Environmental Problems Essays

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Environmental Problem in the World Essay

Words: 1473 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14910790

Some forms of energy, such as wave and tidal energy and hydrogen fuel cells are still being studied. Another writer states, "Techniques to harness the energy found in the oceans are best developed for tidal power, wave power and ocean thermal energy conversion" (Middleton 52). Many other types of alternative energy, such as solar, wind, biomass, and geothermal energies are all being used where they make sense. Other solutions include nuclear energy, but the problem of disposing of the nuclear waste is a big problem, and so, no new nuclear facilities are being built. Authors Ottinger and Williams continue "Nuclear energy is excluded [...] because of its high capital and operating costs, complex technical requirements for operation and maintenance, and unresolved problems of proliferation and waste disposal" (Ottinger and Williams 331).

None of these solutions are being used enough to remedy the problem, and there are many reasons why they are not being more heavily used. Many of the long-term projects are very expensive to build and operate, and so utilities are hesitant to invest in them. Around the world, many countries are investing in alternative power, such as wind power. Another writer notes, "India, China, and a dozen European nations have installed thousands of wind turbines that generate electricity at a cost comparable to new coal-fired power plants" (Johnson 15). Here is the U.S. wind power has caught on in some areas, but the vast areas needed to create these "wind farms" is limited, and many people here find them unsightly, so they are not as popular as they are in other parts of the world. They have to be in an area that gets a lot of wind, too, which limits where they can be installed and used.

Solar power is another solution, but it also is not being utilized as much as it could. Some systems are very expensive to implement, and home systems are expensive, too. They also only work best in sunny, warm locations. Another reason these solutions are not working is the power of the big worldwide oil companies. They make large profits on the sale of there fuels, and they fight any kind of alternative power legislation in most modern countries. One expert states, "While the development of alternative energy sources continues to lag, supporters…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
Rosentreter, Richard. "Oil, Profits and the Question of Alternative Energy." The Humanist Sept. 2000: 8.

Staff. "Environmental Issues." EPA.gov. 18 Nov. 2003. 21 July 2005. http://www.epa.gov/airmarkets/envissues/index.html
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Environmental Case Study Solving a Puzzle Essay

Words: 1309 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 21639584

Environmental Case Study (Alberta's Oil Sands)

Alberta's Oil Sands represents one of the international environmental problems facing Canada and close to seventy countries across the globe. Albert's Oil Sands proves to be a new course of political conflict within the setting of Canada and at the international level. Oil Sands development is responsible for rapid economic growth of Alberta. This creates ethical or moral dilemma because there is a massive risk in association with the development of Oil Sands within the province. Oil Sands contribute towards ecological harm thus having a negative impact on the living conditions of the individuals in the province and the entire planet. This ethical dilemma leads to mobilization processes by environmental entities to help alleviate the situation. This is because some prominent political outfits such as Peter Lougheed recognize that the rate of the development of the oil sands in Alberta is not socially or economically beneficial to the province or entire Canada (Fairley 52).

These developments of events surrounding the oil sands make it critical for the creation or formulation of effective and efficient solution to the puzzle facing Alberta and the planet. The responsibility for development of economic, social, and political policies in the country rests with the government; therefore, it is crucial for the authority to come up with applicable solution to oil sands environmental problem. Another puzzle surrounding this environmental case is that the government is unwilling to address the issues surrounding Oil Sands in Alberta (Fairley 52). The government is generally hostile against attempts to moderate the influence of the oil sands in Alberta. This leads to continuous development of the ecological problem thus putting the lives of the future generation at risk. There are many stakeholders in the development of the oil sands environmental problems hence critical solution should be in place to reduce the negative harms to the human race.


Alberta's Oil Sands possess key environmental, social, political, and environmental problems in the contemporary world hence should undergo extensive moderation in relation to its development.

Key Issues and Impact of Alberta's Oil Sand

The stakeholders or companies in the transaction of oil sands in Alberta are powerful in their interaction with the economy…… [Read More]

Brown, Jordan. "The Pembina Institute: Balancing Environmental Policy with Oil Sands Development in an Industry-Oriented Economy." Undercurrent 6.2 (2009): 7-16. Academic Search Complete. Web. 31 July 2012.

Dunbar, R.B. Existing and Proposed Canadian Commercial Oil Sands Projects. Calgary: Strategy West, April 2008. Available at: < http://www.strategywest.com/downloads/StratWest_OSProjects.pdf >
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Environmental Justice & Executive Order Essay

Words: 9648 Length: 35 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26252107

For example, unequal protection may result from land-use decisions that determine the location of residential amenities and disamenities. Unincorporated, poor, and communities of color often suffer a "triple" vulnerability of noxious facility siting." (Bullard, 1998)

Finally, 'Social Equity' is that which "assesses the role of sociological factors (race, ethnicity, class, culture, life styles, political power, etc.) on environmental decision making. Poor people and people of color often work in the most dangerous jobs, live in the most polluted neighborhoods, and their children are exposed to all kinds of environmental toxins on the playgrounds and in their homes." (Bullard, 1998)


The National Preservation Institute states that the term 'cultural resource' is not defined in NEPA or even in any other Federal law and yet there are "several laws and executive orders that deal with particular kind of 'resources' that are 'cultural' in character." The following is a description of various sources and their definitions of regulations relating to cultural resources and the human's interaction with their environment.

NEPA and CEQ regulations: makes a requirement of agencies to consider the effects of their actions on all aspects of the 'human environment'.

The National Historic Preservation Act (NHPA) sets forth Government policy and procedures regarding "historic properties" -- that is, districts, sites, buildings, structures and objects included in or eligible for the National Register of Historic Places. Section 106 of NHPA requires that Federal agencies consider the effects of their actions on such properties, following regulations issued by the Advisory Council on Historic Preservation (36 CFR 800).

The Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act (NAGPRA) requires Federal agencies and federally assisted museums to return "Native American cultural items" to the Federally recognized Indian tribes or Native Hawaiian groups with which they are associated. Regulations, by the National Park Service (NPS) are at 43 CFR 10.

The American Indian Religious Freedom Act (AIRFA) says that…… [Read More]

Bullard, Robert D. (1998) Environmental Justice in the 21st Century. Environmental Justice Resource Center. Online available at http://www.ejrc.cau.edu/ejinthe21century.htm

O'Neil, Sandra George (2007) Superfund: Evaluating the Impact of Executive order 12898. Environmental Health Perspectives
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Environmental Policies Give an Example Essay

Words: 7072 Length: 18 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 3648279

The 1980s (the period when Ronald Reagan was the U.S. President) witnessed a series of government measures targeting environmental regulations. This resulted in public outrage against the anti-environmental policies of the government leading to a renewed interest in nature clubs and groups and the formation of radical groups who led strong movements to protect the environment. (vii) the post- Reagan resurgence (1990s onwards) - President Bush and President Clinton did not take the radical stance of their predecessor. However, President George W. Bush has taken many measures which have weakened the environmental movement instead of strengthening it. This includes opposing curbs on greenhouse emissions via the Kyoto Protocol, supporting oil drilling in the ANWR or Arctic National Wildlife Range, weakening clean air standards and lifting the ban on logging in forests.

3) How does economics determine the public's opinion regarding environmental issues? Discuss the values of the dominant social paradigm (DSP) that influence the public's opinion about the environment. Does our DSP limit our ability to respond appropriately to future environmental problems?

Protecting the environment involves sacrificing economic growth to a large extent since economic growth depends on environmental inputs. The forward march of the human civilization has resulted in an indiscriminate exploitation leading to depletion and pollution of natural resources. This may have given immediate economic benefits to the previous and current generations but holds a grim prospect for the coming generations. Traditionally, economists have ignored the role of environment when studying market economics. Tangible benefits like how much a certain sector is contributing to the nation's GDP is easy to measure but intangible benefits or losses due to environmental factors is difficult to assess and therefore plays a minor role in the producer or consumer's attitude when producing or buying a product.

World Bank economist has suggested that the GNP and GDP should be substituted by an Index for Sustainable Economic Welfare or ISEW which considers the depreciation of natural capital and account income distribution apart from the usual benchmarks of economic progress. The…… [Read More]

Bocking, Stephen. Nature's Experts: Science, Politics, and the Environment. Rutgers University Press. 2004.

Palmer, Mike. Pathways of Nutrients in the Ecosystem - Pathways of elements in ecosystem. http://www.okstate.edu/artsci/botany/bisc3034/lnotes/nutrient.htm
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Environmental Hazards Open Dumps an Essay

Words: 845 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77953367

Linear systems are constructed with layers of natural materials with low permeability. Leachate collection system is designed to remove liquid that is found in the liners. Waste is placed above the collection leachate system in layers.

Modern landfills are now built in locations which protect environment and human health as well as having structural integrity. There is restriction of the construction of modern landfills in floodplains, wetland or fault areas (Repa, 2010). Once the modern landfills reach the height which is permitted it is closed down an engineered in such a way that it prevents the infiltration of water through the installation of a cap low in permeability which is same as the linear system. On top of the low-permeability barrier there is a granular drainage layer that diverts water from the top of the landfill. There is a protection cover at the filter blanket's top as well as top soil which is placed for growth of vegetation. The system of engineering in the modern landfills is in such a way that it ensures protection of environment and human health through the containing of leachate which could otherwise contaminate ground water. At the same time there is collection of gases which could be used as energy sources or even destroyed.

In Texas, the landfill is no longer viewed as a place where garbage is buried to decompose and get to waste but there is technology embedded into the entire procedure of garbage disposal at the Tessman Road Landfill. This has seen the combination of flexible solar panels technology and the hitherto existing gas-to-energy system to convert the landfill to a sustainable energy park. It is indicated by Republic Services (2013) that these two system put together generate approximately 9 megawatts of power, an equivalent of power enough to power 5,500 homes within the area.… [Read More]

Repa, E. (2010). Modern Landfills. Retrieved April 17, 2013 from http://www.google.co.ke/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=8&cad=rja&sqi=2&ved=0CHUQFjAH&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.greenkerala.net%2Fpdf%2Fkey_issue_on_open_dumps.pdf&ei=Vy9uUcyuBamy7AbDo4GYBQ&usg=AFQjCNFUTQkrQnIxwkIgJOzwJtptbNSfGw&bvm=bv.45368065,d.ZWU

Republic Services, (2013). Solar-Gas Innovation. Retrieved April 18, 2012 from http://www.republicservices.com/Corporate/Planet/SustainabilityProjects/San-Antonio-Atlanta.aspx
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Environmental Crime the National Environmental Essay

Words: 1696 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29682431

..as long as those programs were at least as effective as the federal program." (the Occupational Safety and Health (OSH) Act)

The passing of this Act by congress is therefore aimed at ensuring adequate health and safety standards for all workers. In terms of employers, the Act was designed to make sure that the place of employment was free of any hazards that might be injurious or detrimental to safety and health. This may include aspects such as the exposure to toxic chemical and materials as well as other environmental factors, for example excessive noise levels. (Summary of the Occupational Safety and Health Act) the Act cover a wide range of possible health and safety measures and is also intended to ensure that physical and mechanical dangers in the workplace are avoided, as well as unsanitary conditions. (Summary of the Occupational Safety and Health Act)

An important part of this act and its implementation is the setting of safety and health standards. To this end the Act also makes provision for the setting of uniform safety and health standards for industrial and other work places. For this reason the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) was established to undertake ongoing research into standards and protocols for safety and health.

Works… [Read More]

Works Cited:
Background: The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act: RCRA. http://www.chemalliance.org/tools/background/back-rcra.asp

Britannica Concise Encyclopedia: Superfund. February 7, 2009.  http://www.answers.com/topic/superfund " rel="follow" target="_blank">
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Environmental Security the Environment and Essay

Words: 3409 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 46094940

The author therefore appears to suggest that the holistic approach poses a risk of costly time delays for approval that might prove too little too late for any true difference to be possible.

Brown (2005) asserts that the political involvement of security in natural resource issues holds the risk of conflict and insecurity. Indeed, competition relates to power and control issues arise where resources are abundant, while competition for resources occur where these are scarce. Brown, like Levy, asserts that there is little question that security and environmental issues are integrated. The risk lies in whether security is specifically integrated in mitigation measures, and the degree to which this is done.

It has been mentioned above that the environment directly affects human survival and well-being. Brown further addresses the interrelation between the environment and security be asserting that they are interdependent: in other words, the environment can cause insecurity, while insecurity can impact the environment negatively as well. Specifically, refugees driven from their environment by political insecurity can place negative strain on their new environment, while war could result over a lack of resources.

It has also been mentioned above that environmental insecurity can provide a valuable resource for targeted and effective change. Dialogue and effective communication could for example lead to a greater mutual understanding among all who are dependent upon a particular environment or resource. In this way, humanity could learn that it is interpersonal similarities rather than differences that are important to secure the survival of the species rather than any specific nation.

Brown also addresses the impact of both the developed and developing world on the environment. While the developing world is often seen as the greatest culprit in the lack of environmental sustainability, Brown emphasizes that no small amount of responsibility should be at the threshold of the developed world. Indeed, the widely divergent countries at both sides of the economic fence need to take responsibility for their unsustainable habits. Indeed, this may be even more so for the more prosperous countries, as they have greater…… [Read More]

Bretherton, C. & Vogler, J., the European Union as a Global Actor (Routledge, 1999), Chapter 3.

Dalby, S. Security, Modernity, Ecology: The Dilemmas of Post-Cold War Security Discourse Alternatives, 17:1 (1992), pp.95-134.
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Environmental Justice Policies and Issues Essay

Words: 5141 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 35478705

Environmental Justice in the United States:

Policies, Beliefs & People/Places Involved

During the course of my college career, my interests and passions have changed, gradually evolving to an intensified mix of all that my Interdisciplinary Studies major encompasses. I began my college career seeking a Mass Communication degree; a course of study that focused primarily on community organization and mobilization. After feeling the harsh reality of advertising and public relations evils, I decided that Social Work was my calling. I felt a deep need to help others in situations where if they only had some assistance their lives could be changed for the better. However, after taking an Introduction to Environmental Issues course, I felt strongly that a change of studies was necessary. I began to formulate a study plan that included all of my previous interests and integrated a whole new section-policy and law. I was particularly interested in the politics of environmental issues and how government and society view the environment and handle problems or issues that arise. Thus, when my senior project topic was due, the obvious choice for me was to research environmental justice within the United States. The Environmental Justice Movement has elements of my formulated major-communication, sociology, and political science; in every local/national issue there are social concerns, communication breakthroughs and barriers, and a very political atmosphere when dealing with policies and the environment. Throughout the course of my research I want to draw on my knowledge I have gained during my college career. I hope to obtain awareness of environmental justice issues by utilizing a holistic, integrated perspective; a view that will allow me to not only understand the root of the problem, but foresee some viable political solutions.

Definitions, Beliefs & Concerns

According to the Environmental Protection Agency, Environmental Justice (or environmental racism, the terms will be used synonymously in this paper) is defined as the fair treatment and meaningful involvement of all people regardless of race, color, national origin, or income with respect to the development, implementation, and enforcement of environmental laws, regulations, and policies. The essential piece of the complex environmental justice movement is the assurance that every group of people, no matter their race, ethnicity, or socioeconomic background will bear a proportionate share of negative environmental consequences.…… [Read More]

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Environmental Racism There Are Several Essay

Words: 1196 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 20158065

One major way in which this can be achieved is education. Living in an integrated society means that education can be focused upon everyone within this society at the same time. In this way, both white, black, and other people can be educated about the environment, as well as strategies to implement towards a healthier environment for everybody. Such programs should then be greatly focused upon issues such as the equal right to a clean and healthy environment.

A further way to combat environmental racism is to address the issue with corporations and businesses. Businesses should focus their resources towards community projects that help black and poor communities to become cleaner and healthier for their inhabitants. This process can be connected to other social community projects such as schooling or building homes for the poor.

Finally, workplaces and educational facilities serving poor and black communities should be approached on a collaborative basis. It is only by working together that the United States can address the many social and economic factors facing it. This is also true of environmental racism. In addition to an understanding of the phenomenon itself, educational facilities and workplaces should invest their intellectual and financial resources into educating and activating its youth towards mitigating the problems experienced.

Environmental racism is the result of both social and economic discrimination that has been suffered for years. It will take time and effort to overcome it.



According to environmental advocates, environmental racism relates to the way in which discrimination has been applied to ensure that the rich, privilege, often white middle to upper classes have had access to a clean and healthy environment in which to live, while poorer, often black communities are faced with significant environmental problems such as pollution on an industrial scale. This problem not only relates to open discrimination, but also to a more subtle prejudice against poor communities. Indeed, so view studies have been conducted in the area that environmental problems facing poor communities in the United Stats have become somewhat invisible. Their lack of resources and prominence in terms of culture and society in general, along with a basic lack of action among these communities…… [Read More]

Bullard, Robert D. Dumping in Dixie: Race, Class, and Environmental Quality. Boulder, CO: Westview, 1990.  http://www.ciesin.columbia.edu/docs/010-278/010-278chpt1.html 

Carter, Majora. Greening the ghetto. Feb 2006. http://www.ted.com/index.php/talks/majora_carter_s_tale_of_urban_renewal.html
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Environmental Policies and Problems in Essay

Words: 2855 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 65016873

" (2007) Recommendations of this report include those as follows:

China should learn from the successes and failure of the U.S. And other developed countries in reducing the influence of energy use on air quality;

Continued dialogue and information exchange among U.S. And Chinese scientists and policy-makers should be promoted through professional organization, government support programs, and the National Academies in both countries to promote joint development of energy and pollution control strategies." (Committee on Energy Futures and Air Pollution in Urban China and the United State, Policy and Global Affairs, 2007)

Other findings of this report include the fact that "an important lesson learned is that air pollution damage imposes major economic costs, through premature mortality, increased sickness and lost productivity, as well as in decreased crops yields and economic impacts." (Committee on Energy Futures and Air Pollution in Urban China and the United State, Policy and Global Affairs, 2007) Studies conducted in the United States have shown that "emission reduction programs provide much greater benefit than their costs." (Committee on Energy Futures and Air Pollution in Urban China and the United State, Policy and Global Affairs, 2007) It is interesting to note that emission controls are generally not as expensive as first believed to implement and "appropriate programs can lead to economically efficient approaches for improving the environment, reducing costs further." (Committee on Energy Futures and Air Pollution in Urban China and the United State, Policy and Global Affairs, 2007) It is stated that "control costs are not purely costs as they create opportunities..." such as the manufacture and sales of energy efficient pollution control equipment. Air pollution industries in the U.S. is said to have generated an additional $27 billion in revenues employment approximately 178,000 in 2001. (Committee on Energy Futures and Air Pollution in Urban China and the United State, Policy and Global Affairs, 2007; paraphrased) Recommendations which arose from these findings include the recommendation that both the U.S. And China need to improve permitting policies and economic mechanisms that reflect the external costs of pollution that are being paid by others whether it be through adverse health effects and quality of life degradation and might include taxes high enough on emissions to make the adding of controls more attractive…… [Read More]

Energy Futures and Urban Air Pollution: Challenges for China and the United States (2007) Development, Security, and Cooperation (DSC) Committee on Energy Futures and Air Pollution in Urban China and the United States - Development, Security and Corporation: Policy and Global Affairs. National Academy of Engineering and National Research Council of the National Academies and the Chinese Academy of Engineering Chinese Academy of Sciences. Online Pre-publication Release available at http://books.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=12001&page=R2

Holder, Kevin (2007) Chinese Air Pollution deadliest in World - National Geographic News 9 July 2007. Online available at  http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2007/07/070709-china-pollution.html 
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Environmental Laws vs Economic Freedom Essay

Words: 817 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 22269435

Environmental Laws vs. Economic Freedom

The objective of this work is to provide an in depth analysis on environmental restrictions and economic freedom. This work will explain the rational and support the writer's view with research. Addressed will be topics including sustainability, change management, regulation and competition.

Defining Environmentalism and Economic Freedom

The work of Walter Block entitled "Environmentalism and Economic Freedom: The Case for Private Property Rights" states that an environmentalist "may be non-controversially defined as a philosophy which sets great benefit in clean air and water and to a lowered rate of species extinction." (1998) The definition of economic freedom is described as the "idea that people legitimately own themselves and the property they "capture" from nature by homesteading, as well as the additional property they attain, further, by trading either their labor or their legitimately owned possessions." (Block, 1998) The first view of the relationship existing between environmentalism and freedom is stated as appearing "direct and straightforward: an increase in the one leads to a decrease in the other and vice versa." (Block, 1998) The Marxist school of thought and those who are communist are "advocates of environmental concerns. People like these come to the ecological movement with an axe to grind. Their real interest is with power: running the lives of others, whether for their own good, for the good of society, or for the good of the unstoppable "forces of history." (Block, 1998) The "green" school of thought is such that sees environmentalist "as not a means toward an end, but as the very goal itself." (Block, 1998)

II. Climate Change a Poorly Understood Process

The work of Lee, Chung, and Koo (nd) addresses the relationship between economic growth and environmental sustainability and state "The relationship between economic growth and the environment is controversial. Traditional economic theory posits a trade-off between economic growth and environmental quality." (Lee, Chung and Koo, nd) Environmental sustainability is stated to be a method of "ensuring the needs of the present generation without compromising environmental carrying capacity for the future generation." (Lee, Chung and Koo, nd) In a response to the United Nations "Freedom 21 Agenda for Prosperity: Promoting Sustainability Through Political and Economic Freedom" it is reported that claims of United Nation officials have refuted by more than 17,000 scientists in the United…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
Beder, Sharon (2006) The Changing Face of Conservation, Commodification, Privatization and the Free Market. In Lavingne, DM (ed), Gaining Ground: In Pursuit of Ecological Sustainability, International Fund for Animal Welfare, Guelph, Canada & University of Limerick, Ireland, 2006, 83-97.

Block, Walter (1998) Environmentalism and the Economic Freedom: The Case for Private Property Rights. Journal of Business Ethics 17: 1887-1889. 1998. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Netherlands. Retrieved from: http://mises.org/etexts/environfreedom.pdf
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Environmental Stewardship Project Proposal What Is Environmental Essay

Words: 2358 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 51447096

Environmental Stewardship Project Proposal

What is Environmental Stewardship?

What are the problems?

Why do we need to be concerned about Air Pollution?

A proposed Innovative Strategy for Pollution Awareness

Today Environmental stewardship is on the rise and really needed in the community. This is because an increasing amount of people are out there making knowledgeable choices in their what they do every day, such as in the work places, and communities. These choices are considered to be good for the environment, for their finances, and for complete quality of life. By most, these actions are probably looked at as being inspiring because it shows and evidence of a developing societal commitment to environmental stewardship.

This report gives an outline of what I believe is the next step in a continuing evolution of policy objectives from pollution control to pollution sustainability and prevention. It likewise gives a reflection on the important reality -- that although the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and our state associates share responsibility for making sure that the nation's environmental progress to date could be much better. It is clear that environmental stewardship has always been part of our exceptional American experience -- there is a unique history of persons, governments, and other parts of our society working self-sufficiently and in cooperation to defend and progress environmental excellence. If environmental progress is supposed to do better than there are steps needed to take in order to guarantee the air is safe to breathe, and water is good to drink.

What is Environmental Stewardship?

As a coordinator, we define environmental stewardship as the duty for environmental quality that is shared by everyone whose action has some kind of an affect on the environment. Basically, we believe that this sense of responsibility is a worth that can be imitated through the varieties of persons,…… [Read More]

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Environmental Psychology Essay

Words: 986 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29994840

Environmental Psychology

This is an interdisciplinary field which focuses on the relationship between humans and their surroundings. It defines the term environment broadly, including natural environments, social settings, built environments, learning environments, and informational environments. When solving problems in pertaining human-environment interactions, which might be global or local, you must have a model of human nature that predicts the environmental conditions under which humans will behave in a decent and creative manner. Such a model enables one to design, manage, protect and/or restore environments that foster reasonable behavior, predict ion likely outcomes which comes about when these conditions are not met, and identifies problem situations. This field develops a model of human nature by retaining a wider and inherently multidisciplinary view. It explores two different issues such as common property resource management, view finding in complex settings, the effect of environmental stress on human performance, the characteristics of restorative environments, human information processing, and the promotion of durable conservation behavior. Though it is said to be the best-known and most comprehensive description of the field, it is also known as human factors science, cognitive ergonomics, environmental social sciences, architectural psychology, socio-architecture, ecological psychology, ecopsychology, behavioral geography, environment-behavior studies, person-environment studies, environmental sociology, social ecology, and environmental design research.

The field of environmental psychology recognizes the need to be problem-oriented, using, as required, the theories and methods of related disciplines such as psychology, sociology, anthropology, biology, and ecology).

Commercial design

This is the focus of practice that defines commercial space as any environment that impacts the success of a business. The definition of commercial design is quite diverse. This is because it includes the design of professional offices, industrial spaces, healthcare facilities, fitness centers and retail stores among others. Though the requirements for these spaces vary greatly, the unity point is the need to make people very productive and comfortable in that area. This goes from the staff working there daily to customers who visit the premise, those who work out, or just visit occasionally. Thus the commercial spaces should support their needs and not hinder them from achieving their goals there.

Residential design

This on the other hand is the focus the residential space which focuses on the lighting…… [Read More]

Gifford, R. (2007). Environmental Psychology: Principles and Practice (4th ed.). Colville, WA: Optimal Books.

Proshansky, H.M. (1987). The field of environmental psychology: securing its future
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Environmental Racism Unequal Distribution of Essay

Words: 1050 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71818209

The third and most contentious explanation charges unequal distribution of pollutants and hazardous toxins to environmental racism.

In this explanation race is a major factor. Research findings suggest, "...racism may be playing a role in the decision-making process" (p. 88). Industrial decision-makers frequently choose minority areas for disposal and industrial facilities. Concentrations of pollution are simply reflections of inherent injustice in the system. In other words, poor environmental quality in minority areas is a symptom of institutional discrimination. Thus a variety of groups, organizations, and such are implicated -- probably, they don't intend any harm, but their policies result in negative outcomes for poor areas and the people living in them. In Kitchener, Ontario, for instance, a housing development was built where formerly a waste landfill was located. Officials who approved the development knew it had been a waste landfill, but the project was going to be profitable. Buyers did not know when they bought the property what was going to be underneath them. In another place, Ralgreen, Ontario, a housing development was built on top of a former waste landfill; methane gas accumulated and caused explosions, and eventually everybody had to move out. The city knew about the presence of methane but kept it secret to "prevent panic." By "coincidence" the people living there were low-income people.

Regardless of whether one accepts any of these explanations for how the unequal distribution of toxins happens, it can't be denied that socio-economic class is always a factor where toxic risks are present. Race issues are always part of it, although measures to assess prejudice are never part of the research data, so it can't be proven with empirical research that environmental racism exists -- at least, so far. Nevertheless, minorities are suffering more from the effects of poor environmental quality. On the bright side, an article titled "Talking Race" (2003) claims "After two decades of protest against the allocation of toxic waste sites in predominantly poor black and aboriginal communities, American environmental justice advocates can claim significant wins: federal legislation aimed at protecting the interests of minority communities, several court victories, halted industrial projects and, perhaps most importantly, credibility for their claims" (p. 3). Of course, there is more work to be done.

Certainly, it would help if urban planners could be more…… [Read More]

Friedman, D. (1998). The "environmental racism" hoax. The American Enterprise, 9 (6), 75-78.

Talking race (2003). Alternatives Journal, 29 (1), 3-4.
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Environmental Economics Essay

Words: 2913 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 16139129

Environmental Economics

Economics and Nature Conservation

From early childhood, one is taught of the importance of the surrounding environment in all human activities. Forests for instance are crucial sources of fresh air and clean water, as well as raw commodities that support life. Nevertheless, mankind continues to trash the woodlands, and as such jeopardize the future of the next generations. In a context in which next to 5 million hectares of forests are lost on annual basis due to deforestations and fires, causing a multitude of environmental, economic and social effects, the global authorities must intervene to better regulate the sector.

The modern day individual is characterized by a myriad of features, such as the reduced time to cook and the obvious tendency to either eat out, either grab some fast food. Other elements refer to the increased pace of technological development, with which he has to keep up; the incremental pressures on the job, also pegged to the necessity to prove one's compulsory role within the business climate, now when employers engage in downsizing operations.

Aside these features however, an increase in the responsible behavior towards the natural environment is also observable. The civilized populations have understood the necessity to safeguard the planet in order to ensure the well-being of the future generations. Despite this realization however, fact remains that much has yet to be done. Waters are being continually polluted, beaches continue to erode, the levels of carbon dioxide released into the atmosphere continue to increase and the forests are being continually cut down. All these actions have tremendous negative impacts upon the stability of the entire ecosystem. The pollution of waters could lead to the death of animals drinking the water; the erosion of beaches could lead to breaches in the beach houses and the cutting down of forests could materialize in the disappearance of species.

This report aims to identify several issues…… [Read More]

Bratkovich, S., Gallion, J., Leatherberry, E., Hoover, W., Reading, W., Durham, G., Forests of Indiana: Their Economic Importance, United States Department of Agriculture, Forest Service,  http://na.fs.fed.us/spfo/pubs/forestprod/indiana_forest04/forests_of_IN04.htm  last accessed on November 24, 2009

Burgees, P., Cheek, K.A., Policy Review