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The result was a put-off United States. Realizing this furthered the need for an outside alliance, talks of NATO resumed. At this point, Canada saw NATO as more than just a defense strategy in the face of Communism. Canada fought and won a battle in discussions to require all members of NATO to cooperate economically. Additionally, the NATO alliance assured that Canada would have a say in combined foreign policy and security. Even further, Canada would be able to deal with the United States on more of a multilateral level, which would help ease the disparity between the nations (Jockel, Sokolsky, 1996). Rather than simply following America's lead in foreign affairs, Canada was determined to make decisions in the best interest of the Canadian people.
By 1949, the threat of Communism was in full swing. The Soviet Union had tested its first nuclear weapon, and the world took notice. Now that the Soviet Union had long-range bombers, the North American continent was in danger of invasion ("Cold War," 2002). This allowed the full agreement of NATO to continue, with Canada, the United States, and 10 European countries joining. This effectively created a unified defense strategy for all members. Canada, taking the lead yet again, agreed to an early commitment of troops, electing to send both infantry divisions and air divisions ("Cold War," 2002).
The U.S. wanted a reliable detection system in place, in case of a Soviet launch. To the United States, Canadian airspace and territory were essential to the security of North America, and therefore, to the U.S. As a whole (Jockel, Sokolsky, 1996). Canada, on the other hand, was somewhat more skeptical about the Soviets capability for launch, and in their intentions ("Cold War," 2003). Even so, Canada had to take the United States into account, in part due to the NATO agreement, but also because their foreign policy and foreign trade was extremely dependant on the U.S.
The U.S. proposed a bilateral defense relationship between Canada and themselves, and Canada agreed. The proposal resulted in a vast network of radars spanning the entire North American continent. The final line, known as the DEW line (distant early warning), stretched to the Atlantic ("Cold War," 2003). The radar network was designed to allow for early detection and warning systems for any incoming attack on North America. This warning included the detection and assessment of any missiles or aircraft entering Canadian or U.S. airspace (Jockel, 2003).
While Canada agreed to the project, they could not agree to the funding. Canada had committed themselves to the foreign aid of NATO and the UN, and did have the resources to fund such a massive undertaking. Thus, the United States funded much of the project ("Cold War," 2003). This relationship, with Canada trusting the United States within their boarders, and in their airspace, and with the United States trusting Canada and their military, helped to strengthen the bonds again between the two nations. Canada, used to being under the protective arm of Britain, no longer needed security from them, but instead turned towards the United States. The agreement placed Canada where no other ally of the United States had been: a central component to the strategic nuclear forces where the United States' defense rested (Jockel, Sokolsky, 1996).
The Cold War influence over United States and Canadian relations appeared to be beneficial. By the 1950's, Canada saw increasing American economic and cultural influence in Canada, despite the failure of the previous free trade agreement. The United States continued to equal almost 70% of Canada's imports, and exports to the United States had more than doubled. As the allies entered the Korean War, U.S. military needs continued to feed the Canadian economy (Donaghy, 2003).
Canadian foreign policy did not, however, follow that of the United States entirely. By the 1950's, Canada had expanded to include Newfoundland as its tenth providence. Additionally, the British Commonwealth attempts to expand the Commonwealth were overwhelmingly supported by Canada. In fact, Canada began its commitment to foreign aid by supporting the creation of the Colombo Plan, which helped modernize Asian countries into democracy. Canada contributed $25 million to the plan, aiming both to counterbalance Communism in the region, and also to bolster foreign trade with the Commonwealth ("Cold War," 2003). While Canada made it clear that they would not limit ties to the United States, they took hold of other foreign markets without the United States' backing, in an effort both to improve their economy and to improve overall security.
The Korean War brought even more challenges for the U.S. And Canadian relations, and showed again that Canada was not operating under the lead of the United States. The U.N. asked for help in 1950 to defend South Korea against invading Communist forces. The United States was the primary aggressor of the assault. While Canada initially agreed to send three destroyers to aid, the Cabinet hesitated to send more. Their concern was that the U.S. would run the assault as an anti-communist crusade, and would escalate the conflict (Canada Department of National Defense, 1953).
In response to this threat, Canada led their military and the other allies through the Korean War in such a way as to restrain the United States' influence. Canada vocally objected to the U.S. plan to invade North Korea, fearing Chinese involvement, but the U.S. forces proceeded. The result was the deployment of over 300,000 Chinese troops into the area. Additionally, Canada attempted to gear the U.N. towards a ceasefire, and opposed any mention by the U.S. Of atomic weapon use against China. Still further, Canada voiced objection to the consideration of China as an aggressor, for fear the label would even further delay a ceasefire (Aronsen, 1997). It was only after these objections were heard and ignored that Canada reluctantly agreed to support the American resolution.
It became obvious that the close association between the United States and Canada that had developed with the emergence of the Cold War was ending. As the foreign policy of Canada stressed peace and humanitarian aid, the United States aimed for control over the Communist threat. Additionally, while Canada continued to ally with the United States in security policies, their foreign policies were rapidly changing in relation to those of the U.S.
Canada further proved their divergence from U.S. policies in 1955, when the Suez Canal was suddenly nationalized by Egypt. The canal, long run by British and French investors, was a major source of contention. Britain and France responded by attacking Israel, an act which was condemned by the United States. Canada, on the other hand, had mixed views. On one hand, Canada was bound by loyalty to Britain and on the other, felt that Britain had betrayed them. In the end, Canada refuse to support Britain, as did the United States ("Cold War," 2003).
However, Canada did not stop there, as the United States policy dictated. Canada, in their first of many UN peacekeeping activities, suggested the creation of a UN force to separate the combatants in the canal while peace was negotiated. The plan was unanimously adopted by the UN, and was successful ("cold War," 2003). Again, while Canada needed the security and economic foundations of the United States, the country as a whole still made decisions that forged away from those of the United States, in an effort to further their own nation.
In 1957, the final event of the United States-Canadian joint security was to create the North American Air Defense Command, or NORAD. This bilateral defense agreement meant that Canada would create a line of radar sites along the 55th parallel. By this time, Canada was the sole financer, contributing over $220 million (Thompson, 2003). This single system had a commander-in-chief, who was an American General, and a Canadian deputy. By this time, Canada was already beginning to want independence from United States influences, with the newly elected Prime Minister John Diefenbaker against the influences of their neighboring country (Jockel, 2003). After two decades of necessary cooperation and voluntary sharing of resources, ideas, land, air, and military, the United States-Canadian relationship began to break down.
From the end of World War II through the creation of the NORAD defense system, Canada and the United States had a close, yet at times strained relationship. The coming of the Cold War changed the views of both nations, making it apparent that cooperation in both security and in foreign policy was absolutely vital in the quest for a secure continent. Both sides agreed to join forces whenever possible, and fought side by side in a number of battles, as economic ties and trade policies increased between the nations.
Yet Canada also saw a need to further its own foreign and security policies. Being under the arm of the United States was only one aspect of Canada's defense strategy, and their economic contributions were only one of many results of…[continue]
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