Use of Technology to Support ADD and ADHD Learners K-8 Term Paper

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nology to Support ADD and ADHD Learners (K-8)

Research Paper

November 6, 2005

Use of Technology to Support ADD and ADHD Learners (K-8)

Abstract

The student with AD/HD is one that requires more specialized and individualized instruction. Technological possibilities present great potential in providing these instructional needs for the AD/HD learner. Technology implemented in the school and in the classroom is critically dependent upon collaboration in development and implementation which is inclusive of the participation of students, teachers, parents and the community at large. Some of these technological methods that are included in the curriculum are use of video, networking, PDAs, email, Internet access and other various technologies. The objective of this work is the research and review of technologies that have been effective as well as ineffective and finally the technologies that offer new promise to the teaching and learning initiative for students with disabilities in learning such as the AD/HD learner.

Use of Technology to Support ADD and ADHD Learners (K-8)

Table of Contents

Objective of the Research

4

Background of the Study

4

I. Technologies: Those that have already been tested

5

II. Conditions under Which the Technologies were found to be Effective

7

III. Conditions under Which the Technologies were found to be Ineffective

7

IV. The Promising Strategies that Exist for Use in the Classroom

8

References

10

Use of Technology to Support ADD and ADHD Learners (K-8)

Objective of the Research

This work will research and review the use of technology in the initiative of supporting ADD and ADHD Learners (K-8).

Background to the Study

AD/HD is a dysfunction of the brain that is genetic in nature but also may result from injury occurring to the brain. It has been estimated by the National Institute of Mental Health that approximately 3% to 5% of children that are school-aged have AD/HD. AD/HD causes lack of regulation in the behavioral aspect of the individual. Different types of AD/HD exist. Those types are (1) predominantly inattentive; (2) Predominantly hyperactive/impulsive; and (3) Combined types. Characteristics of AD/HD - Inattentive Type are illustrated through the individual's experience of difficulty in "paying attention to details, sustaining attention, listening to instructions, and organizing themselves." (National Center for Learning Disabilities, 2005)

The characteristics that describe the challenges for the individual experiencing AD/HD - Hyperactive/Impulsive Type are stated as: (1) The individual is very active, constantly moving and fidgeting in children, teenagers and adults experience "internal restlessness" (2) Difficulty is experienced in relation to "taking turns in games and conversations"; and these individuals (3) "Often act without thinking or anticipating the consequences of their actions" (National Center for Learning Disabilities, 2005) (4) Temper control is often a problem; and (5) This diagnosis is usually made earlier in life than the AD/HD - Inattentive Type. AD/HD is many times combined with other learning disabilities and often problems of a social or emotional nature. Approaches in treatment are varied but there is no cure for AD/HD. School presents many challenges for the student with AD/HD and the teachers and school staff in dealing with the special needs of the AD/HD learner.

I. Technologies: Those that have already been tested

It is required by Special Education Regulation 2001 that students who meet the eligibility requirements for special education under the law be provided with instruction that designed especially to meet the "appropriate needs of an eligible child."(Special Education Regulation, 2001) In a survey which "collected data on whether public schools had students with various disabilities, and if so, whether they had assistive or adaptive hardware and software available for these students" the following was reported in the findings:

"In 2001, 95% of public schools reported that they enrolled students with learning disabilities (table 12). Sixty-seven percent had students with physical disabilities, 54% had students with hearing disabilities, and 46% had students with visual disabilities."

"At the national level, depending on the type of disability, 55 to 64% of schools that had students with disabilities provided assistive or adaptive hardware, and 39 to 56% provided assistive or adaptive software."

"Special hardware was less likely to be available to students with learning disabilities in schools with the highest minority enrollment than in schools with the lowest minority enrollment (47% compared with 61%)"

"The likelihood of having special software available for students with physical disabilities increased with school size: from 40% in small schools to 60% for large schools."

"Differences by instructional level also were observed. For example, 48% of secondary schools provided special software to…

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