postindustrial transformation of the United States and Canada? What are its impact on the human geography of this realm?
The term "postindustrial transformation" can be thought of as the alteration of an area in response to an ending of the age of industry. This postindustrial age is dominated by the production and manipulation of information, technology, and highly skilled workers. This age indicates that the area manufactures and operates on a global scale, rather than retaining a framework of regional business interactions. The transformation that occurs in this postindustrial age is one in which new business and regions emerge, while older businesses and regions attempt to reinvent their concepts and ideas to appeal to the new global market. These alterations to human geography are accompanied by an alteration of the use of space, since technology advancements create the possibility of new ways to create and sustain space.
In terms of the postindustrial transformation of Canada and the United States, the impact on both countries has been notable, particularly in terms of the human geography of the countries, yet quite different between the two areas. For example, while the geographic area of the United States is considerably smaller than that of Canada, its special position in the center of North America allows it a greater environmental range to work with. However, both countries utilize the latest in technological advancement to increase their production, and to distribute the fruits of that production globally. This is done through the use of computer manipulation of data, allowing for maximum returns in today's global economy (Rodriguez, 2005).
In addition to the actual land spatial differences, the geography of human spatial differences is equally compelling. In the United States, the dispersion of the population across the entire country, with significant concentration on the Atlantic and Pacific coasts allows for a maximization of both space and activity. As the population has spread across the region, technology specific to certain activities has blossomed, allowing for the education of workers specific to their geographic location. This, in turn, has led to the advancements in technology that allow for the United States to continue on a global scale of marketing and development. Additionally, the population of the United States is very diverse, allowing for the mixing of cultures to form an even higher level of global communication (Rodriguez, 2005).
On the other hand, Canada's population is concentrated along the southern boarder, with a sparse population in the north. Canada, with a much smaller population that the United States is divided by language. The result is that many of the southern population is English speaking, while the concentrated population in the North, Quebec, is French speaking. While this certainly differs from the human geography of the United States, the results are much the same. By concentrating by language and nationality, the people of Canada are able to communicate with one another, and thus, able to generate ideas and concepts particular to each subset of people. Additionally, each area has particular advantages, and by populating both, Canada has advanced each area simultaneously, allowing for further globalization (Rodriguez, 2005).
Canada and the United States have undergone postindustrial transformation, and the results are different in both countries. However, both countries are two of the most highly advanced countries in the world, economically, and both are highly developed in terms of global leadership. These results clearly show that while postindustrial transformation can affect countries differently, the outcome is beneficial, overall (Rodriguez, 2005).
2). Choose Two of the five regions in the European realm to compare and contrast.
The Nordic region of Europe consists of Sweden, Norway, Denmark, and Finland. The region is isolated from the rest of Europe, which has allowed for protection of unique culture and against invasion, but also has downfalls. The area has one of the lowest populations in Europe, consisting of only one-seventh of the total population and thus, is less advanced than some other areas (Girhard, 2005).
The economy of the area relies heavily on natural resource exportation, particularly oil, dairy production, and forestry. Due to generally cold and stormy climates, as well as difficult terrain, many areas of the Nordic region are not suitable for agriculture or industry. While the warm North Atlantic drift makes life tolerable in areas such as Norway, and provides much of the economic base for the region, this dependence on oceanic currents could prove to be detrimental. If the climate of the area alters, these mainstays of economic production could be jeopardized. Considering the recent development of acid rain in areas of Finland, these types of issues could be devastated to the future of production in the Nordic region (Lehner, 2003).
On the other hand, there are positive future prospects for the Nordic region. The climate and geographical location of this area is prime for the production of hydroelectric power, and in fact, that area is currently producing a small amount. In the future, more plants could increase the region's economic viability. Additionally, advancements in oil production and distribution methods will allow the region to expand its economic reliance of this resource. Further future prospects lie in Finland's recent joining to the EU, which may also provide additional resources for advancement (Lehner, 2003).
The British Isles, on the other hand, have not been as well protected as the Nordic region, and thus, have additional concerns in terms of the future. In previous eras, the area was well-off economically, due to high concentrations of coal. As the coal market declines, however, due to environmental concerns, and as economic commitments from WWII have drained the regions resources, the economic future of the area is uncertain. While Great Britain has joined the EU, their disapproval of many EU political standpoints may prove to be a barrier to potential future gains (Girhard, 2005).
In addition to these concerns for future development, the area of the Midlands, once a thriving area during the industrial revolution, has seen a decline in social stability and economic viability, primarily due to the high-tech economy of Southern England. While the Nordic region may benefit from these technologies, which will allow them to free themselves from prior isolation, areas of the British Isles are declining. Again, as coal production decreases, Wales and other areas of the Isles dependant upon the revenue generated may see a decline in prosperity.
However, the region does have some hope for future prospects. Like the Nordic area, increases in oil production technology have allowed Scotland to discover the natural resource in the North Sea. The development of this area will prove to be assist the Isles financially. Further, Wales has used the advancements in natural resource technology to discover and develop cleaner burning fossil fuels, which are readily available in the region (Girhard, 2005).
2.) Define and critically analyze some of the internal and external challenges that modern Russia is facing.
As Russia begins to attempt to build a strong capitalist market, and to reestablish its self as a world power, there are many challenges, both domestic and international. While Moscow has risen as a stronghold in Russia, the outlying areas are plagued with poverty, a lack of availability of exportation, and a crumbling infrastructure. With the added concerns over Chechnya and other war zones, the region is up against challenges like no other country has seen.
First and foremost, the economic challenges, both internal and external, to the development of Russia are numerous. In order for Russia to become a world power, it must be able to trade on a global scale. This requires foreign capital and integration into the global economic system, something which may provide difficult, considering the previous political problems of the region. Attracting foreign investment in an atmosphere of political instability is difficult, to say the least. In order to achieve this…