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World War II
Russian campaign was the culminating event of World War II. German aggression against Soviet Union was an extremely fierce battle ever took place in human history. German troops met new kind of enemy in vast fields of Ukraine and swamp Byelorussian woods: Soviet armed forces were much stronger and experienced than any European army of that time, as German, and Nazi soldiers and their allies (Italians, Romanians, Hungarians, Slovaks) noticed that during the first days of the new war. When reading Hitler's plan -- Barbarossa -- everyone would notice that this operation was the main Hitler's strategic aim and any activity of Wehrmacht in Northern and Western Africa was simply a wish to threaten British interests in that region but not to win a war. It can be easily proved by figures of German troops fought in Africa and in Russia and sizes of these military theaters.
Let us try to find out the main particularities of Russian campaign and African battles and the main reasons of Russian and Allies' and also German success and failures there.
Russia was the main Hitler's aim. He wanted to capture the main strategic regions and inhabit them by Germans; Slavs had to be slaves there and work for the Nordic race. Hitler considered vast lands of Soviet Union to be a perfect space for developing own country, creating new super-race of knights who had to rule the world. His attitude to Slavic nations formed in his early years when he lived in Vienna. He was sure that Slavs are not people at all and they had to live only under German reign as they -- were not able to rule in their own country -- . His attitude to other nations was much friendlier: Britons were relative race, the majority of German-speaking or bordering Germany nations were considered relative as well. But nations of Soviet Union were found Asian and uncivilized and that meant historical mission of Germany in the east of Europe, as Adolf Hitler thought. He explained his views on the political situation in Russia in the middle of 1920s in -- Nazi Bible -- Mein Kampf -- . He wrote there that Russian nation was no longer able to rule in own country because Germans who were present in Russian power for centuries were forced to leave Russia. Jew sued this situation and organized revolution and as a result -- captured power in this huge country ad decided to spread Communistic ideas over the whole Europe and the world. Sure, this was only half of the truth but Hitler convinced Germans in these facts and proclaimed eastern campaign to gain space for Germans to live.
Origins of the African conflict were different from those we could see in Russia. Hitler didn't consider African War Theater as the main or even important as German historian Kurt von Tippelskirch noticed in his book The History of World War II. The reason of German involvement in that conflict was Italian failure in Northern and Eastern Africa. British troops defeated 7 Italian divisions and had taken 130.000 POWs. Italians lost colonies and could no longer dream of capturing British ones. Sure, Hitler decided to help an ally and sent Luftwaffe units to Sicily at first. He wanted to drop mines in Suez channel and block British navy there. These actions were successful but they could not gain victory and Hitler was forced to send Wehrmacht units to Northern Africa. The aim of this help was not to improve the situation in that region and not to capture more colonies but to preserve Italian troops from the great catastrophe. Luftwaffe blocked British ships in their naval bases with mines and attacked supply convoys in the Mediterranean, which were left without air support. One of the reasons of Italian failure was Benito Mussolini's wish to gain success in that region alone using only Italian army. He didn't wish Germans to be present in Africa because as he said: "In that case we won't be able to get rid of them." Future success were Rommel's merits: he managed to reorganize demoralized Italian troops and convince them that Germans would help them in that fight. His talent influenced the war for two years. But even under the condition of success of African campaign Hitler was disappointed. Africa bothered Hitler to…[continue]
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