kimball, R., Ross, M., Thornthwaite, W., Mundy, J., & Becker, B. (2011). The Data Warehouse Lifecycle Toolkit. Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons.
Lopez, D., & Durai, M. A. (2018). HCI challenges and privacy preservation in big data security. IGI Global.
Roebuck, K. (2011). Customer relationship management (CRM) software: High-impact strategies, what you need to know : definitions, adoptions, impact, benefits, maturity, vendors. publisher not identified.
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Application of Lean to a Help Desk

Words: 1264 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76076022

Overview of the Company
IT All-Stars is a managed service provider targeting small- and medium-sized enterprises. The service desk is the typical point of contact with customers, and a basic workflow begins when a customer has a problem. The customer submits a ticket, and then a technician works to solve the problem (i.e. Internet not working, person forgot password, etc.). The business model is that the company proactively manages the IT function for the client, so also does things like managing the hardware (i.e. replacing it when the warranty expires, servicing, managing domains, etc.).
Justification for Lean
A lean approach in services is utilized in order to streamline the delivery of routine processes. The objective of implementing lean is to ensure consistent service delivery through consistent process delivery, which in turn means that delivery will be faster, and more accurate. Faster response times mean happier customers, and when techs…… [Read More]

Govekar, J. & Agarwal, P. (2017). A lean approach to improving service call center performance. iSixSigma. Retrieved December 3, 2017 from (2017) The five steps of lean implementation. Lean Enterprise Institute. Retrieved December 3, 2017 from
Netland, T. (2015) Five critical success factors for implementing lean programs. Better Operations. Retrieved December 3, 2017 from