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In this contemporary world of ours, transnational movements have become farther, quicker, unproblematic, simpler and more frequent phenomena than ever. The terms "place" and "home" have now been converted into apprehensive, time and uncertain dogmas (Warshall).
It has been witnessed in the last several decades that a colossal number of people have moved to other nations as a consequence of fiscal and political transformations or social turmoil in their motherlands. Some of them have been dislocated due to the wars but most of them have been the victims of the economic reforms. In the recent years, this trend of transnational migration has raised due to the recession that has economically affected the people worldwide. People decide to migrate trans-nationally due to the financial problems they face. This decision of moving to another nation is also being catalyzed by the economic recession that exacerbates their living conditions (Kaneff & Pine 1). The economic nonconformity and quirkiness, thus, compels people to migrate to other areas.
What is Transnational Migration?
Transnational migration has been defined as "a pattern of migration in which people, although moving across international borders, settle, and establish relations in a new state, maintain ongoing social connections with the polity from which they originated. In transnational migration people literally live their lives across transnational borders" (as qtd in Ciobanu & Constan -- a 22).
The notion of transnationalism became known at a time when laborers belonging to economically less industrialized nations started to migrate to the more developed ones. It also came in sight at those times when a considerable number of political refugees started to flee to the stable nations away from the conflicts and instability they had to experience in their own countries especially the former communist and Third World nations. Their determination and resolution to migrate was helped by the technological development that made it easier for them to travel long distances. This technological aid supported the materialization of transnationalism (Ciobanu & Constan -- a 21).
Causes of Transnational Migration
There are a number of causes that activates people to decide to migrate to other areas. Firstly, governance and armed conflicts force people to leave their motherland. The inability of a government to organize itself and its failure to provide an acceptable and fair representation to all constituencies fuels the situation. When people observe that there is an absence of a nonviolent method for the transition of leadership in their country, they tend to move to other places so that they can live in a passive, calm and just environment. Examples of such forced migrations and internal displacement are that of Afghanistan, Angola, Chad, Ethiopia, Liberia, Myanmar, Sudan, Mozambique and Yugoslavia etc. (Warshall).
Secondly, the conflicts at border also cause people to opt for transnational migration. Examples of Ethiopia, former Soviet Union, Yugoslavia and Tibet involving the changing borders caused the related inhabitants to move to other places. Moreover, contested borders in Ethiopia/Somalia and Azerbaijan and no borders in Kurdistan have been the catalytic agents for transnational migration (Warshall).
Thirdly, the contentions related to ethnicity, caste, language, race and religion have given rise to the problems among people which have compelled them to move. Fourthly, the experiences of people regarding their historical conflicts have led them to rival over land and water. Also, when there is religious strife between two countries, people move to other areas to avoid the consequent brutality and chaos. Best examples are of Israel and Palestine, Afghanistan and Rwanda. Moreover, when natural disasters such as famine, tsunamis, floods and earthquakes affect an area, people migrate to other places for attaining shelter and protection. Records show that a considerable number of people have migrated due to the natural catastrophes they had to endure. Famines in Haiti, floods in Bangladesh and earthquakes in Japan and Afghanistan caused many people to migrate. In some situations, people are forced to migrate as development infrastructure is intended in the places they inhabit. People also move to other countries for seeking jobs that could raise their incomes profoundly. People from Philippines, Pakistan, Bangladesh and Mexico especially seek cross-border jobs so that they can support their families in an exceptional way (Warshall).
Migration has become a common phenomenon and has turned out to be more diverse.…[continue]
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