Theory There Have Been Several Essay

Download this Essay in word format (.doc)

Note: Sample below may appear distorted but all corresponding word document files contain proper formatting

Excerpt from Essay:

Lee, (2003).

Lee (2003) says that insecure attachments have been linked to psychiatric disorders to which the children are exposed to after the loss of the attachment figure. These children will form inability to form secure attachments, react with hostility and rejection to their environment according to Pickover, (2002). This is a phenomenon found among many immigrant children, especially who had the attachment figure back in their country of origin and yet they remained there. They tend to have a problem re-attaching themselves to any other person, hence may grow up to be violent and develop criminal trends Pickover, (2002).

Shortfalls of the attachment theory

The idea that the parents shape the personality and character is misplaced and instead it is the peers who influence character and behavior of the child. According to Harris (1998:Pp2) "parents do not shape their child's personality or character. A child's peers have more influence on them than their parents." This applied to the immigrant children as they can be seen to dramatically adopt other aspects within the U.S.A. setting in as much as they retain their original country traits. One instance is the language and physical expressions.

The aspect of nature and nurture also comes into play. The parents pass their gene to the child but nurturing can destroy these good traits if the child is predisposed to an environment that is not supportive of good characteristics (Mary Keegan, 2001:Pp261). The groups that the children join as they grow up will shape their behavior greatly as indicated by Mary Keegan, (2001).

Stern D. (1985) further observes that children get the traits from genes and not from the nurturing from their parents. This means they may not necessarily display everything that they learnt from their parents as suggested by the attachment theory, but widely display what they imbibe from their social groupings.

Bowlby attachment theory as portrayed by Lee (2003) is also erroneous as it picks the observation of the children during distressful times, when the parents are going away or are away and does not indicate the interaction between the mother and baby during non-stressful events. This serene time can give a batter indication of how the attachment between the two is formed and can be observed. Stern D. (1985:Pp 117) on the other side takes into account the study and observation of the attachment even after the trust of the child has been won through consistent company and what is referred to as "evoked companions, drawn from several RIGs, who operate at various levels of activation and awareness."

The other shortfall noticed by Lee (2003) in the attachment theory is on the fact that the attachment qualities are looked at on the primary attachment level, between the infant and mother and not other relations that may be there as indicated by Stern, D. (1985:Pp9). Here, Stern (1985) seems to concentrate a lot on the attachment as a possible phenomenon just between the infant and the mother and to some extent the father. Apparently children have attachments to other people apart from their mothers as demonstrated by Lee (2003).

The other significant limitation noticed here is the fact that the theory views the mother as the only source of primary attachment. This is false since the father or even siblings can form the source of primary attachment. Say an instance where the mother dies immediately after birth, or in the case where an immigrant mother who may have not wanted to add more children due to the financial distress forms a negative attitude and avoids the infant, there will inevitably be another source of primary attachment as indicated by Zhihuan J & Stephanie J. (2010: Pp46).

My position on the various issues raised above by Stern D. is that the approach strives and successfully so to demystify the attachment theory and make it more practical within the daily life than abstract thing that was impossible to understand. Stern (1985) strived to detach the blame in character of the child from the parents and introduce the concepts of environment and social setting in explaining attachment. There is an important display of factual approach that indicate the overlap of the parental attachment as proposed by Bowley and the intervening factors like the environment and peers as posited by Stern in a bid to explain character of children and the change in the character as they grow up.


Chris Fraley, (2010). A Brief Overview of Adult Attachment Theory and Research. Retrieved March 12, 2012 from

Harris, J.R. (1998). The nurture assumption: Why children turn out the way they do. New York: Free Press. In Lee J., (2003). The Attachment System Throughout the Life Course: Review and Criticisms of Attachment Theory. Pp.2

Klaus, M.H., Kennell, J.H., & Klaus, P.H. (1995). Bonding. Boston: Addison-Wesley.

Pickover, S. (2002). Breaking the cycle: A clinical example of disrupting an insecure attachment system. Journal of Mental Health Counseling, 24, 358-367.

Seiffge-Krenke, I. (1993). Close friendship and imaginary companions in adolescence. In B. Laursen (Ed.). Close friendships in adolescence (pp. 73-87). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Zhihuan J & Stephanie J., (2010). Variations in the Relationship Between Maternal Depression, Maternal Sensitivity, and Child Attachment by Race/Ethnicity and Nativity: Findings from a Nationally Representative Cohort Study. Maternal Child Health Journal. Vol.16. Pp46).

Stern, D. (1985). The Interpersonal world of the infant: a view from psychoanalysis and developmental psychology. Basic Books: New York. Retrieved from

Trowell, J. (1982). Effects of obstetric management on the mother-child relationship. In Lee J., (2003). The Attachment System Throughout the Life Course: Review and Criticisms of Attachment Theory. Pp.2 Retrieved from

Mary Keegan, (2001). The Effects of Poverty on Children's Socioemotional Development: Ecological Systems Analysis. Social Work. Vol.46 No.3 Pp.261

Erin J. Lee, (2003)., (2003). The Attachment System Throughout the Life Course: Review and Criticisms of Attachment Theory. Pp.2 Retrieved from…[continue]

Cite This Essay:

"Theory There Have Been Several" (2013, March 13) Retrieved October 22, 2016, from

"Theory There Have Been Several" 13 March 2013. Web.22 October. 2016. <>

"Theory There Have Been Several", 13 March 2013, Accessed.22 October. 2016,

Other Documents Pertaining To This Topic

  • Theories Over the Last Several

    However, they do not provide actionable steps that can be taken immediately to address specific threats. These elements are important, because they are: showing the overall strengths and weaknesses of using this procedure. Therefore, this theory provides basic criteria for: any kind of security protocol and should be utilized to create a general strategy. In this case, there was a tremendous amount of research that was available on this

  • Sociological Theory Sociology There Were Several Theories

    Sociological Theory Sociology There were several theories that I found interesting as a part of the course, yet the theory that I connected with most personally was Symbolic Interaction. This theory was established first by George Herbert Mead, who coined the phrase "symbolic interactionism" first. The theory has been present in the field of sociology for several decades, and after the death of Mead, other sociologists took on the theory in

  • American Foreign Policy Theories it Has Been

    American Foreign Policy Theories It has been said that all politics are local, meaning that whatever the issue, an individual always views it from the perspective of their own personal life. And since their personal life exists in a local environment, a person's view of a political issue is always clouded by local circumstances. Roarke and Boyer, in International Politics on the World Stage assert that a nation's international policy can

  • Theory Development Nature and Use of Theory

    Theory Development Nature and Use of Theory in Academic Research Corley and Gioia (2001) call theory the, "currency of our scholarly realm" (p. 12). The authors further explain that theoretical contribution is a requirement for a manuscript to be considered for publication. It appears that all scholarly writing hinges on the theoretical worthiness of the material. Corley and Gioia defined theory as a statement of concepts and their interrelationships that together, demonstrate

  • Criminology Theories and Their Impact

    " One study examined 595 participants, who filled out questionnaires for the research and concluded that social bonding issues play a part in social deviance including the use of drugs and alcohol (Pawlak, 1993). Relating Theory to Social Issue Relating the two criminology theories to the current social issue of adolescent substance abuse, is relatively easy to do. In each of the theories, studies have been conducted to ascertain the amount, if any,

  • Theory of Punishment

    Locke's Theory Of Punishment John Locke was an English philosopher, who is undoubtedly the philosopher of modern times and the originator of concepts like self and identity, human nature and understanding, theory of mind and several other concepts regarding political philosophy and ethics. Born in 1632 and died in 1704, Locke is unanimously termed as the Father of Classical Liberalism since during the enlightenment era; he was amongst the most influential

  • Theories in Counseling and Psychotherapy

    Counseling and Psychotherapy: The acquisition of counseling and psychotherapy philosophy and framework starts is usually dependent on the personality of the counseling student and familiarity with the existing major approaches or techniques to therapeutic practice. The theoretical perspective, philosophy, and framework determine what therapists look for and what they see after making initial contact with clients. Personal philosophy and framework of therapy determines the therapist's focus and course of action

Read Full Essay
Copyright 2016 . All Rights Reserved