North Korea Political Position Regarding United States
Threatening for U.S. government
This assignment demonstrates the position of politics of North Korea regarding United States. North Korea developed third nuclear technology that brought an impact on United States. This assignment discussed the threats given by North Korea to United States. This assignment also puts light on the implications of technology on North Korea regarding United States.
During the period of the cold war, North Korea had become a main problem for the foreign policy of United States. United States and North Korea have never had the political relations with each other. North Korea has become a serious threat for United States because North Korea has introduced an advanced nuclear technology; and has become a more powerful nuclear power. The new nuclear device has a high range of strike against U.S. And lately established technology is beyond the ability of the North Koreans. U.S. takes an interest in North Korea's political policies includes human rights and political securities.
Centralization is the main principle of the political system of North Korea. The government of North Korea provides all the possible solutions regarding the human rights. The WPK has been established in 1948, as well as under the working party of Korea WPK, North Korea can also be defined as a "dictatorship of people's negotiation" because the constitution intimately oversees the lives of the people. In the past decades, from Clinton to Bush administration was not ready to negotiate with democratic policies of north Korea but at the time of Obama administration, he developed a strategy named as" strategic patience," according to which Pyongyang will commit to take steps toward denuclearization and will modify the relations with Seoul to return to the six party talks[footnoteRef:2]. [2: Chanlett-Avery, E. & Rinehart, I. (2013) North Korea: U.S. Relations, Nuclear Diplomacy, and Internal Situation. Congressional Research Service, Working Paper No. R41259.
Threatening for U.S. government
The new nuclear device has become a significant threat for…… [Read More]
While the dictators of Europe often get the most attention, the Kim family has actually been far more successful in terms of maintaining power, to the point that it has not only managed to exist well into the twenty-first century, but it has also managed to develop its own nuclear weapon program.
The existence of North Korea's nuclear weapon program is one of the reasons for the country's extremely serious economic woes, because its desire to expand its weapons programs has led Western countries to impose increasingly harsh sanctions (Kim & Chang 1). However, while these recent sanctions have become more biting and precisely targeted in order to impose hardship on particular members of the regime, it is also important to note that the United States has imposed economic sanctions on North Korea consistently since the outbreak of the Korean War in 1950. This means that at no point in the country's history has it even been free from economic sanctions, a fact that helps partially explain both the regime's animosity to the West and the continued difficulty that the regime has had in maintaining a stable, productive economy.
However, while the United States and its allies have made it difficult for North Korea to exercise certain options in improving its economy and the welfare of its citizens, it would be naive to blame the poverty and hardship faced by regular North Koreans on the United States, because no amount of sanctions could top the kind of repression the North Korean government engages in itself. As mentioned above, religious practice is entirely circumscribed within the context of the state's control. On top of this, the government has been careful to quash any signs of internal dissent. For example, while "North Korea has not been without dissent, both overt -- food riots in Hamhung and Sinuiju, prison riots, suspected coup attempts in 1970,…… [Read More]
S. However, the nation's powerful military and unpredictable nature make it a significant threat to world peace. North Korea's military strength belies its weakness in all other areas. The economy is essentially non-functional, the people struggle to survive and non-military accomplishments are few and far between. Yet, North Korea is a nuclear power, which gives it great strength and makes it a nation of acute interest for the United States. Containing the North Korean threat is one of the most significant foreign policy challenges in the world today for the U.S. And its allies.
North Korea represents a significant threat to U.S. allies in South Korea and Japan. The country is technically still at war with South Korea and has no diplomatic relations with the United States. The current strategy with respect to the Korean War is to keep the situation from once again becoming an open conflict. The U.S., China and other interested parties engage in sporadic dialogue with North Korea in an attempt to keep the situation contained. Open conflict is not in the best interests of any nation.
It is also believed that North Korea represents a direct threat to the United States. Although early North Korean nuclear and missile tests have yielded underwhelming results, it is feared that the country will one day develop missiles with the capability of striking U.S. territory on the Pacific coast. The current strategy is one of negotiation and containment - the U.S. wishes to reduce North Korea's nuclear capacity, slow its pace of technological development and place focus on otherwise containing the threat (Kirk, 2009). Long-range objectives, albeit unstated, must be the overthrow of the current regime and bringing the country into the modern era.
North Korea, a theological dictatorship in northeast Asia, has one of the world's largest militaries, has nuclear capabilities and spends a quarter of its GDP on military spending. This, combined with an erratic, paranoid leader, makes the country one…… [Read More]
Yet, during the negotiations for the 1994 agreement one of the frequent demands of the North Koreans that was not met was a non-aggression treaty with the U.S. The reason that they may want this is because it may set the course for normalization of relationships and the economic benefits that would come as a result. These economic benefits would help bolster the present regime and ensure that the regime survives. This has not happened so far and some do believe that it is for this reason that the North Koreans have been using the nuclear weapons program as a battering ram to help open the doors to the U.S. And will continue to do so as long as this desire of theirs is not met. Maybe more talks and negotiations will help clear this and thereby find a way to resolve the complex issue of North Korea. (U.S. weighs grim N. Korea options)
Thus the complex nature of the problem of the North Korean nuclear program and the ways and means to handle it will pose one of the greatest challenges to the U.S. foreign policy during this second term of President Bush. The challenge will be not only in finding a way to put a cap on the nuclear weapons program of North Korea, but also in seeing that the present regime of Kim Jong Il adheres to the terms of the agreements hammered out, as this regime has shown scant respect for earlier agreements. This may require the U.S. foreign policy to be such that it is firm in the requirements of the abandonment of the nuclear weapons program by North Korea and at the same time soft and flexible in the economic desires of a nation that is economically backward. Necessary safeguards need to be incorporated in the agreements that ensure that North Korea does not re-embark on a nuclear journey that poses a threat to the peace and security of the world.… [Read More]
North Korea WMD
The weapons of mass destruction problem in North Korea is characterized by a number of geographic and political issues. North Korea (the Democratic Peoples' Republic of Korea, or DPRK). In January of 2003, North Korea has withdrawn from the nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (Chanda and Evans, 2003; Kyong-Soo Kim). In addition, North Korea has developed long-range missiles, and recent reports suggest that the country is now the "world's largest proliferators of ballistic missile technology" (Kyong-Soo Kim). Further, the country is reputed to have chemical and biological weapons (Kyong-Soo Kim). As such, the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction in North Korea has sparked a great deal of conflict with the United States and other nations.
The weapons of mass destruction problem in North Korea is compounded by spatial and geographic issues. Physically, North Korea borders South Korea, with both China and Japan close neighbors, and Russia in close proximity as well. As such, these neighboring countries have a high stake in the weapons of mass destruction issue in North Korea. Further, a united effort by North Korea's neighbors may play an important role in pressuring the nation to reduce its commitment to weapons of mass destruction (Chanda and…… [Read More]
North Korea is one of the world's most centrally planned and isolated economies (The World Fact Book). As a result of years of underinvestment and spare parts shortages, its industrial capital stock is considered to be beyond repair and its economy is in chaos, faces desperate economic conditions. Industrial and power output have eroded and the nation has suffered its tenth year of food shortages because of a lack of arable land, collective farming, weather-related problems, and chronic shortages of fertilizer and fuel. Large-scale military spending is blamed for consuming resources needed for investment and civilian consumption. Led by dictator Kim Jong Il, and hailing a million-man army, the North is believed by the U.S. To have at least one nuclear weapon, an extensive chemical weapons stockpile and a biological arsenal (Bray, 2003).
Despite its adversarial relationship with North Korea, the U.S. is its largest supplier of food aid (Cohen, 2002). Since 1995, the U.S. has provided more than $500 million in food and other commodities to this country or up to 350,000 metric tons of food each year. However, in 2002 the U.S. donated less -- 153,000…… [Read More]
North Korean Weapon Issue
North Korea has been intimidating the United States with a series of nuclear threats since October 2002 when U.S. officials stopped the supply of heavy oils to the North in retaliation of its confessed production of nuclear warheads violating agreements signed in 1994. Shortly after, North Korea withdrew from the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty (NTP) and agreements with the United Nations. While there is little proof that North Korea has nuclear weapons, it is strongly suspected that it does. This paper will discuss the North Korean weapon issue.
North Korea's Withdrawal from the NPT
Since its inception in 1970, the Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) become the most widely subscribed to international treaty in history, with 187 members. However, there used to be 188 members prior to North Korea's withdrawal from the treaty in April 2003. This withdrawal marked the first time in history that a state has ever left the treaty. According to Potter and du Preez (2003): "The significance of North Korea's withdrawal will be measured by its impact on the validity of the NPT and the nuclear nonproliferation regime and on peace and security in the Korean Peninsula and Northeast Asia. North Korea's withdrawal could trigger further defections from the treaty and cause other states in the region to pursue nuclear weapons of their own. Of equal concern is the potential for North Korea to sell weapons-grade fissile material or nuclear weapons themselves to other states and non-state actors, including terrorist groups."
While North Korea's decision to withdraw from the treaty has shocked some people, many are not surprised. The country begrudgingly signed the NPT in 1985, solely due to the fact that the Soviet Union stated that the North Korean treaty membership was an absolute condition for the provision of coveted nuclear research assistance (Potter and du Preez, 2003). North Korea took five years to sign the treaty-mandated agreement with the IAEA to safeguard its nuclear facilities. Later, the agency discovered that North Korea had presented many discrepancies in the data regarding its nuclear program, leading to a…… [Read More]
Experiencing a quality of life that is much lower than their Southern counterparts, as North Koreans suffer with a quality of life that is worse than even those in other totalitarian regimes, such as Cuba (Oh, 2007). Just a few of the issues that citizens of North Korea have to deal with each day include famine, death, a caste system, and poverty. While famine and poverty are problems that immediately threaten the physical body, the strict caste system is the social problem that probably, more than anything, affects the life of a typical North Korean. With no ability to dream, to have a hope in increasing one's position and station, or of overcoming one's circumstance, it is difficult to be human. For these reasons, the symbolic value of North Korean's threats are damaging in the worst way. And it is just for this reason that North Korea can't be treated like a misbehaving toddler and simply ignored, although this was the policy of the previous administration. Although President Bush's opinion of North Korea was made clear to his constituents, Bolton (2008) calls his North Korean policy filled with "fanfare and choreography" (para. 2). The president talked, but did little else. Despite the fact that the Bush administration was able to come up with a satisfying agreement for peaceful interaction between the East and the West in the advent of the nuclear test of 2006 (Greco, 2009), Bolton (2008) contends, and I agree, that President Bush's overall attitude toward the brewing situation in North Korea was too lax for comfort. This is an example of the kind of policy that today's administration cannot afford.
Because of this politically charged history of temper tantrums and symbolic threats, North Korea becomes a difficult case study for the Obama administration. Greco (2009) praises the current administration for its current stance favoring diplomacy and negotiation, even with states that…… [Read More]
North Korea's provocation to the U.S., South Korea and Japan with the help of their nuclear weapons, media and foreign policy.
"The most critical thing in the war of North Korea is to teach everyone of our nation to hate U.S. imperialism, or else, all of us will be unable to defeat them who are boating about their technological superiority." These are the famous words of the leader of North Korea who had instigated the hatred for U.S. And its allies in the North Koreans. The beliefs and ideology of North Korea is entirely different from Unites States of America, Japan and South Korea and there have been many issues in the past amongst these nations. The conflicting national interest and the pursuit for technological superiority is a major threat to the world development and world security.
The rise of the nuclear technology has meant a greater threat of wars and destruction. North Korea on purpose has been stating many allegations and threats against U.S., Japan and South Korea. North Korea seems to be provoking a war against them. There are many complications understanding why they are doing so. The paper will help in analyzing the various dimensions of North Korea's statements and actions. There are many proposed solutions to this issue but yet none of the suggested solutions have made any difference, in fact the situation has gone pretty worse with the passage of time and recently the situation is in a critical phase.
Korea was liberated from Japan after the Second World War. It has been a divided country since then. It is reported that U.S. brought in the atomic weapons to Korea way back in 1956. This decision was condemned by the United Nations in 1957. North Korea had responded by strengthening its military forces and developing strategies to face South Korea and U.S.. In 1963, North Korea found an ally in the form of Soviet Union. Soviet Union helped the North Koreans in developing their nuclear program which included the training of the nuclear scientists. China was also…… [Read More]
Firstly, he is seen as a dictator and one of the last posts of the communist regime by most of the western world. Therefore, the power given by the possession of a nuclear device is indeed a worrying perspective, considering the fact that the Korean leader is known for his opaque foreign policy. At the same time, the Western countries are worried by the latest tests also in the light of the 9/11 events, which reshaped the perspective from which we tend to view threats. Thus, it is possible that the technology used by the North Koreans to reach third parties, such as terrorist organizations. If a state's bellicose intentions to some extent can be controlled through sanctions and even military strikes, in the case of non-state actors, this is practically impossible, as the recent experiences involving especially Al Qaeda have shown. Therefore, in such a situation, the international system would indeed become rather unstable and subject to constant threats.
Taking this into consideration, it may appear quite odd that the international community does not engage fully in the initiatives to try and stop the North Koreans in their actions. This lack of unanimity is justified by the national interests of all those involved. There are two consecrated ways of dealing with the Korean situation. On the one hand, there is the side which favors a negotiated, peaceful, and gradual agreement with the Korean part. Each in its turn is following their national dictated position. Russia and China are in no means eager to accept to rally to the U.S. position seeing that this would enable the American side to have the upper hand in subsequently conducting the negotiations. At the same time it would be a certification of the fact that the U.S. has indeed the right and capabilities to…… [Read More]
North Korea has acknowledged that it has a development program for nuclear technology. International talks and pressure tactics have attempted to halt this perceived proliferation of nuclear weapons; however, the methods used (from political pressure to sanctions) have not been successful. I will argue that North Korean proliferation is not the security threat feared by the West and explore how nuclear advances in Southeast Asia may actually help stabilize the region, as opposed to the prevailing opinion that a nuclear North Korea is a situation to be avoided at all costs.
In order to study the international relations of the Korean Peninsula and make the argument that a North Korean nuclear program may actually increase regional security, I am going to endeavor to find sources which are related to the subject both generally as well as specifically. This will first include an investigation of the major theories of international relations and the research of political scientists such as Cho, Waltz, Mearshimer, Nye, and Walz, to name only a few of the significant theories that may be applied to the North Korean situation.
To investigate the current political situation there, I will be using many of the secondary sources such as books and journals that are more reliable and recognised than ones on the Internet. As the topic is dealing with the issue of nuclear weapons proliferation, which is updated on regular basis, it is essential that I also put a focus on newspapers and magazines. One of my subjects this semester is called "Contemporary Asian Security;" research and current developments in this are will constitute a significant portion of my dissertation. Because the subject itself is mainly about East Asian security reading and research throughout the course should be helpful to understanding general relations in the area, which will contribute to a better understanding of specific relations; specifically, the regional debate and potential consequences of a North Korean nuclear program..In exploring these different resources, I will detail how different international relations theories treat the North Korean issue. Secondly, I will…… [Read More]
The first words used in the National Geographic Explorer episode on North Korea, before any other introduction is said, are "mysterious" and "terrifying." The state of North Korea is known as the Hermit Kingdom, because it has been literally cut off from the rest of the world for decades. The narrator of the National Geographic Explorer episode calls it the "most isolated country on earth." Cellular phones are banned. There is no way of knowing what is going on over the border. North Korea is "terrifying" because fear is at the basis of the regime's method of social and political control. There are many reasons why North Korea has imposed a strict form of self-isolation. The root cause, as explained in the video, is that the Korean peninsula had been invaded one too many times. After the Japanese occupation, the Americans came to impose their will and finally, the communist North decided that the only way to prevent future invasions was to create the tightly controlled dictatorship. A series of political philosophies were developed to create social conformity with the ideals of North Korea. During the rule of Kim Il-sung, the concept of juche was developed and perfected. Juche refers to extreme self-reliance. The country will accept no outside help under any circumstances, and especially during times of crisis. It has become a matter of great national pride, even though the results of juche have been disastrous. Another aspect of North Korean political culture is a re-interpretation of the ancient doctrine of Confucianism. Confucianism suggests that harmony results from social conformity and obedience to rules no matter what. Finally, Park points out the importance of "songun" or militaristic politics. The combination of juche, Confucianism, and songun explain how and why North Korea is the way it is today.
When the film was produced, Kim Jong-il was the supreme leader. He had taken…… [Read More]
In the film Welcome to Dongmakgol (2005), Korea is portrayed as the naive and innocent victim of foreign imperialists and ideologies that divide the country in half and then destroy it. Symbolically, the village of Dongmakgol high up in the mountains is Korea, and is populated by simply, friendly, humane people who are not even aware who Kim Il Sung is or that the country has been divided and a war has started. Most of them do not even know what airplanes or rifles are, although they seem to be aware that Korea has been invaded and occupied in the past by China and Japan -- and they refer to these countries in very disparaging terms. The time is September 1950 and the Americans have just landed at Incheon, driving the North Koreans back, while the Americans are bombing them heavily, and also destroying many civilian targets like Dongmakgol. Although the film has been criticized as pro-Communist or sympathetic to North Korea, it would be more proper to call it nationalist and a plea for all Koreans to be given a chance to work out their own destiny, independent of interference from imperial powers. Only one of the North Koreans is portrayed as unsympathetic, and he is the Commissar of the unit who is the most ideological and is always warning the High Comrade in command that he must obey orders from headquarters. The commander is not in favor of killing the wounded, though, and is about to shoot the Commissar when they are attacked by a South Korean unit, which is dressed in American uniforms and takes no prisoners. If Kim Il Sung appears at all in the film, even symbolically, it is only as this ruthless and fanatical Commissar dressed in a Chinese-style uniform, threatening the others with death if they do not obey.
Scholars have been attempting to assign blame for the Korean War since the 1950s, theorizing whether it was a civil war or an international war, and if Korea was a victim of imperialist machinations, which of the great…… [Read More]
SWOT Analysis: North Korea
The Intelligence Community had made significant strides against North Korea when it comes to that country's nuclear weapons program. However, that does not mean that everything has been figured out or that there are no other issues that have to be considered. With that in mind, a SWOT analysis can provide more insight into whether the Intelligence Community is doing the right thing, and whether it has enough knowledge to adequately plan for what North Korea might do in the future. Understanding the nuclear weapons program that North Korea currently has, and what kind of program it may still be developing in the future, is vital to making sure that the Intelligence Community is prepared for changes that the country might be making to the power it has in the world (North, 2005). The danger that North Korea presents is real, and should not be underestimated just because the country is relatively quiet about what it is doing with its nuclear program.
There are a number of strengths that the Intelligence Community has when it comes to knowledge of North Korea's nuclear program. These include:
Knowledge that the country actually does have a nuclear power program.
An understanding that the nuclear power program is not just about powering the country, but also about weapons.
Insider information based on inspections that have been done of the nuclear power program in that country (Busch, 2004).
The ability to have a dialogue with the leaders of the country in an effort to discuss the nuclear program.
Sanctions and other options that can be used if North Korea does not comply with inspections and information (Myers & Sang-Hun, 2012).
A number of allied countries that will work together to ensure that North Korea is transparent about the information it provides in its nuclear program.
Agreements with a number of countries that have dealings with North Korea, so that many countries will work together to keep all of those countries honest -- and that includes North Korea.
The power of international dealings that can be used in order to keep each country in line when it comes to nuclear power.
Even though the strengths of the Intelligence Community are important, there are also weaknesses that have to be considered. These include:
A lack of transparency when it comes to what North Korea…… [Read More]
Korean Peninsula and World Politics: A study of North Korea
Having been described as one of the most secretive states in the world, where even calculations of economic indicators is a difficult job to attain, there seems to be two very different perspectives of what North Korea is and the sentiments towards it. One is obviously the sentiments of the West, which has long considered it as an enemy state due to its strict regime and censorship policies, which has provided its citizens with no human rights. USA in a fact has put up quite an argument against the regime of North Korea stating again and again how the citizens of North Korea are being suppressed under the authoritative rule of Kim Jong Li.
The second perception is that which is delivered to us through the documentary "A State of Mind" which follows the lives of two gymnastics, who are training to appear for the Mass Games -- the perfect emancipation of the North Korean philosophy of collective over individual. It follows their routine and provides us an insight into their thinking and how they themselves perceive this regime and its leader. This perception is the complete opposite of whatever is being perceived by the West. The documentary shows the high sense of love and respect that people have for their leader, whoever, and it can be argued whether the means of maintaining this love and respect are in anyway legitimate.
The documentary in its own is rather about the lives of these two young gymnasts, but it ponders on every topic that may arrive when one thinks about North Korea. There is a constant hint on the status of the women by mentioning the mother and the grandmother of these two gymnasts as housewives only.
The children, the main focus of the documentary, have the same trivial issues that any child may feel at this young age, ranging from for a…… [Read More]
1950's Korean War, North Korea (Democratic People's Republic Korea) and South Korea (Republic Korea) Were Exploited by the Superpowers for Their Own Agendas
The closing decade of the 20th century witnessed the end of the Cold War as the Soviet Union collapsed and its former Warsaw Pact allies flocked to join their former enemies in the North Atlantic Treaty Organization. The end of the Cold War also resulted in the United States emerging as the world's only remaining superpower, but the 21st century promises to truly be the "Century of Asia" with China taking the lead. The Russian bear that played such a crucial role in the Cold War is down, but it is certainly not out and stands to play an important role as an emerging superpower in the future as well. These outcomes were the result, at least in part, of how these three countries prosecuted their respective Cold War strategies during the 20th century, beginning most notably on the Korean peninsula during the early 1950s following the division of Korea into the north and south constituents that remain in place today. In fact, the stalemate that was reached in the form of an armistice after three years of bloody warfare placed the belligerents essentially back where they were before the Korean War began, causing many observers to wonder what the struggle was all about in the first place. To gain some additional insights into the rationale used to support military intervention in Korea, this study reviews the relevant peer-reviewed and scholarly literature to examine how the two Koreas were used essentially as pawns on the larger Cold War chessboard by the United States, China and the Soviet Union to further their own political and military agendas. A summary of the research and important findings are presented in the conclusion.
Review and Discussion
Background and Overview
According to Sandler, "The Korean War (25 June 1950 to 27 July 1953) emphatically marked the end of the post-Second World War era" (1999, p. 3). The end of this era also marked the end of the allied powers that had brought about this successful conclusion to the greatest war…… [Read More]
Iraq and North Korea's threats to America. Is Iraq a greater threat or is North Korea? It is explained that Iraq has to be greater threat to America's interests as the latter wishes to protect the integrity of North Korea's neighbors. Iraq's threat to America is also seen as more dangerous than that of North Korea because of Hussein's global reputation.
Threat to America: Iraq or North Korea?
Using force against North Korea seems inappropriate because the Communist nation looks less vulnerable to attack than Iraq, and thus, less of a threat to America than Iraq. There are three reasons for opposing an attack on North Korea and these reasons have to do with the protection and honor of the neighbors of North Korea. War also appears as a less compelling option in dealing with North Korea because its nuclear weapons threaten American interests less than Iraqi nuclear arms would. A nuclear-armed Saddam Hussein would be more dangerous to the United States than a nuclear-armed Kim Jong-il. Besides, the protection of the interests of Iraq's neighbors stays as less of an interest to America, making it almost irrelevant for America to oppose war on Iraq based on the interests of the neighbors of Iraq.
A war to destroy the North Korean nuclear program does not seem feasible for three reasons. First, the Pyongyang regime may already have such weapons, which it could hurl at South Korea in response to an attack. Second, even without nuclear arms, North Korea has enough firepower to inflict severe damage on South Korea, especially the capital, Seoul -- even though a war would surely end with the demise of the Communist government. One reason countries seek nuclear weapons has to be to deter attacks by their neighbors. North Korea can already do this without nuclear arms. Third, North Korea's neighbors, whose views the United States…… [Read More]
The U.S. Army 2d Infantry Division, together with South Korean forces, is likewise poised near the demilitarized zone. The 2d Infantry Division is also supported by massive air power that could easily -- and quickly -- decimate North Korea just as air power was used during the Korean War to level hundreds of North Korean cities, towns and villages. According to Bechtel, "The 2d Infantry Division operates 30 multiple-rocket-launcher systems and 30 M109A6 Paladin self-propelled howitzers" (p. 76).
Taken together, the research showed that it is little wonder that North Korea is jittery about tens of thousands of American troops remaining on South Korean soil and its nuclear arms program and military buildup can be better understood when these issues are taken into account. Given the uneasy state of affairs that exists between North and South Korea as well as the United States today, an objective observer might suggest that North Korea was justified in its militarism. After all, it is unlikely that the United States would tolerate a North Korean infantry division armed to the teeth stationed right across the border in Canada or Mexico. By maintaining a substantial military presence in South Korea, the United States may be doing more harm than good by keeping the North Korean leadership nervous and forcing them to counter with their own military forces along the 38th parallel. The research also showed that there were in fact two sides to this story, and a more balanced view of the historical events that created the current situation on the Korean peninsula is needed to help understand North Korea's views about the West.… [Read More]
m. To 6 a.m.), the overtime premium is 100% of the hourly wage rate. In some cases, North Korean workers have asked for additional night shift or weekend work in order to qualify for additional pay. Companies also may pay cash rewards as a special incentive. KIC employees receive 14 days per year in vacation time. At first, North Korean workers were reluctant to ask for leave time, but now they do. Female employees receive 60 days paid maternity leave. Labor costs in Kaesong are approximately 8% of those in a South Korean metropolitan area. South Korean labor laws extend to South Korean workers in the KIC." (Nanto and Manyin, 2008)
It was reported that Unification Ministry officials confirmed in April 2007 that the DPRK had made a request that pay be raised 30% and 10% for members of the North Korean workforce who had graduated from two- and four-year colleges respectively. The two categories comprise approximately 11% each of the workforce of North Korea in the KIC. It is related that wages are paid in dollars to North Korean workers. Additionally the labor law in Article 43 of the Labor Law of the Kaesong Industrial Complex states that "wages must be paid directly to employees in cash." (Nanto and Manyin, 2008) However, according to the DPRK "this is not being implemented now because of the lack of foreign exchange centers in the KIC." (Nanto and Manyin, 2008) According to the ROK Ministry of Unification "...$57.50 minimum monthly salary, $7.50 or 15% of the base pay goes for social insurance (providing for unemployment and occupational hazards). The government also deducts $15 or 30% for a socio-cultural policy fee that goes for rental of state-owned housing, education, medical services, social insurance, and social welfare and reportedly is given to the Kaesong City People's Committee. According to the Ministry, the remaining $35 is paid to the workers in cash (upwards of 5% in North Korean won) or as chits that can be exchanged for daily supplies (food and necessities).32 at the exchange rate of…… [Read More]
Were it not for the rarity of books on this subject, it is unlikely it would have found a publisher. One can only wish that Breen had a more scrupulous use of words and analysis to make up for what he lacks in facts. His challenging thesis and advocacy of negotiation is thought-provoking, but more evidence and research is required to take it seriously from a policy maker's viewpoint.
One of the reasons Breen's analysis may be lacking is that he is not an academic or a policy analyst. Rather, he is a Seoul-based management consultant, hence his possible sympathy to the prospect of negotiating with North Korea, which has considerable support in the South, for obvious emotional reasons, as the split between the two sides sundered families and loved ones. Breen was once a journalist. This explains his surprisingly colloquial style. He now specializes in advising businesses how to profit from their dealings with the communist state. This is yet another reason why financial dealings with the Jong regime may be less off-putting to him than other policy analysts and may ultimately have biased his judgment (Runkel, 2007).
Works… [Read More]