"Attachment Theory Essays"

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Object Relation Attachment Theories and Essay

Words: 26278 Length: 55 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34405449

During the next chapter of this clinical case study dissertation, the Literature Review section, this researcher relates accessed information that contributes a sampling of previous research to begin to enhance the understanding needed to help a patient "grow" not only in therapy, but also in life.

CHAPTER II

LITERATURE REVIEW

The theories and techniques used in psychoanalysis are very diverse; Freudian analysis is only one approach."

Thomas and McGinnis, 1991, ¶ 1)

Diverse Contentions

One recent University of New Hampshire study indicated that 63% of more than 3,000 surveyed American parents surveyed reported experiences of one or more instances of verbal aggression toward children in their homes. A Child Protective Services study, albeit reported that only 6% of child abuse cases involved "emotional maltreatment," form of abuse in which verbal abuse constitutes the most common form of maltreatment. The apparent low number of "official" verbal abuse cases likely relates to the fact verbal abuse signs prove more difficult to recognize and prove than the more obvious signs of physical abuse. (Vardiganm, 2008)

During this clinical case study dissertation's Literature Review chapter, this researcher presents information, as well as diverse contentions accessed from a barrage, more than 25, of credible sources, including books, journals and websites. Themes explored during this study's segment include emotional abuse/maltreatment, along with theories and techniques other than Freudian, specifically those relating to Object Relation, Attachment Theories, and Self-Psychology.

2.2 Emotional Abuse/Maltreatment

According to Vardiganm (2008) in his web post article, reviewed by Bruce Linton, PhD, a psychoanalyst specializing in marriage and family counseling in Berkeley, California, the following denote signs that a child is or has been verbally abuse.

Negative self-image: This sign denotes "the most common and pervasive effect of verbal abuse." child may verbalize statements such as "I'm stupid," or, "Nobody likes me."

He/she may appear withdrawn, sullen, or depressed, other signs a person possesses a poor self-image. The National Committee for the Prevention of Child Abuse defines emotional abuse by explaining that "attacks a child's... sense of self-worth." (Vardiganm, 2008)

Self-destructive acts: "Cutting," using razor blades or knives to cut oneself, and numerous other forms of self-injury, as well as a number of reckless activities that put a child in danger indicate a problem exists.

Antisocial behavior. According to the New Hampshire study, verbally abused children exhibited more physical aggression, delinquency, and interpersonal problems than children who were…… [Read More]

Bibliography:
American Psychiatric Association, (2004). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Test Revised. Washington DC.

Blatt, S. (1974). Levels of object representation in anaclytic and introjective depression. New York: International University Press.
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Theory -- Horotwitz & Bartholomew Essay

Words: 4058 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33183152



c. Other theorists (Modern Attachment Theories)

Upon the establishment and strengthening of Bowlby and Ainsworth's Attachment Theory, other theorists have developed new studies which either tested the theory or sought to apply it in different contexts or scenarios. Inevitably, most scenarios and contexts that new theorists and psychology researchers took is the path to explaining grief and bereavement. Others, however, have centered on specific aspects of the theory and sought to expound and/or test it, as Ainsworth did when Bowlby was still in the process of strengthening his attachment theory.

One such study was conducted by Schore and Schore (2008), which explored the emotion regulation aspect of the theory. In their study, the authors realized the potential of attachment theory in developing a "therapeutic intervention" from which coping on the loss of the attachment figure would be a healthier process for the individual. The authors shifted from the issue of attachment to (emotion) regulation, determining that using principles from attachment theory, the therapeutic intervention to effective and healthier coping "can repair damage and create new structure that is more able to cope with the demands of life" (18). Schore and Schore have taken on the challenge that Bowlby presented after discussing attachment theory thoroughly: how knowledge about the theory could improve issues of attachment that children, particularly adolescent children, have to deal and cope with.

Another group of researchers sought to develop an integrative model of attachment, which centered on the "system activation dynamics" of individuals (Mikulnicer et. al., 2003:90). Anchoring on Bowlby and Ainsworth's study on secure and insecure attachments/relationships, the authors identified two kinds of activation systems that are triggered when there is a loss or separation from a loved one and/or attachment figure. The first activation system is called "deactivating," wherein the individual chooses to "distance people from their own emotions," and hence seeks isolation. This coping mechanism results to 'aversion of painful experience, but forgoes the effect of positive affect' that comes from acknowledging the loss or separation from a loved one or significant other. Conversely, "hyperactivating" occurs when the individual engages in different emotional states with different people, which could only delay the acknowledgment and despair that comes with the loss or separation. In the end, the individual would only feel an "exacerbation of the negative affect," which could further the feeling of despair within the individual. Ideally, however, based on…… [Read More]

References:
Ainsworth, M. (1984). "Attachment across the life span." Bulletin of New York Academy of Medicine.

Ainsworth, M. And J. Bowlby. (1991). "An ethological approach to personality development." American Psychologist, Vol. 46, No. 4.
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Theory There Have Been Several Essay

Words: 2479 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 15855596

Lee, (2003).

Lee (2003) says that insecure attachments have been linked to psychiatric disorders to which the children are exposed to after the loss of the attachment figure. These children will form inability to form secure attachments, react with hostility and rejection to their environment according to Pickover, (2002). This is a phenomenon found among many immigrant children, especially who had the attachment figure back in their country of origin and yet they remained there. They tend to have a problem re-attaching themselves to any other person, hence may grow up to be violent and develop criminal trends Pickover, (2002).

Shortfalls of the attachment theory

The idea that the parents shape the personality and character is misplaced and instead it is the peers who influence character and behavior of the child. According to Harris (1998:Pp2) "parents do not shape their child's personality or character. A child's peers have more influence on them than their parents." This applied to the immigrant children as they can be seen to dramatically adopt other aspects within the U.S.A. setting in as much as they retain their original country traits. One instance is the language and physical expressions.

The aspect of nature and nurture also comes into play. The parents pass their gene to the child but nurturing can destroy these good traits if the child is predisposed to an environment that is not supportive of good characteristics (Mary Keegan, 2001:Pp261). The groups that the children join as they grow up will shape their behavior greatly as indicated by Mary Keegan, (2001).

Stern D. (1985) further observes that children get the traits from genes and not from the nurturing from their parents. This means they may not necessarily display everything that they learnt from their parents as suggested by the attachment theory, but widely display what they imbibe from their social groupings.

Bowlby attachment theory as portrayed by Lee (2003) is also erroneous as it picks the observation of the children during distressful times, when the parents are going away or are away and does not indicate the interaction between the mother and baby during non-stressful events. This serene time can give a batter indication of how the attachment between the two is formed and can be observed. Stern D. (1985:Pp 117) on the other side takes into account the study and…… [Read More]

Sources:
Chris Fraley, (2010). A Brief Overview of Adult Attachment Theory and Research. Retrieved March 12, 2012 from http://internal.psychology.illinois.edu/~rcfraley/attachment.htm

Harris, J.R. (1998). The nurture assumption: Why children turn out the way they do. New York: Free Press. In Lee J., (2003). The Attachment System Throughout the Life Course: Review and Criticisms of Attachment Theory. Pp.2 http://www.personalityresearch.org/papers/lee.html
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Theory the Objective of This Essay

Words: 2202 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10371204

I often worry that my partner doesn't really love me or won't want to stay with me. I want to get very close to my partner, and this sometimes scares people away. (Fraley, 2004)

Fraley relates that it was found in the study of Hazan and Shaver "...based on this three-category measure...that the distribution of categories was similar to that observed in infancy. In other words, about 60% of adults classified themselves as secure; about 20% described themselves as avoidant; and about 20% described themselves as anxious-resistant." (2004) While measurement in this manner was "a useful way to study the association between attachment styles and relationship functioning, it didn't allow a full test of the hypothesis in the same kinds of individual differences observed in infants might be manifest among adults." (Fraley, 2004) Fraley states that the findings of Brennan "suggested that there are two fundamental dimensions with respect to adult attachment patterns" with the first "critical variable" being one labeled 'attachment-related anxiety." (Fraley, 2004) Individuals who score high on this specific variable have worries relating to whether their partner is "available, responsive, attentive, etc." (Fraley, 2004) Individuals scoring low on this variable are stated by Fraley to be "more secure in the perceived responsiveness of their partners." (2004) the third "critical variable is called attachment-related avoidance." (Fraley, 2004) Individuals who score high on this variable are independent and do not tend to depend on others or easily open themselves up to others. Individuals scoring on the low end of this dimension have less discomfort with intimacy and as well are "more secure depending upon and having others depend upon them." (Fraley, 2004) According to Brennan's research "a prototypical secure adult is low on both of these dimensions." (Fraley, 2004) Romantic relationships are held by Fraley and others to operate in a very similar manner to infant-parent relationships. Some of the parallels noted in the work of Fraley between "the way that infant-caregiver relationships…… [Read More]

Bibliography:
Borelli, Jessica L.; and David, Daryn H. (2003-2004) Imagination, Cognition and Personality. Volume 23, Number 4 / 2003-2004. Attachment Theory and Research as a Guide to Psychotherapy Practice. Yale University. Online Baywood Publishing Company, Inc. Amityville, NY. Online available at http://baywood.metapress.com/app/home/contribution.asp?referrer=parent&backto=issue,2,6;journal,14,102;linkingpublicationresults,1:300311,1

Tuovila, Pirjo (2007)What Are Fathers for? Attachment Theory and the Significance of Fathers. European Centennial Conference to Celebrate the Birth of Dr. John Bowlby, the Founder of Attachment Theory. Tampere Hall, Finland, 1-2 February 2007.
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Theory Therapy Levy Meehan Kelly Essay

Words: 4158 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 86662734



Kellogg & Young in Schema Therapy for Borderline Personality Disorder offer a comprehensive explanation of the use of Schema Therapy for patients with BPD, by first explaining the disorder and how it is particularly prime for the use of schema therapy as the disorder itself and the behavior and emotions exhibited from it can be seen as an individual traversing through a short list of schemas and are reflective of the childhood origins of BPD. The modes of BPD are described by the authors as consisting of the angry and impulsive child mode, the detached protector mode, the punitive parent mode and lastly the healthy adult mode. According to the authors if these modes are lacking in integration and emotions cannot be traversed across each, or if the modes are significantly unbalanced they become schemas that override normal adult behavior. The particulars of Schema Therapy are then described after a brief explanation of other modes of treatment, particularly simple cognitive therapy, which is not abandoned but used in a systematic manner to help educate the patient of the need for change and restructuring of behavior. The Schema Therapy used is described by the authors through a stepped system including; (1) limited reparenting, (2) experiential imagery and dialogue work, (3) cognitive restructuring and education, and (4) behavioral pattern breaking, all in three phases of treatment; (1) bonding and emotional regulation, (2) schema mode change, and (3) development of autonomy. (pp. 444-456) the only empirical aspect of the work is that which describes ongoing research associated with schema therapy, most of which are case study works that include but are not limited to BPD. (p. 457)

Clarkin, Levy, Lenzenweger, & Kernberg in Evaluating Three Treatments for Borderline Personality Disorder: A Multiwave Study provide a comparative study of three varied treatments for BPD in a multiwave study. The three forms of outpatient treatment evaluated are; dialectical behavior…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
Clarkin, J.F. Levy, K.N. Lenzenweger, M.F. Kernberg, O.F. (June 2007) Evaluating Three Treatments for Borderline Personality Disorder: A Multiwave Study Ameican Journal of Psychology 164:6, 922-928.

Clarkin, J.F. & Levy, K.N. (April 2003) a Psychodynamic Treatment for Severe Personality Disorders: Issues in Treatment Development Psychoanalytic Inquiry 23:2 248-268.
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Theory What Are the Major Concepts of Essay

Words: 1456 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 846924

Theory

What are the major concepts of Ainsworth's theory?

Ainsworth's attachment theory is rooted in Bowlby's research on the bonds that develop between parent and child. Building on Bowlby's research, Ainsworth conducted a groundbreaking experiment known as the Strange Situation. Results of the Strange Situation experiment revealed three different categories of attachment styles. Ainsworth found secure attachment, ambivalent-insecure attachment, and avoidant-insecure attachment (Cherry, n.d.). Moreover, four categories of attachment style behaviors were observed. These four categories include separation anxiety, which refers to the emotional reaction to the caregiver leaving. The infant's willingness to explore in the caregiver's absence is another feature of attachment. Stranger anxiety refers to how the infant responds to strangers when the primary caregiver is absent. Finally, Ainsworth studied reunion behavior, which was how the child reacted to the return of the caregiver. Using these four parameters of attachment-related behaviors, Ainsworth developed the three primary attachment styles: secure attachment, ambivalent-insecure attachment, and avoidant-insecure attachment. For example, a child with high separation anxiety, who avoids interacting with strangers in the absence of the parent, and who avoids exploring in the absence of the parent, will be classified as having a secure attachment style. If an infant shows no sign of distress when the parent leaves, plays with strangers in the parent's absence, and shows little interest in the parent's return has an avoidant attachment style. Ambivalent attachment is characterized by intense stress at the mother's leaving, overt fear of the stranger, crying without exploring much, and resisting contact with the mother upon return.

7. How is Attachment related to or an influence on successful aging? Need critical thinking re "righteousness" of the theories and their ability to really uncover person's deepest influences, motives and characteristics.

Bowlby recognized that attachment was important throughout the life course (Fraley, n.d.). The same motivational patterns will impact the individual in romantic relationships and friendships later in life. Secure attachment styles have been associated in research with the development of high self-esteem, high self-reliance, and independence. Children with secure attachment styles have been shown to evolve into successful individuals with strong social networks, good school performance, and…… [Read More]

References:
Benoit, D. (2004). Infant-parent attachment. Pediatric Child Health 9(8): 541-545.

Cherry, K. (n.d.). Attachment theory. Retrieved online: http://psychology.about.com/od/loveandattraction/a/attachment01.htm
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Theory Its Usefulness in the Workplace Today Essay

Words: 1362 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 59285246

theory: Its usefulness in the workplace today

Attachment theory has its origins in the study of animals. Watching geese 'imprint' upon the first living being they encounter after hatching or researchers observing how baby monkeys thrive when given terry cloth mothers, as opposed to wire mothers, are all examples of attachment theory in action. Attachment theory reinforces the psychodynamic notion that early experiences are seminal and seismic in shaping the human psyche and the way human beings relate to one another. As applied to humans, attachment theory suggests that parents who respond in a positive way to their infant's needs formulate the character of the child in such a way to enable him or her to feel secure in his or her relationships. In contrast, parents who create bonds of insecure attachment by being smothering or rejecting will foster behavioral patterns in their children that are negative, rather than positive. The child's future personality development becomes unfulfilling: avoidant and resistant personality types either passively or actively show hostility toward the parent while anxious types are overly dependant upon external parental reinforcement and praise (Attachment theory, 2002, Great ideas). On a macro scale, a general parenting style adopted by a culture, like an overly permissive or autocratic approach can create a generationally negative interpersonal style, as some allege is the case today: parents allow technology rather than human interaction to create emotionally avoidant, selfish and disconnected children while overly involved parents in smaller and more affluent households create clingy and spoiled children.

Thus attachment theory may seem predominantly personal in its orientation but it would be mistaken to see attachment theory as only useful for developmental psychologists and educators. Attachment issues can have sociological implication. In the workforce, individuals with a sense of healthy, secure attachments and appropriate personal boundaries can become positive team players, still retain their sense of creative independence as employees, and maintain a positive work and life balance. Avoidant employees may withdraw from conflict and withhold their emotional support from critical workplace initiatives.…… [Read More]

Sources:
Attachment theory. (2002). Great ideas in personality research. Retrieved from:

http://www.personalityresearch.org/attachment.html
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Theories What Are the Explanations Essay

Words: 3047 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41122908

203). Others who lose a loved one they had cherished for many years may have a disposition "towards compulsive caregiving" (Bowlby, p. 206). The welfare of others is of prime concern for these individuals; instead of experiencing "sadness and welcoming support for themselves" after the death of a loved one or family member that has been loved for many years, these individuals "proclaim that it is someone else who is in distress and in need of the care which then insist on bestowing."

This compulsive caregiving often manifests itself with the selection of a handicapped person to become that person's caregiver. Imagine the daughter who since adolescence has idolized her father, and never left the home but rather attended college nearby to her parents' home. She never made a lot of close friends and preferred to be home with her dad especially. So when he died, according to Bowlby's compulsive caregiving theory, she will latch on to a person who is in need of caregiving until she decides to marry.

Then, should she become a parent, the danger, Bowlby explains on page 206, is that she could become "excessively possessive and protective," in particular when the child grows older.

Meanwhile, an article in the Journal of Genetic Psychology (van Ijzendoorn, et al., 1995) references the Bowlby-Ainsworth attachment theory as it pertains to the effects of early attachment relationships between parents and children. This particular article examines the relation between attachment to an adult and "moral reasoning." Children do construct "increasingly complex internal working models" of the world they live in, and of the persons in their world who are "significant" -- which includes the self (Ijzendoorn, p. 1).

In the authors' Adult Attachment interviews they probed for "specific supportive or contradicting memories and descriptions of current relationship with parents." Early childhood memories were to be evaluated juxtaposed with current perspectives of the relationship. The results showed that individuals who were described as "secure-autonomous" see the relationships as having definitely been "influential in their development" (Ijzendoorn, p. 3). Then the individuals who dismiss their attachments as having "little influence or value" are classified as "dismissing" and those persons tended to "idealize their parents and to deny negative…… [Read More]

References:
Bowlby, John (1980). Attachment and Loss / Volume I / Attachment. New York: Basic

Books, Inc., Publishers.
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Social Work Theory of Attachment Essay

Words: 1898 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90172636



Grohol J. (2005). Attachment Theory. Psych Central. Retrieved October 7, 2005 from the World Wide Web: http://psychcentral.com/psypsych/Attachment_theory

Psych Central is a web site which provides free mental health, support and psychology information and resources online since 1992. The site is clustered with numerous links to psychological issues and people related to this field. This article has been written by Dr. John Grohol who is a renowned psychologist and owner of this web portal. The article focuses on the theory of attachment explaining various behavioral patterns observed in the canvas of this theory.

Holmes, J. (1993). John Bowlby and Attachment Theory. New York: Routledge.

Jeremy Holmes is a Consultant Psychiatrist/Psychotherapist in North Devon

District Hospital, Barn Staple, United Kingdom. He is also a visiting professor at Psychoanalysis Unit University College London. In this book, Jeremy Holmes provides a focused and coherent account of Bowlby's life and work, based on interviews with members of his family and with psychoanalysts who knew him. The author highlights the Bowlby's Attachment Theory which is one of the major theoretical developments in psychoanalysis last century. The book focuses on combining the rigorous scientific empiricism of ethology with the subjective insights of psychoanalysis. Holmes commends Bowlby's work and states that the attachment theory had an enormous impact in the fields of child development, social work, psychology, and psychiatry.

Janus Online Web Dictionary. (2004, November 22). Definition of Social Work. Retrieved October 7, 2005 from the World Wide Web: http://janus.state.me.us/legis/statutes/32/title32sec7001-A.html

The web site is an online resource for various definitions and explanation of various terms used in the language. The site contains list of words which are distributed in titles or categories. It is a comprehensive portal of the language.

Pietromonaco P.R. And Barrett L. F, (2000). Attachment Theory as an Organizing Framework: A view from different levels of analysis. Review of General Psychology, 4, No 2,107-110.

Review of General Psychology is a quarterly journal and publishes new theoretical, conceptual, or methodological articles that focus on the traditional sub-disciplines of psychology. It is an approved journal of American Psychological Association (APA). The writers of the article are…… [Read More]

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Nursing Theory Framework Essay

Words: 2702 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33960538

Nursing Theory Framework

Attachment Theory

Recognizing Addiction through Attachment Theory

Affect Regulation and Addiction

Handling Addiction as an Attachment Disorder

The First Phase of Therapy

Concepts

Autonomy

Beneficence

Nonmaleficence

Nursing Theory Framework

The misappropriation of prescription drugs by teens in the United States is a growing public health issue. Using a nursing theory framework, the scope of the problem of prescription drug use among teens is reviewed. Equal in variety to manifestations of addiction are sundry psychological theories that attempt to explain and treat the problem. Hardy (2011) was able to look into four traditional models for recognizing alcoholism (social learning theory, tension reduction theory, personality theory, and interactional theory,) in addition to five theoretical models that were developing at the time of their writing.

An approach to treating and understanding addiction that has created a huge amount of research in current decades, and which displays big promise for effective treatment of those who are undergoing addictions, has derived from attachment theory. From a nursing framework, this paper will make the attempt to communicate those features of attachment theory pertinent to understanding addiction from its theoretical viewpoint, describe addiction in terms of attachment, and recognize how addiction is being treated as an attachment disorder. Significant research studies which pursue to create addictions as a problem ingrained in attachment and to inspect the efficiency of attachment-oriented psychotherapy in treatment of compulsions will be reviewed from the nursing point-of-view

Attachment Theory

Research shows that there is an estimation of more than eight million children that are younger than the age 18 live with at least one adult who has a substance use disorder that is a rate of in excess of one in 10 children (Flores, 2012). The mainstream of these children are younger than the age of 5 (Pulver, 2014). Furthermore, these studies of families with substance use disorders show patterns that meaningfully effect child development and the probability that a child will tussle with behavioral, emotional, or substance use difficulties (Caplan, 2012). The negative impacts of parental substance use disorders on the family consist of disturbance of rituals, attachment, communication, social life, roles, routines, and finances. Investigations also makes the point that families wherein there is a parental substance use disorders are characterized by an setting of secrecy, loss, emotional chaos, violence, conflict, or abuse, role reversal, and fear.

Relationships are what serve as the communication channels that…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
Caplan, J.P. (2012). Neuropsychiatric effects of prescription drug abuse. Neuropsychology Review, 17(3), 363-80.

Elkashef, A.M. (2012). Prevention and treatment of addiction. Psychiatric Times, 16-18.
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Combination of Modern and Postmodern Bereavement Theory Explain and Contrast Essay

Words: 5009 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 16035742

Postmodern Bereavement Theory

Bereavement is a universal observable fact as every human being experiences the loss of a loved one at some point in his/her life. However, every individual experiences it in a unique way. It is, without a doubt, an undeniable truth that to be human is to grieve. The passing away of a loved one can be difficult, irresistible and dreadful for any normal individual. When people are faced with such overwhelming situations, a majority of them especially the older adults get into the habit of enduring their loss with time. On the other hand, to forget and live without a loved one is not as easy for some individuals. It becomes difficult for these people to cope up with the grief-stricken situations as they experience a grief of greater concentration or time (Hansson & Stroebe, 2007). There are a number of theorists who have put forwarded their views regarding grief, mourning and bereavement since the study of psychology has started. The most significant theorist among them is Freud who was the first to present a modern view of grief in his theories.

In this paper, I would present both modernist and postmodernist views regarding grief and bereavement. My main purpose would be to present a contrast between the modern and postmodern theories of bereavement. Above all, I intend to dispute with one of the aspects of Freud's modern grief theory. I would oppose the modernist belief that in order to live a healthy life, an individual must completely end his/her relationship with the loved ones who have departed to another world. I would present an argument opposing their belief that an individual cannot live a healthy, satisfied and comfortable life if he/she continues to grieve over the lost ones and be in divine connection with them. In contrast to the Freudian belief, I would support the post modern view of grief hypothesized by…… [Read More]

Sources:
Bartholomew, K., & Horowitz, L.M. (1991). Attachment styles among young adults: A test o f a four-category model. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 61(2), 226-244. Retrieved from http://www.sfu.ca/psyc/faculty/bartholomew/attachmentpub_files/bh1991.pdf

Bonanno, G.A., Keltner, D., Holen, A., & Horowitz, M.J. (1995). When avoiding unpleasant emotions might not be such a bad thing: Verbal-autonomic response dissociation and midlife conjugal bereavement. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology,
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Bowlby Suggest That Secure Attachment Essay

Words: 366 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 20436679

Flores describes our culture as an avoidance society, giving what you know as an attachment theory, what impact might this cultural tendency have on the prevalence of addiction on our society?

To the extent that avoidance plays a role in personal psychology, any challenge to self-esteem or to psychological security would be a risk factor in behaviors that could be used to help the individual avoid confronting the unpleasant thoughts or fears. Because consumption of addictive substances is a typical form of psychological escapism, individuals faced with challenges to their happiness who are socialized in an avoidance society would be inclined to use those substances as a specific means of avoiding unpleasant thoughts and feelings. Instead of recognizing the need to examine and address their impulses or fears, individuals socialized in an avoidance society would rely on intoxicating agents to escape from anything unpleasant. In the context of attachment theory, the insecurely attached individual who experiences negative thoughts or fears related to insecure attachment would resort to alcohol or drug use instead of examining those impulses with the intention of possibly resolving those…… [Read More]

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How Counseling Services Benefit People-Based on Theories of Human Development Essay

Words: 1332 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 8557938

(Psychopedia, 2014, p. 1)

Psychosocial Theory

Psychosocial theory is reported to combine internal psychological factors and social factors that are external with each stage building on the others and focusing on a challenge that needs to be resolved during that specific stage so that the individual can move on to the next stage of development. (http://www3.niu.edu/acad/fcns280/THEORY/sld008.htm)

VI. Benefits of Counseling and Development Theories

The benefits of counseling related to theories of human development include assisting individuals in understanding how they got to where they are today and assist them in understanding how they can personally make changes or adjustments in their own life to achieve their personal life goals. It is reported that "According to develop mentalists, relationships among cognitions, emotions, and behaviors are interdependent and rooted in transactions with the environment (Blocher, 1980); therefore, while all humans possess inherent natures and abilities to mature, certain conditions must be present to facilitate the meeting of developmental needs and the mastering of developmental tasks. Tasks and concerns encountered at specific stages are understood to be hindered, blocked, or resolved depending upon the presence or absence of environmental conditions and responses." (Muro, 2007, p. 7)

Develop mentalist hold that "relationships among cognitions, emotions, and behaviors are interdependent and rooted in transactions with the environment; therefore, while all humans possess inherent natures and abilities to mature, certain conditions must be present to facilitate the meeting of developmental needs and the mastering of developmental tasks. Tasks and concerns encountered at specific stages are understood to be hindered, blocked, or resolved depending upon the presence or absence of environmental conditions and responses." (Muro, 2007, p. 8)

It is additionally reported that when Blocher (1988) "credited constructivist, cognitive-structural scholarship as the most influential to elaborating understandings of human development and change. Cognitive-structural studies affirmed the individual's information-processing tendency, reflecting intrinsic motivations to establish order, predictability and control in one's environment as well as to construct personal meaning. Cognitive dissonance was explained as part of this progression." (Muro, 2007, p. 8) Cognitive dissonance is reported to result in a "state of tension, discomfort, and imbalance. This motivates the individual to seek resolution, consistency, or cognitive consonance in an effort to construct meaning and order reality." (Muro, 2007, pl. 8)

Achieving goals of meaning and goals or order requires that the individual find resolution…… [Read More]

Bibliography:
Muro, L. (2007) The Effects of Human Developmental counseling Application Curriculum on Content Integration, Application, and Cognitive Complexity for Counselor Trainees. Retrieved from: http://digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc5138/m2/1/high_res_d/dissertation.pdf

Counseling Psychology (2014) Lewis & Clark Graduate School of Educational Counseling. Retrieved from: http://graduate.lclark.edu/departments/counseling_psychology/mental_health/about/
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Watson's Theory of Caring Theory Clinical Essay

Words: 3459 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 69890526

In applying this article to the nursing field, it appears that combining therapies with surgery can enhance care to surgical patients. The article reaction is preoperative anxiety can be reduced with holistic nursing.

Rosenberg, S. (2006). Utilizing the Language of Jean Watson's Caring Theory Within a Computerized Clinical Documentation System. CIN: Computers, Informatics, Nursing.

This article describes and critiques a healthcare facility that was part of an eight-hospital organization that adopted Watson's theory of caring as part of their nursing philosophy. It provides an overview of the caring theory and its many meanings. Rosenberg critiques the caring theory, stating that during the implementation of the theory within the setting described, it was noted that there was no mechanism in the current documentation system for clinical nursing staff to document the patient experience using any language specific to the theory. As a result, the nurses at the healthcare facility decided to develop a new context in charting that consisted of an extensive clinical documentation system upgrade. The article concluded with a discussion of the steps taken that supported the newly adopted caring philosophy at the facility. The application and reaction is that such a system could be implemented at other facilities as well.

Saewyc, E. (2000). Nursing Theories of caring. Journal of Holistic Nursing. (18)(2):114-128.

This article discusses the manner in which caring has emerged as a central paradigm in nursing over the past four decades. Saewyc suggests that caring as a central focus in nursing care of adolescents is developmentally appropriate and has been documented as the primary mechanism of effective health promotion for working with teens throughout the world. The article concludes that other disciplines in adolescent health are beginning to realize the importance of caring therapeutics in practice, but nursing remains in the forefront of theory development and research in this area and is well positioned to provide leadership in further articulating caring theory within adolescent health care. In applying the theory of caring to nursing, it is suggested that nurses must include advocacy for the legitimacy and the importance of caring modalities in promoting the health of adolescents. The reaction to…… [Read More]