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hile the dictators of Europe often get the most attention, the Kim family has actually been far more successful in terms of maintaining power, to the point that it has not only managed to exist well into the twenty-first century, but it has also managed to develop its own nuclear weapon program.
The existence of North Korea's nuclear weapon program is one of the reasons for the country's extremely serious economic woes, because its desire to expand its weapons programs has led estern countries to impose increasingly harsh sanctions (Kim & Chang 1). However, while these recent sanctions have become more biting and precisely targeted in order to impose hardship on particular members of the regime, it is also important to note that the United States has imposed economic sanctions on North Korea consistently since the outbreak of the Korean ar in 1950. This means that at no point in…
Armstrong,, Charles. "Trends in the Study of North Korea." The Journal of Asian Studies 70.2
Cia.gov. "CIA - the World Factbook - North Korea." 2013. Web. 7 May 2013.
North Korea Political Position egarding United States
Threatening for U.S. government
This assignment demonstrates the position of politics of North Korea regarding United States. North Korea developed third nuclear technology that brought an impact on United States. This assignment discussed the threats given by North Korea to United States. This assignment also puts light on the implications of technology on North Korea regarding United States.
During the period of the cold war, North Korea had become a main problem for the foreign policy of United States. United States and North Korea have never had the political relations with each other. North Korea has become a serious threat for United States because North Korea has introduced an advanced nuclear technology; and has become a more powerful nuclear power. The new nuclear device has a high range of strike against U.S. And lately established technology is beyond the ability of the North…
Akaha, T. (2013) "The Future of North Korea" Routledge.
Avery, C. & Squassoni, S. (2006) North Korea's Nuclear Test: Motivations, Implications, and U.S. Options. CRS Report for Congress.
Chanlett-Avery, E. & Rinehart, I. (2013) North Korea: U.S. Relations, Nuclear Diplomacy, and Internal Situation. Congressional Research Service, Working Paper No. R41259.
Dunlop, W. & Smith, H. (2006) Who Did It? Using International Forensics to Detect and Deter Nuclear Terrorism. Arms Control Today.
S. However, the nation's powerful military and unpredictable nature make it a significant threat to world peace. North Korea's military strength belies its weakness in all other areas. The economy is essentially non-functional, the people struggle to survive and non-military accomplishments are few and far between. Yet, North Korea is a nuclear power, which gives it great strength and makes it a nation of acute interest for the United States. Containing the North Korean threat is one of the most significant foreign policy challenges in the world today for the U.S. And its allies.
North Korea represents a significant threat to U.S. allies in South Korea and Japan. The country is technically still at war with South Korea and has no diplomatic relations with the United States. The current strategy with respect to the Korean ar is to keep the situation from once again becoming an open conflict. The U.S.,…
No author. (2000). North Korea buys English Brewery. BBC. Retrieved March 6, 2009 at http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/asia-pacific/1009685.stm
No author. (2009). North Korea. CIA World Factbook. Retrieved March 6, 2009 from https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/kn.html
No author. (2009). North Korea. United States Department of State. Retrieved March 6, 2009 at http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/2792.htm
Faiola, Anthony. (2005). N. Korea Declares Itself a Nuclear Power. Washington Post. Retrieved March 6, 2009 at http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A12836-2005Feb10.html
Yet, during the negotiations for the 1994 agreement one of the frequent demands of the North Koreans that was not met was a non-aggression treaty with the U.S. The reason that they may want this is because it may set the course for normalization of relationships and the economic benefits that would come as a result. These economic benefits would help bolster the present regime and ensure that the regime survives. This has not happened so far and some do believe that it is for this reason that the North Koreans have been using the nuclear weapons program as a battering ram to help open the doors to the U.S. And will continue to do so as long as this desire of theirs is not met. Maybe more talks and negotiations will help clear this and thereby find a way to resolve the complex issue of North Korea. (U.S. weighs…
Huus, Kari. Tightening noose on North Korea. Pyongyang's missile, drug trade under scrutiny. MSNBC News. May 22, 2003. Retrieved at http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/3340458/ . Accessed on February 10, 2005
Huus, Kari. U.S. weighs grim N. Korea options. MSNBC News. January 16, 2003. Retrieved at http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/3071460/ . Accessed on February 10,
Kupperman, Tamara. U.S. says North Korea may be ready to talk. MSNBC News.
December 10, 2004. Retrieved at http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/6693799 / Accessed on February 10, 2005
North Korea MD
The weapons of mass destruction problem in North Korea is characterized by a number of geographic and political issues. North Korea (the Democratic Peoples' Republic of Korea, or DPRK). In January of 2003, North Korea has withdrawn from the nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (Chanda and Evans, 2003; Kyong-Soo Kim). In addition, North Korea has developed long-range missiles, and recent reports suggest that the country is now the "world's largest proliferators of ballistic missile technology" (Kyong-Soo Kim). Further, the country is reputed to have chemical and biological weapons (Kyong-Soo Kim). As such, the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction in North Korea has sparked a great deal of conflict with the United States and other nations.
The weapons of mass destruction problem in North Korea is compounded by spatial and geographic issues. Physically, North Korea borders South Korea, with both China and Japan close neighbors, and Russia in close…
Armitage, Richard L., Deputy Secretary of State. Weapons of Mass Destruction Developments on the Korean Peninsula. Testimony before the Senate Foreign Relations Committee, Washington, DC, February 4, 2003. 17 June 2004. http://www.state.gov/s/d/rm/17170.htm
Chanda, Nayan and Evans, Gareth. 2003. North Korea is a Symptom of a Larger Problem.
YaleGlobal, 8 October 2003. 15 June 2004. http://yaleglobal.yale.edu/display.article?id=2584
Kyong-Soo Kim, ed. North Korea's Weapons of Mass Destruction. 15 June 2004. http://www.hollym.com/onkorea/NorthKorea 'sWMD.html
North Korea is one of the world's most centrally planned and isolated economies (The World Fact ook). As a result of years of underinvestment and spare parts shortages, its industrial capital stock is considered to be beyond repair and its economy is in chaos, faces desperate economic conditions. Industrial and power output have eroded and the nation has suffered its tenth year of food shortages because of a lack of arable land, collective farming, weather-related problems, and chronic shortages of fertilizer and fuel. Large-scale military spending is blamed for consuming resources needed for investment and civilian consumption. Led by dictator Kim Jong Il, and hailing a million-man army, the North is believed by the U.S. To have at least one nuclear weapon, an extensive chemical weapons stockpile and a biological arsenal (ray, 2003).
Despite its adversarial relationship with North Korea, the U.S. is its largest supplier of food aid (Cohen,…
Bray, M. (2003, December 10). North Korea: What are the options? Retrieved June 18, 2004 from Web site: http://www.cnn.com/2003/WORLD/asiapcf/east/08/28/nkorea.options/
Cohen, R. (2002, May 16). Aid meant for the hungry. New York Times. Retrieved June 18, 2004 from Web site: http://www.brookings.edu/views/op-ed/cohenr/20020516.htm
The World Fact Book. Retrieved June 17, 2004 from Web site: http://www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/geos/kn.html#Econ
North Korean Weapon Issue
North Korea has been intimidating the United States with a series of nuclear threats since October 2002 when U.S. officials stopped the supply of heavy oils to the North in retaliation of its confessed production of nuclear warheads violating agreements signed in 1994. Shortly after, North Korea withdrew from the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty (NTP) and agreements with the United Nations. While there is little proof that North Korea has nuclear weapons, it is strongly suspected that it does. This paper will discuss the North Korean weapon issue.
North Korea's Withdrawal from the NPT
Since its inception in 1970, the Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) become the most widely subscribed to international treaty in history, with 187 members. However, there used to be 188 members prior to North Korea's withdrawal from the treaty in April 2003. This withdrawal marked the first time in history that a state has ever…
Kerr, Paul. (April, 2003). "NK's uranium program moving ahead, Kelly says." Arms Control Association. Retrieved from the Internet at http://www.armscontrol.org/act/2003_04/nkorea_apr03.asp .
Koppel, Andrea. King, John. (October 17, 2002). "U.S.: NK admits nuke program." CNN.com. Retrieved from the Internet at http://www.cnn.com/2002/U.S./10/16/us.nkorea/
Laney, James. Shaplen, Jason. (2003). "Peace in Korea." Foreign Affairs 82.2, 16-30.
NTI. (2003). "NK nuclear capabilities." NTI. Retrieved from the Internet at: www.nti.org/db/profiles/dprk/nuc/cap/nkn_cgo.html.
Experiencing a quality of life that is much lower than their Southern counterparts, as North Koreans suffer with a quality of life that is worse than even those in other totalitarian regimes, such as Cuba (Oh, 2007). Just a few of the issues that citizens of North Korea have to deal with each day include famine, death, a caste system, and poverty. While famine and poverty are problems that immediately threaten the physical body, the strict caste system is the social problem that probably, more than anything, affects the life of a typical North Korean. With no ability to dream, to have a hope in increasing one's position and station, or of overcoming one's circumstance, it is difficult to be human. For these reasons, the symbolic value of North Korean's threats are damaging in the worst way. And it is just for this reason that North Korea can't be treated…
Bolton, J.R. (2008, June 30). The Tragic End of Bush's North Korea Policy. Retrieved July 20, 2009, from http://online.wsj.com/article/SB121478274355214441.html
Greco, E.S. (2009, April 5). What's Up With North Korea. Retrieved July 20, 2009,
Oh, K. (2007, May). North Korea: The Nadir of Freedom. Retrieved July 20, 2009, from http://www.fpri.org/footnotes/1216.200705.oh.northkorea.html
Firstly, he is seen as a dictator and one of the last posts of the communist regime by most of the western world. Therefore, the power given by the possession of a nuclear device is indeed a worrying perspective, considering the fact that the Korean leader is known for his opaque foreign policy. At the same time, the Western countries are worried by the latest tests also in the light of the 9/11 events, which reshaped the perspective from which we tend to view threats. Thus, it is possible that the technology used by the North Koreans to reach third parties, such as terrorist organizations. If a state's bellicose intentions to some extent can be controlled through sanctions and even military strikes, in the case of non-state actors, this is practically impossible, as the recent experiences involving especially Al Qaeda have shown. Therefore, in such a situation, the international system…
Noth Koea has acknowledged that it has a development pogam fo nuclea technology. Intenational talks and pessue tactics have attempted to halt this peceived polifeation of nuclea weapons; howeve, the methods used (fom political pessue to sanctions) have not been successful. I will ague that Noth Koean polifeation is not the secuity theat feaed by the West and exploe how nuclea advances in Southeast Asia may actually help stabilize the egion, as opposed to the pevailing opinion that a nuclea Noth Koea is a situation to be avoided at all costs.
In ode to study the intenational elations of the Koean Peninsula and make the agument that a Noth Koean nuclea pogam may actually incease egional secuity, I am going to endeavo to find souces which ae elated to the subject both geneally as well as specifically. This will fist include an investigation of the majo theoies of intenational elations…
references to write the dissertation on one issue with many different views, not just those of the region but also the international opinion regarding this situation.
SIGNIFICANCE: The current destabilisation that is present in East Asia proves to be a threat for nations all across the globe. Each nation wishes to acquire nuclear weapons to secure their position and gain an advantage of being the dominant nation. With such instability, terrorist groups and rogue states come into existence and because they do not have good international relations with any, they are a potential threat to all humanity. With a study about the history of the region and the reasons that gave rise to this desire for nuclear weapons, one can better analyse and provide for a solution that would harmonise the current situation. Understanding of an actor's motivation is a vital step in after one recognizes a problem otherwise the condition worsens and goes beyond control; this study will devote a significant portion of its research to this understanding of why DPRK feels nuclear weapons are necessary to its own security, and then I will address the validity of this concern and its implications for regional security.
SWOT Analysis: North Korea
The Intelligence Community had made significant strides against North Korea when it comes to that country's nuclear weapons program. However, that does not mean that everything has been figured out or that there are no other issues that have to be considered. With that in mind, a SWOT analysis can provide more insight into whether the Intelligence Community is doing the right thing, and whether it has enough knowledge to adequately plan for what North Korea might do in the future. Understanding the nuclear weapons program that North Korea currently has, and what kind of program it may still be developing in the future, is vital to making sure that the Intelligence Community is prepared for changes that the country might be making to the power it has in the world (North, 2005). The danger that North Korea presents is real, and should not be underestimated…
Busch, N.E. (2004). No end in sight: the continuing menace of nuclear proliferation. KY: University Press of Kentucky.
Moltz, J.C., & Mansourov, A.Y. (2000). The North Korean nuclear program. NY: Routledge.
Myers, S.L., & Sang-Hun, C. (2012). North Korea agrees to curb nuclear work; U.S. offers aid. The New York Times
North Korea confirms it has nuclear weapons. (2005). Fox News.
Iraq and North Korea's threats to America. Is Iraq a greater threat or is North Korea? It is explained that Iraq has to be greater threat to America's interests as the latter wishes to protect the integrity of North Korea's neighbors. Iraq's threat to America is also seen as more dangerous than that of North Korea because of Hussein's global reputation.
Threat to America: Iraq or North Korea?
Using force against North Korea seems inappropriate because the Communist nation looks less vulnerable to attack than Iraq, and thus, less of a threat to America than Iraq. There are three reasons for opposing an attack on North Korea and these reasons have to do with the protection and honor of the neighbors of North Korea. War also appears as a less compelling option in dealing with North Korea because its nuclear weapons threaten American interests less than Iraqi nuclear arms would.…
Mandelbaum, M. (2003. February 1). Iraq, Not N. Korea, Must be Target. Newsday, pp A37.
Korean Peninsula and World Politics: A study of North Korea
Having been described as one of the most secretive states in the world, where even calculations of economic indicators is a difficult job to attain, there seems to be two very different perspectives of what North Korea is and the sentiments towards it. One is obviously the sentiments of the West, which has long considered it as an enemy state due to its strict regime and censorship policies, which has provided its citizens with no human rights. USA in a fact has put up quite an argument against the regime of North Korea stating again and again how the citizens of North Korea are being suppressed under the authoritative rule of Kim Jong Li.
The second perception is that which is delivered to us through the documentary "A State of Mind" which follows the lives of two gymnastics, who are…
The U.S. Army 2d Infantry Division, together with South Korean forces, is likewise poised near the demilitarized zone. The 2d Infantry Division is also supported by massive air power that could easily -- and quickly -- decimate North Korea just as air power was used during the Korean War to level hundreds of North Korean cities, towns and villages. According to Bechtel, "The 2d Infantry Division operates 30 multiple-rocket-launcher systems and 30 M109A6 Paladin self-propelled howitzers" (p. 76).
Taken together, the research showed that it is little wonder that North Korea is jittery about tens of thousands of American troops remaining on South Korean soil and its nuclear arms program and military buildup can be better understood when these issues are taken into account. Given the uneasy state of affairs that exists between North and South Korea as well as the United States today, an objective observer might suggest…
Beal, T. (1998). North Korea: From confrontation to communication. New Zealand
International Review, 14.
Bechtol, B.E., Jr. (2005). The future of U.S. airpower on the Korean peninsula. Air & Space
Power Journal, 19(3), 75-76.
m. To 6 a.m.), the overtime premium is 100% of the hourly wage rate. In some cases, North Korean workers have asked for additional night shift or weekend work in order to qualify for additional pay. Companies also may pay cash rewards as a special incentive. KIC employees receive 14 days per year in vacation time. At first, North Korean workers were reluctant to ask for leave time, but now they do. Female employees receive 60 days paid maternity leave. Labor costs in Kaesong are approximately 8% of those in a South Korean metropolitan area. South Korean labor laws extend to South Korean workers in the KIC." (Nanto and Manyin, 2008)
It was reported that Unification Ministry officials confirmed in April 2007 that the DPRK had made a request that pay be raised 30% and 10% for members of the North Korean workforce who had graduated from two- and four-year…
Nanto, Dick K. And Manyin, Mark E. (2008) the Kaesong North-South Korean
Industrial Complex. CRS Report to Congress. 14 Feb. 2008. Online available at http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/row/RL34093.pdf
Human Rights Watch, North Korea: Workers' Rights at the Kaesong Industrial Complex, 3 October 2006. Online. UNHCR Refworld, available at http://www.unhcr.org/refworld/docid/453897724.html [accessed 26 December 2008]
ere it not for the rarity of books on this subject, it is unlikely it would have found a publisher. One can only wish that Breen had a more scrupulous use of words and analysis to make up for what he lacks in facts. His challenging thesis and advocacy of negotiation is thought-provoking, but more evidence and research is required to take it seriously from a policy maker's viewpoint.
One of the reasons Breen's analysis may be lacking is that he is not an academic or a policy analyst. Rather, he is a Seoul-based management consultant, hence his possible sympathy to the prospect of negotiating with North Korea, which has considerable support in the South, for obvious emotional reasons, as the split between the two sides sundered families and loved ones. Breen was once a journalist. This explains his surprisingly colloquial style. He now specializes in advising businesses how to…
Breen, Michael. Kim Jong II -- North Korea's Dear Leader. New York: John Wiley, 2003. Updated 2004.
Runkel, Christopher W. "Interview with Michael Breen." Business in Asia. 2007. 5 Jul
The World Politics of the Korean Peninsula: North Korea
The History Channel produces and broadcasts both a provocative and informative special about modern political history in North Korea. The focus is upon the leader, the dynasty, and the legacy of the leader Kim II Sung and Kim Jong-il. The film focuses upon the current leader as well as the leadership of his father of the same name. Documentaries, particularly those about history, have an arduous challenge of maintaining the attention of the viewers and maintaining a cooperative balance between being educational and serving as entertainment. This short documentary by the History Channel achieves this balance successfully. As a historical documentary, a significant portion of the content consists of interviews, necessarily. A documentary full of "talking heads," (a term used in the film and media industries to indicate what is only on the screen i.e. people talking) is boring…
Beck, Peter M. "North Korea in 2011: The Next Kim Takes the Helm." Asian Survey, Vol. 52, No. 1, Pages 65 -- 71, 2012.
Jeon, Jei Guk. "North Korean Leadership: Kin Jong II's Balancing Act in the Ruling Circle." Third World Quarterly, Vol. 21, No. 5,-Page 761 -- 779, 2000.
Koh, Byung Chul. "Political Leadership in North Korea: Toward a conceptual understanding of Kim II Sung's leadership behavior." Pages 139 -- 157.
The History Channel. "Kimjongilia." 2009. Available from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2wead-XYflU&feature=relmfu . 2012 May 27.
Stabilizing International elations in East Asia and Possibility of Institutionalization
The current relationship status between nations in East Asia is souring as the clock ticks. There is major instability with regards to the security problems especially as far as the North and South Korea are concerned. An arms race is going on with North Korea trying to accumulate Weapons of Mass Destruction. ecently it announced of its possession. This project aims to find a solution to eliminate this instability and how the nations can come together to ensure peace in the region.
Asian countries are facing a block in their relationship with each other. India and Pakistan are hardly moving forward on the Kashmir Issue while the Koreas are still in an unstable environment. The common denominator to cause such instability is the proliferation of weapons and the question of how to set the standards of common security. With the…
(1) Eckholm, E., "China to U.S.: Back Off Treaty Charges." The New York Times, 25 November 1999.
(2) Anonymous, Korea, South -- History [online website]. Available from: http://www.infoplease.com/ipa/A0107690.html [Accessed on: 05/09/05]
(3) Guan C.K., "The Relevance of The OSCE Experience to The Asia Pacific" [online website] Available from: http://www.osce-arf.de/Pub/Conference/Kwa-paper.pdf [Accessed on: 05/09/05]
History Of Kim Jong Il
In today's deeply heated political push with North Korea, my would like to know more about Kim Jong Il? Little is to be found about him, which fuels speculation and rumor. North Korea claims that Kim Jong Ils official birthplace is on sacred Mount Paektu, according to Carol Clark, CNN reporter. However, she states, "objective" researchers place his birth in the Far Eastern region of the Soviet Union on February 16, 1942. (CNN). Kim Jong Il graduated from Pyongyang's Kim Il Sung University in 1964. Shortly after graduating, he assumed the role of culture czar for the orkers Party, focusing on producing plays and films. (CNN) Clark reports that in 1980 Kim Jong Il was formally designated as successor to his father. (CNN)
Following his succession, Kim Jong Il attained high-ranking posts in the Military Commission and the Party Secretariat. (CNN) According to Bruce Cumings,…
Carol Clark. "Kim Jong Il: 'Dear Leader' or Demon?" CNN Online. 2000. Site Accessed August 6, 2003. http://www.cnn.com/SPECIALS/2000/korea/story/leader/kim.jong.il/
Cumings, Bruce. Korea's Place in the Sun: A Modern History. New York W.W. Norton and Company. 1997.
Handbook of Korea. Seoul: Korean Overseas Information Service. 1993.
Profile: Kim Jong-il." BBC Online. Thursday, 31 July, 2003. Site Accessed August 6, 2003. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/asia-pacific/1907197.stm
TENSIONS BETWEEN THE U.S. AND NORTH KOREA HAVE ESCALATED ONCE AGAIN FOLLOWING PRESIDENT TRUMP’S LANDMARK TOUR OF ASIA. PRESIDENT TRUMP CALLED FOR ALL NATIONS TO WORK TOGETHER TO PREVENT NORTH KOREA’S NUCLEAR PROGRAM FROM REACHING COMPLETION. A NEW REPORT INDICATES THAT NO MATTER HOW MANY DETERRENTS ARE PUT IN PLACE, NORTH KOREA IS CONTINUING ITS PUSH TO EXTEND ITS MISSILE-LAUNCHING ABILITIES.
38 NORTH HAS COMPILED EVIDENCE USING SATELLITE IMAGERY SHOWING NORTH KOREA “IS ON AN AGGRESSIVE SCHEDULE TO BUILD AND DEPLOY ITS FIRST OPERATIONAL BALLISTIC MISSILE SUBMARINE” (38 NORTH). U.S. INTELLIGENCE CONFIRMS THAT IF COMPLETED THE NORTH KOREAN SUBMARINE WILL WEIGH MORE THAN 2000 TONS AND WILL BE “THE LARGEST VESSEL EVER CONSTRUCTED FOR THE NORTH KOREAN NAVY SINCE THE NAJIN-CLASS FRIGATES” (VALENCIA).
AMERICAN TROOPS STATIONED IN SOUTH KOREA ARE ON ALERT AS THIS STORY DEVELOPS. OUR CORRESPONDENTS HAVE INTERVIEWED TWO MEMBERS OF THE NAVY FOR THEIR PERSPECTIVE ON WHAT…
38 North. “North Korea’s submarine ballistic missile program moves ahead: indications of shipbuilding and missile ejection testing.” 38 North, 2017. http://www.38north.org/2017/11/sinpo111617/
Davis, Mark. “Re: North Korea.” Received 16 Nov. 2017.
Ford, John. “Re: North Korea.” Received 16 Nov. 2017.
Holmes, O. “What is the U.S. military’s presence near North Korea?” Guardian, 2017. https://www.theguardian.com/us-news/2017/aug/09/what-is-the-us-militarys-presence-in-south-east-asia
Valencia, Roberta. “North Korea is rapidly building its first operational ballistic missile submarine, satellite imagery shows.” Newsweek, 2017. http://www.newsweek.com/north-korea-rapidly-building-its-first-operational-ballistic-missile-submarine-714481
Such a fact has troubled the international community greatly. Other reactions have included international condemnation of the tests as a blatantly executed threat.
In 2006, sanctions were placed against North Korea among other nations by the international communities to cease their nuclear development.
However, this tactic has only proven to provoke North Korean resistance to cease nuclear testing.
This leads the international community to wonder about what will happen next. How will the international world react to these blatant moves towards nuclear capabilities?
How will other nations react to North Korea's actions will determine real political action in the future. There are several major nations within the Western World and its allies which have the potential to be seriously affected by both threats and exercises of North Korean nuclear strength. U.S. friendly South Korea is in direct line for nuclear North Korean aggression.
Democratic Japan and United States are also…
Associated Press. "North Korea Missile Tests Puts World on Edge; U.S., Japan ad South Korea Deploy Warships." New York Daily News. 2009. Retrieved November 23,
Tensions between the united states. And north korea are escalating once again, following president trump’s landmark tour of asia. President trump is calling on all nations to work together to prevent north korea’s nuclear program from reaching completion. A new report indicates that no matter how many deterrents are put in place, north korea is continuing its push to extend its missile-launching abilities.
Satellite imagery collected by a news outlet “38 north” shows that north korea’s attempt to deploy its first operational ballistic missile submarine could be successful in the near future.
In another news article conducted by roberta valencia for newsweek reports that the u.S. Intelligence chas confirmed that if completed, the north korean submarine, at more than 2000 tons, will be “the largest vessel ever constructed for the north korean navy since the najin-class frigates”.
The fact that the us president has called for all nations to aid…
The fundamentals of exchange theory are illustrated at Appendix a. This approach to analyzing the current situation in North Korea will help add to the existing body of knowledge by developing fresh insights into the possible motivating factors that have characterized North Korea's negotiations with the West in general and the United States in particular in the past and will help address the hypothesis to be tested which is stated below.
The likelihood that it will be possible to persuade North Korea to dismantle its nuclear capability will be increased if American military forces are removed from South Korea.
This hypothesis will be qualitatively tested based on a preponderance of the evidence that results from the critical review of the literature described above.
Auton, G.P. (2007). "North Korea: Another Country." Korean Studies 31, 100-101.
Barry, M.P. 2007. "North Korea equires Long-Term Strategic elationship with the U.S."
Auton, G.P. (2007). "North Korea: Another Country." Korean Studies 31, 100-101.
Barry, M.P. 2007. "North Korea Requires Long-Term Strategic Relationship with the U.S."
International Journal on World Peace 24(1): 37-38.
Catchpole, B. 1998, November. "The Commonwealth in Korea." History Today, 33.
North Korean Intelligence:
Throughout its history, North Korea has continued to harass South Korea for as long as these countries have been separated by imaginary line and roadblocks. Since the country invasion upon South Korea in June 1950, North Korea has been a thorn in the daily lives of South Koreans. North Korea has been able to maintain such relations because of intelligence collection capabilities on the Korean Peninsula. The Democratic People's Republic of Korea or North Korea has a comprehensive intelligence gathering structure and several people conducting the intelligence operations. The three main agencies in the intelligence unit are the Ministry for Protection of State Security, Korean Workers Party, and the military intelligence arm.
North Korea's Intelligence Collection Methods:
One of the most evident aspects regarding North Korea is that the country seems to be in a constant mission to gather intelligence on the Korean Peninsula. This is largely…
Erickson, Ryan. "Foreign Intelligence Organizations: Mid Term; North vs. South Korea." Ryan
Erickson, 2009. http://ryanerickson.com/foreign-intelligence-organizations-mid-term-north-vs.-south-korea / (accessed December 15, 2011).
Jin, Han Young. "NSC's Detection of Cell-Phone Usage Is Strengthening." Daily NK
Brightening the Future of Korea, 2007. http://www.dailynk.com/english/read.php?cataId=nk01500&num=2792 (accessed December 15, 2011).
North Korea Info Collection
Over the many decades that it has had a dictatorial regime, North Korea has attempted to use a number of different approaches to gain access to the vital information it believes it needs to counter the forces of its warring enemy, South Korea. Even so on just about every level it is assumed that North Korea is quite far behind in its abilities to compete effectively in the challenge to confront or spy on other nations that it doesn't like or distrusts -- including the United States.
For the most part, North Korea funnels its strategies regarding the capturing of information through its military and spy networks (Pike, 2011). However, it has also begin using other more contemporary methods of information gathering and monitoring, including adjusting their military systems to facilitate better control and provocation strategies. This is thought to be occurring because of the country's…
Associated Press (2009). N. Korea reshuffles key spy agencies. Hindustan Times. Viewable at http://www.hindustantimes.com/world-news/RestOfAsia/NKorea-reshuffles-key-spy-agencies-Report/Article1-409400.aspx .
Breitbart (2009). N. Korea operating cyber warfare unit. Viewable at http://www.breitbart.com/article.php?id=D97VRISG0 .
Dies, H. (2011). North Korean Special Operations Forces: 1996 Kangnung submarine infiltration. Viewable at http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0IBS/is_4_30/ai_n13822276/ .
Jin, H.Y. (2007). NSC's Detection of Cell Phone Usage is Strengthening. Inside North Korea. Viewable at http://www.dailynk.com/english/read.php?cataId=nk01500&num=2792 .
Furthermore, an outright war could embroil the United States in a conflict far bigger than Iraq or Afghanistan, causing serious detriment to life, liberty and economic stability (Farrell, 2006).
At this point, North Korea is still engaged in a process of saber-rattling. Their ability to impact markets and security is limited, but should the North Korean government make a bolder move, or force the est into a response, the situation on the Korean peninsula could destabilize the entire world.
CIA orld Factbook: North Korea. (2009). Retrieved April 20, 2009 from https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/kn.html
Heliker, Stephanie. (2009).
North Korea Missile Crisis Escalates. SDSU Universe. Retrieved April 20, 2009 from http://www.sdsuniverse.info/sdsuniverse/news.aspx?s=71092
Moon, Sung Hwee. (2009) Side Effects of Tension Raised by North Korea Regime. Daily NK. Retrieved April 20, 2009 from http://www.dailynk.com/english/read.php?cataId=nk01500&num=4773
Yoo, Choonsik. (2009). How ill N. Korea's Rocket Affect South's markets, economy? Reuters. Retrieved April 20, 2009 from http://www.forbes.com/feeds/reuters/2009/04/05/2009-04-05T231745Z_01_SEO107164_RTRIDST_0_KOREA-NORTH-MARKETS-Q-A.html
CIA World Factbook: North Korea. (2009). Retrieved April 20, 2009 from https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/kn.html
Heliker, Stephanie. (2009).
North Korea Missile Crisis Escalates. SDSU Universe. Retrieved April 20, 2009 from http://www.sdsuniverse.info/sdsuniverse/news.aspx?s=71092
Moon, Sung Hwee. (2009) Side Effects of Tension Raised by North Korea Regime. Daily NK. Retrieved April 20, 2009 from http://www.dailynk.com/english/read.php?cataId=nk01500&num=4773
This policy has led to an increasingly negative view of this country abroad, as well as likely increased the danger presented by unstable regimes like that in operation in North Korea.
The changes that are likely to occur after Obama's inauguration are difficult to predict. As mentioned above, an increase in negotiations and the possibility of more concessions on the part of the United States, at least in terms of aid, are likely to be seen. By appointing the more hawkish Hillary Clinton to the position of Secretary of State, however, Obama may be signaling that is approach will be hard-lined than has previously been believed (Beck 2008, par. 5). Only time will tell, of course, although North Korea's announcement that they have discontinued their nuclear weapons research is encouraging place at which to begin the historical negotiations.
Beck, Peter M. 2008. "Obama and North Korea: The oad Ahead."…
Beck, Peter M. 2008. "Obama and North Korea: The Road Ahead." Policy Forum Onine. Nautilus Institute. 3 December 2008. Accessed 8 December 2008. http://www.nautilus.org/fora/security/08092Beck.html
North Korea has done some damage to its reputation with its singular ally, China and even more damage with its ‘sometimes’ enemy, the United States. What is motivating North Korea’s leader Kim Jong Un to act this way? Perhaps it is history. North Korea has a history of attempting to show its might time and time again. From the three-year long Korean War that began in 1950 to the current missile testing in the sea off Japan, there is something going awry in the country to cause such an increase in worrisome behavior. This essay will highlight the background of North Korean conflicts and the current problems with North Korea’s decision to continue missile tests against the wishes of China and the United States.
To begin understanding North Korea’s erratic behavior regarding recent missile tests, one must look at the Korean War. Every schoolchild in North Korea is taught, mistakenly,…
North and South Korea
The war between North and South Korea is now a few decades old. Ever since the two countries split in the 1950's, the world has been trying to find a way to reunite both the land and its citizens, some of whom have not seen their family for many decades. No other country in the world exists in the same complete (literal) darkness as North Korea. Sheltered from the world, the country and its citizens are living stuck in time, without modern technology and conveniences. However, North Korea does show its prowess once in awhile to discourage other from encroaching upon its authoritarian territory. This short analysis will focus on the situation between the two countries, complete with an analysis of their respective populations. [1: McDonald, M. (2010). "Crisis Status' in South Korea After North Shells Island." New York Times. Retrieved April 19, 2011, from .…
North/South Korea + Korean-Americans
The Two Koreas:
South Korea is known today as one of the rising economic giants of the industrialized world. The nation is a respected U.S. ally, and a center for fashion and technology, not to mention other industries. While South Korea's "star" is on a constant rise, its neighbor, North Korea, continues to live in a tightly closed society, with restrictive and degrading practices, whereby its citizens are almost like robots, not allowed to think for themselves, to eat properly, or to explore their world. The different between the two countries is stark, and in order to even begin to understand South Korea's ability to progress so much, one must analyze its history. However, for the purposes of this paper, three main questions will be analyzed in order to begin to understand the two countries in an initial phase:
South Korea's path of democratization in the…
North American Free Trade Agreement
President Clinton signed the North American Free Trade Agreement Implementation Act-NAFTA on December 8th, 1993. Canada and Mexico soon followed suit and the North American Free Trade Agreement became active from January 1st 2004 and thus became the first comprehensive free trade agreement among major industrial nations and a developing a country. (A dynamic macroeconomic analysis of NAFTA - North American Free Trade Agreement -- Economic Perspectives) Thus NAFTA was launched in January 1994, and thereby The North American Free Trade Agreement became the largest free trade area in the world. (Canada and the North American Free Trade Agreement)
NAFTA created the world's largest free trade zone, which had coverage of around 360 million people and an annual investment and trade in terms of C$500 billion. (Key Economic events: 1994- North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA): Creating the World's Largest Free Trade Area) This agreement…
Canada and the North American Free Trade Agreement. June 10, 2003. Retrieved from http://www.dfait-maeci.gc.ca/nafta-alena/menu-en.asp Accessed on 17 November 2004
Castenada, Jorge G; Heredia, Carlos. The wrong free-trade deal? - North American Free Trade Agreement. March 1993. Retrieved from http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1453/is_n3_v40/ai_13609465 Accessed on 16 November, 2004
Creating a trade bloc than won't block justice, freedom - North American Free Trade Agreement and Mexico - Editorial - Cover Story. April 16, 1993. Retrieved from http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1141/is_n24_v29/ai_13685906 Accessed on 16 November, 2004
Facts Cloud Attempt to 'Celebrate' NAFTA 10th Anniversary Signing Ceremony.
(Efimova, 2007, paraphrased)
SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION
North Korea underwent internal changes as well as changes due to external factors that placed North Korea in a defensive stance in its focus on strategically avoiding threats and in rebuilding its own self-reliance economically. For North Korea since the erlin Wall fell the use of conventional weapons by North Korea in defending itself from external foes has not been a feasible proposition, therefore, it is apparent that North Korea acquired nuclear capabilities because of the value of these capabilities as use as a method for ensuring adequate self-defense in what the regime in North Korea views as a highly unstable security environment and one in which North Korea is quite terrified that will result in the United States becoming aggressive from a military standpoint.
It really can not be held as true that the reason for the development of nuclear capability in North…
Lin, Liu (2006) The North Korean Nuclear Test and Its Implications. Central-Asia -- Caucasus Institute Silk Road Studies Program. Online available at: http://www.silkroadstudies.org/new/docs/Silkroadpapers/2006/LiuLin%20Final061204.pdf.
Yongho, Kim and Yi, Yurim (2005) Security Dilemmas and Signaling During the North Korean Nuclear Standoff. Asian Perspective. Vol. 29, No.3, 2005, pp. 73-97. Online available at: http://www.asianperspective.org/articles/v29n3-d.pdf
Xizhen, Zhang and Brown, Eugene (2000) Policies Toward North Korea: A Time for New Thinking. Journal of Contemporary China. Vol. 9, Issue 25, November 2000. pp.535-545.
Sujian, Guo and Stradiotto, Gary A. (2007) The Nature and Direction of Economic Reform in North Korea. Political Studies, Vol.55, No. 4 December 2007. pp. 754-778(25) Blackwell Publishing.
Edited by Glenn D. Paige and Chung-Si Ahn, Nonkilling Korea is a collection of scholarly essays and material delivered at the Asia Center/Seoul National University and the Center for Global Nonkilling in Seoul during August 18-19, 2010. The material is written primarily about Korean values and culture, with the purpose of creating a shift in the discourse used to discuss modern Korean history. Whereas most Korean historiography focuses on war, and the political and militaristic aspects of 20th century conflicts surrounding Korea, the authors that contribute to Nonkilling Korea try to reframe history to include spiritual values and ethics. The book does not limit itself to a discussion of Korean history or culture per se, either. The editors cull material from sources that address other nations and cultures in relation to both South and North Korea, including the United States, China, Japan, and Russia. Nonkilling Korea includes an…
Although the saber-rattling is currently at normal levels, there have been some highly disruptive events in recent years that have kept tensions high. For example, despite their vehement and repeated denials, most international observers agree and the results of international inspections indicate that in March 2010, North Korea fired on and sank the South Korean warship, Cheonan, with a corresponding loss of South Korean lives.
Just a few months later, North Korea fired artillery shells on nearby Yeonpyeong Island in November 2010, and in August 2011, North Korean officials seized assets at Mount Kumgang, a jointly operated tourist site with South Korea.
Despite continuing efforts by the international community to resolve this longstanding political and military stalemate, there have been some changes in the composition of the top political leadership in South Korea that may adversely affect these negotiations. In fact, South Korean President Lee Myung-bak and his inner circle…
Countries are very much representative of human nature. If you were to examine a microcosm of a nation at its basic level, it would be a local community or neighborhood. The people who live in the same community usually tend to share similar economic levels and cultural attitudes. Neighbors also influence the behaviors of each other. For example, affluent neighborhoods tend to have good school systems, active kids (as in after school programs), and involved parents. To a certain degree, these things are expected. This notion is applicable to the nations of China, Korea, and Japan. This paper will examine similarities and differences between these counties in a historical context. China and Japan were traditional societies that responded differently to the external stimuli of foreign relations. Korea is also similar in this regard but their foreign invaders were Japanese not estern imperialists. All three nations also suffered under…
Cumings, Bruce. "We look at it and see ourselves." London Review of Books. N.p., n.d. Web. 18 Feb. 2014. .
Hedges, Frank. "Japan is Speeding Korean Education." New York Times [New York City ] 6 Aug. 1939: 12. Print.
Takaki, Ronald T.. Strangers from a different shore: a history of Asian-Americans. Boston: Little, Brown, 1989. Print.
Thomson, James Claude, Peter W. Stanley, and John Curtis Perry.Sentimental imperialists: the American experience in East Asia. New York: Harper & Row, 1981. Print.
Japan and Korea Occupation
How and why did the Allied occupations of Japan and Korea differ?
Allied occupations of Japan and Korea date backs to year 1945 when orld ar II got ended. Both the occupations occurred as a consequence of victory of allies over the axis. The allied powers included the United States of America, United Kingdom, Soviet Union, France, and China whereas axis included Germany, Empire of Japan, and Italy (Schaller 1985, 1-11). The causes and effects of both these occupations were dependent on occupation of Japan by the allied forces. This paper will investigate and analyze that how and why did the allied occupations of Japan and Korea differ? After stating a brief hypothesis of this study, the paper will briefly inform the reader about the background that led to both these occupations. This will set the stage for understanding that how and why did both of…
Dower, John W. Embracing defeat: Japan in the wake of World War II. WW Norton & Company, 2000.
Molasky, Michael S. The American occupation of Japan and Okinawa: Literature and memory. Routledge, 2001.
Oberdorfer, Don. The Two Koreas: A Contemporary History. Addison-Wesley, 1997.
Schaller, Michael. The American occupation of Japan: the origins of the Cold War in Asia. Oxford University Press, 1985.
Korean War, just like most other wars in history did not occur in a vacuum. It started because of the North Korean attack on the South Koreans with the belief that they would be able to win the war and communize the whole Korean peninsula (Chang, 2010). The confidence of North Koreans in their ability to win the fight against the South was not based on hope, but on the intense confidence that it will be an easy victory for the North Korean forces in the war (Chang, 2010). As a matter of fact, the North Korean forces were far more superior to the forces of the South in every category of the fighting abilities and capabilities (Chang, 2010). They were well armed with very heavy weapons and equipment the Soviet Union supplied, adequately trained by the cautious guidance of Soviet military education and training personnel, vastly reinforced with the…
Boose, Donald W. (1995). Portentous Sideshow: The Korean Occupation Decision. Volume 5, Number 4. Winter 1995-96. Parameters. U.S. Army War College Quarterly. pp. 112-29. OCLC 227845188.
Creative Commons Attribution. (n.d.). Korean War. Retrieved from: http://saylor.org/site/wp-content/uploads/2011/03/Korean-War.pdf
Devine, Robert A.; Breen, T. H.; Frederickson, George M.; liams, R. Hal; Gross, Adriela J.; Brands, H.W. (2007). America Past and Present 8th Ed. Volume II: Since 1865. Pearson Longman. pp. 819-21. ISBN 0-321-44661-5.
Doug Bandow. (2010). The Role and Responsibilities of the United States in the Korean War: Critical Foreign Policy Decisions by the Truman and Eisenhower Administrations. International Journal of Korean Studies. Vol. XIV, No. 2.
ut in the 30s, most waves of Korean migrants came in because of the policy of forced conscription. Japan's economy rapidly improved at the time and there was a huge demand for labor. This and industrialization led to the creation of a Japanese national mobilization plan. This plan, in turn, led to the conscription of roughly 600,000 Koreans. Japan's military forces continued to expand and the government had to regular the increase in the Korean population. They were required to carry an identification card. In 1942, the government promised them equal citizenship if they extended their work contracts. They became eligible to vote, run for public office and serve in election committees. Conscription was implemented in the same year. Despite official political equality, Korean inferiority remained prevalent. Yet they were expected to observe and practice Japanese culture as a condition to political equality (Minorities at Risk).
With the defeat of…
Alvin, Koh Zhongwei. Koreans in Japan. National University of Singapore: NUS
History Society E-Journal, 2003.
Kichan Song. The Appearance of "Young Koreans in Japan" and the Emergence of a New Type of Ethnic Education. Vol 9 237-253. Kyodo University: Kyodo Journal of Sociology, 2001
Kyodo. Jong Raps Japan for Historical Crime Against Koreans. Asian Political News.
Confucianism promotes the "ideal of the scholar, who cultivates virtue in oneself and shares it through service in government, teaching, and daily life," Canda explains on page 1. The pure idea of Confucianism is to benefit all the citizens and those benefits have a ripple effect starting with the individual, through the family, and out to the Korean society and then the world (Canda, p. 1).
Confucianism has had an influence on many spiritual and physical Asian-based traditions; for example, Confucianism had a big influence on the development of martial arts, acupuncture, and meditation, according to Canda.
Shamanism: There are about 300 shamanistic temples within an hour of the capital of Seoul, according to an article in the New York Times (Sang-Hun, 2007, p. 1). The article points out that shamanism is presently enjoying a renaissance after "centuries of ridicule and persecution"; indeed, shamans were "demonized by Christian missionaries and…
Beaver, R. Pierce. "Chondogyo and Korea." Journal of the American Academy of Religion.
Buddhism Today. Buddhism in Korea. Retrieved Dec. 6, 2010, from http://www.buddhismtoday.com . (1997).
Buswell, Robert E., and Lee, Timothy S. Christianity in Korea. Honolulu, HI: University of Hawaii Press, 2007.
Coldest ar: A Memoir of Korea, a novel written by James Brady. This paper clearly outlines the summary of the book and highlights some of the events written by the author in his book. This paper explains Brady's purpose behind writing his masterpiece and clearly defines its theme. Critical analysis of the novel and information about the author are also included.
The Coldest ar: A Memoir Of Korea
The Coldest ar: A Memoir of Korea written by James Brady gives a first person's account of the second Korean war. In the book the author compares the tactical approach of the army vs. marine rifle companies. Serving as a young marine lieutenant in the United States Marine Corps for a year, Brady tells the story by illustrating to his audience the deplorable conditions of the soldiers and the critical experience they underwent, through his analysis and encountering. The author talks about…
Dennis D. The Forgotten War Is Remembered. Newsday. 16 Jun. 2000.
Smith H. Tales Making Courage, Hardships In Korean War. The Washington Times.11
James B. The Coldest War: A Memoir of Korea. Thomas Dunne Books-St. Martin's
nature of inequality between the north and south, he has to understand the role of technology in the international system. Someone who would say such a thing overlooks the fact that it's not the amount of technology that counts, but how you use it that matters. In the wealthiest western nations, the use of technology has been actively directed by well-regulated capital lending mechanisms. These financial instruments allow inventors, laborers, and merchants to borrow money at interest that can later be repaid within the context of a legal environment that protects property and contracts.
According to Weatherby, the tragedy of the third world has four culprits: dependence on the west, delayed modernization, increasing population, and the unequal distribution of wealth. He argues that even if all third world countries don't possess these qualities; that each possesses two or three of them. If the lack of modernization is to serve as…
Angloplat Goes the Extra Mile to Pioneer Black Empowerment. Sunday Times; November 10th 2002.
Immanuel Wallerstein, The Eagle Has Crash Landed. Foreign Policy, July, 2002.
Between Here and There. The Economist, July 5, 2001.
Does Population Matter? The Economist, December 5, 2002.
American Cultural Products have an Impact on Other Cultures
About the American Culture
How the American Culture Affects Products Globally
Influences of Culture on One Another
American Culture in China
American Culture in Korea
Major American Cultural Values
Globalization has created a completely new way of life for billions of people. It has provided people with new technologies and alternative ways of consuming everything, from products to music and films to literature and even language. In other words, globalization has impacted entire cultures in various countries (Friedman, 2005). The trend has been aided by the creation of the ability to purchase life changing goods for consumers; providing many varieties of consumable items at reasonably low prices on an international market has spread different cultures.
Understanding the impact of globalization on the regional and national cultures requires the understanding of the process and the meaning of globalization. While the term…
Bhagwati, J. (2004). In defense of globalization. New York: Oxford University Press.
Cismas, S. (2015). The impact of American culture on other cultures: Language and cultural identity. http://www.wseas.us. Retrieved 26 March 2015, from http://www.wseas.us/e-library/conferences/2010/Cambridge/AIKED/AIKED-61.pdf
Friedman, T. (2005). The world is flat. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux.
Haugen, D. (2009). American values. Detroit: Greenhaven Press.
According to the Office of the United States Trade Representative website, which is part of the Executive Office of the President, the United States has trade agreements with a total of twenty countries. Those countries are Austarlia, Bahrain, Canada, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, the Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Israel, Jordan, Korea, Mexico, Morocco, Nicaragua, Oman, Panama, Peru and Singpore. Beyond that, there are also regional agreements such as the Trans-Pacific Partnership, or TPP for shot. There are currently negotiations under way to have a similar agreement which is called the Trans-Atlantic Trade and Investment Project, or T-TIP for short, with the European Union. Finally, there are broad-based agreements that involve free trade such as the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) and a few others that are noteworthy (USTR).
Benefits of NAFTA
As far as whether the NAFTA agreement benefits the United States, the answer…
What is the situation of Korea at the end of 19th century, in terms of international relations and domestic responses?
Before 1910, Korea was a part of an Asian empire known as the Joseon. In the 1800s, religious persecution laid the way for a rebellion by the people which would alter the course of the history of the country. The idea of a unified religious sect was to further strengthen the nation. Instead people were resentful that the government was trying to influence such a personal aspect of an individual's life. A "peasant" religion known as onghak was making its way into what would become Korea. The teachings of this religion discontented the lower classes from their stations and there was a rebellion in 1864. This all coincided with the attempts of the western world to gain access to Korea, something the government strictly refused.
In this period the…
During the war years, Japan would enlist Korean soldiers to fight, often through coercion or sometimes by force. As a colony population, the Koreans had far less power within the nation state and thus they were considered less important than their Japanese counterparts. This lack of fairness was battle against through several attempted revolutions. One of the most famous of these was the March 1st Movement. In 1919, in response to the oppressive regime of Japanese rule as well as the seeming incongruity of the League of Nations, a faction in Korea established a movement designed to completely alter the country and allow the common population to have sovereignty.
3. Describe the situation on the Korean peninsula from 1945 to 1950 when the Korean War breaks out.
Following World War II, Korea was finally given sovereignty and a chance to create a government more or less for and by the population. However, tensions were high from the outset. Many people within the country wanted to create a governmental format completely different from what they had experienced under Japanese rule. Influenced by the large country of China, a group within Korea believed that the best form of government for the newly freed country should be Communism. Another group however wanted a form of democracy similar to those they had witnessed from their interactions with western nations like the United States, England, and France. With neither side willing to compromise, it was only a matter of time before a schism would break the nation in two. That is exactly what happened in 1950 when the country of Korea was divided into two: North Korea which was controlled by a Communist government, and South Korea which was more democratic than its northern counterpart. This was not a suitable resolution to the distress of the warring nation and what happened was a bloody police action involving many countries of the world who each had their own individual reasons for helping. Communist countries such as China provided support for North Korea in the form of weapons and other supplies. Much of the free world, such as the United States, England, and France gave equal support to South Korea, hoping that by providing this aid the west would be able to prevent and retard the spread of Communism.
Proponents of the capitalist developmental state argue, it was the bureaucratic interests that were the key to the successful industrialization of Japan and Korea in the postwar period. In particular, it was the bureaucrat's complete autonomy from self-serving interest groups and politicians that was the main factor that enabled them to define national-level strategies and then to implement them effectively." Those who are not proponents of the system believe it was a combination of other factors. Had it not been for the bureaucratic desire to succeed the motivation for capitalism would not have been put into place.
Following the Meiji era in Japan there were many economic reforms undertaken. Some of those reforms included:
unified system by way of modern currency, banking and investments. The desire and effort to establish a modern institutional framework that would be conducive to capitalist economic values was strong and was led by the bureaucrats…
Japan Modernization and Industrialization
Background to Meiji Modernization http://www.thecorner.org/hists/japan/meiji2.htm
Korea, North THE POST-WAR ECONOMY AND PATTERNS OF INDUSTRIALIZATION
Endowment Theory (Hecksher-Ohlin-Samuelson) account North-South economic relationships? Illustrate point(s)
Generally speaking the world is economically divided into two blocks; North and South. North is characterized by stronger, more stable and powerful economies whereas south constitutes the less developed, weaker nations. 1 One of the popular economic arguments is that although North encompasses the major economies of the world which dominate the important institutions but South cannot be overlooked as it consists of the bulk of inhabitants. The world cannot ignore the importance of south due to certain emerging powers of the North like China, Brazil, and India. However, in this radical world where every state is independent and there is absolutely no self-governing power keeping an account of the governments, the hegemonic, influential and powerful countries similar to the United States of America (USA) will not ever leave their central place in the world.
The bargaining power of the countries…
Helpman, E. (1984). A simple theory of international trade with multinational corporations, The Journal of Political Economy, vol. 92, Issue 3. Pp. 451 -- 471, retrieved March 16, 2011 from http://www.jstor.org/stable/1837227
Markusen, J.R. (2000). The theory of endowment, intra-industry and multi-national trade, Journal of international economics, vol. 52, Issue 2, pp. 209-234, retrieved March 16, 2011 from http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/s0022199699000550
Markusen, J.R.(1995). The boundaries of multinational enterprises and the theory of international trade, The Journal of Economic Perspectives, Vol. 9, Issue 2, pp. 169 -- 189, retrieved March 16, 2011 from http://www.jstor.org/stable/2138172
It would likely also require the diplomatic alignment of the U.S. with United Nations interests, which has traditionally not been a guarantee. This would combine with the established potential of counter-terrorist cells to strike on U.S. soil to place unprecedented emphasis on securing U.S. borders from entities clearly designated as enemies of the U.S. Such an enemy list that includes a nuclear power such as North Korea could therefore pose grave consequences for the U.S. And for the entire world.
The history of North Korea's nuclear program has frequently been shrouded in secrecy, sheltered from the IAEA and denounced by the United Nations Security Council. With the announcement of the arrival of the nation as a nuclear power, there is little for North Korea to shield from the rest of the world beyond the tenuous nature of its political machine. It remains to be seen if North Korea can maintain…
Globalsecurity.org. Weapons of Mass Destruction: Nuclear Weapons Program.
McDonald, Mark. "North Korea Suggests Libya Should Have Kept Nuclear Program"
New York Times (New York), March 24, 2011. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com /2011/03/25/world/asia/25korea.html
This has helped to protect the economy against sudden shocks from different events.
The government policies that are supporting growth are designed to encourage foreign direct investment in the South Korean economy. What happened was the Asian financial crisis (in 1997), underscored how government officials needed to open their economy up to foreign investors. As a result, the total amounts of money that was coming in began to increase dramatically with these figures currently sitting at $115.6 billion dollars. This is a part of an effort to diversify the economy away from the manufacturing sector. Over the course of time, this has allowed South Korea to build up their infrastructure and improve personal income with this coming in at $30,000.00 per year. This is significant, because in the early 1970's the average South Korean earned $1,200.00 per year. ("South Korea")
The different policies that were enacted have meant that the…
"Japan." CIA World Fact Book, 2011. Web. 13 Dec. 2011
"South Korea." CIA World Fact Boo, 2011. Web. 13 Dec. 2011
Chung, Young. South Korea in the Fast Lane. London: Oxford University Press, 2007. Print.
Ghosn, Carlos. Shift Inside Nissan. New York: Random House, 2006. Print.
Critical Thinking for Homeland Security
The objective of the article is to question the credibility of the decision adopting by the Bush's administration on North Korea due to claims that it (North Korea) was constructing a Uranium plant. Based on the universal structures of thought by Elder and Paul, it is apparent that the question at issue in the presented case is the credibility of the decision taken by the U.S. government towards North Korea. The U.S. believed that the North Korean state was in its quest of building a nuclear power plant secretly without the awareness of the U.S. As such, it promoted to U.S. To adopt sanctions against the North Korea such as suspending its deals with the state. The U.S. depended on unreliable information since up-to-date it has not verified the existence of a Uranium plant in North Korea as speculated by the report.
The decision adopted…
Another Intelligence Twist. (2007, March 2). Washington Post. Retrieved August 23, 2014, from http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2007/03/01/AR2007030101507.html
International Marketing -- South Korea Country Study
The primordial question at the basis of this study revolves around the attractiveness of South Korea to American investors. Otherwise put, is this country able to determine the American investor to launch business operations in this global part? In order to answer the posed question, a series of analyses will be conducted. Some of these will refer to the general context, whilst others will detail specific issues.
The country is located in the eastern part of Asia; enjoys a temperate climate and owns less than 20% arable land. South Korea is characterized by a tormented historic past, which explains well the differences emerged between the two regions of the Korean Peninsula. The total population of the country exceeds 48 million, and their life expectancy at birth is of almost 79 years. The interactions with the South Koreans are generally formal and follow protocols,…
Gonzales, J., Sherer, T.E., 2004, The Compete Idiot's Guide to Geography, 2nd Edition, Alpha Books
1992, A Country Study: South Korea, American Memory for the Library of Congress, http://rs6.loc.gov/frd/cs/krtoc.html last accessed on November 25, 2009
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Coca-Cola Company ("Coca-Cola," "Coke") is a U.S.-based manufacturer and distributor of non-alcoholic beverage. The company recorded revenue of $46.5 billion in FY2011, and earned $8.5 billion in net income. According to the company's website, it sells products in over 200 countries, given the company near-global scope. This also ensures that Coca-Cola has substantial exposure to foreign currencies. This report will discuss a number of international financial aspects to Coca-Cola's business, including foreign currency risk and capital structure.
As Coca-Cola operates in just about every country in the world, there are a very few options for international expansion. The company's Mexican subsidiary is already exporting to Cuba, circumventing Helms-Burton. However, there remains one country where one cannot currently buy a Coca-Cola product, and that is the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK), or North Korea (Hebblethwaite, 2012). There is increasing wealth in that country, however, as the result of Chinese investment.…
Coca-Cola 2011 Annual Report. Retrieved December 11, 2012 from http://ir.thecoca-colacompany.com/phoenix.zhtml?c=94566&p=irol-financials
Hebblethwaite, C. (2012). Who what why: In which countries is Coca-Cola not sold? BBC News Magazine. Retrieved December 11, 2012 from http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/magazine-19550067
MSN Moneycentral. (2012). Coca-Cola Company. Retrieved December 11, 2012 from http://investing.money.msn.com/investments/stock-income-statement/?symbol=KO
Park, J. (2012). North Korea's economic dreams are, well…dreams. Reuters. Retrieved December 11, 2012 from http://www.reuters.com/article/2012/11/04/us-korea-north-economy-idUSBRE8A30KM20121104
Weapons Proliferation, simply defined, is the rapid increase or spread of weapons in the context of global security. If we are to measure the weapons capabilities of the world, the United States retains the lion's share: in 2002 the Economist estimated that American military spending would exceed 379 billion in 2003 (Economist, 6/18/2002.) For comparison's sake, Russia, the world's second largest nuclear power, had a total GDP of merely 346.6 billion in 2002 (Economist, 7/22/2003.) However, the "balance of terror" that underscored the cold war era was in many ways much safer than the current situation. Whereas 'weapons proliferation' once referred to the number of weapons in existence, it has taken on a new meaning; it now is usually meant to reflect the number of political entities capable of using weapons of mass destruction. The number of such countries has increased beyond UN Security Council permanent members to include India,…
Be Afraid. Economist, September 4th, 2003
Lord Hutton's Eyebrows. Economist, September 4th, 2003
Brecher, Gary. Bezerkers with Red Stars: North Korean Scenarios. The Exile, June 2, 2003.
Weapons of Mass Destruction and the Next Terror: Assessment of How a Significant Terrorist WMD Attack Might e Conducted by a Non-State Actors Perpetrator and Why They Can't Stage an Attack
Weapons of Mass Destructions (WMD) have considerable effect to the economies of both developed and developing countries. In the modern world, most terror groups have resolved to use Weapons of Mass Destruction to harm their enemies. The entire syndicate comprises state actors and the terror group, which intends to destroy the target country. The state actors have direct links or channels of communication with such attackers, foreign allies, and several residential alliances with almost similar connections to the terror groups. Most of the terror groups lack essential materials that would aid in the making of some of the most dangerous weapons such as nuclear bombs. The various forms of attack involved when using lethal weapons include dispersion, dissemination, and…
Anthony Cordesman, Terrorism Asymmetric Warfare, and Weapons of Mass Destruction, (New
Greenwood Publishing Group, 2002).
Eric Croddy, James Wirtz, Weapons of Mass Destruction, (London: ABC-CLIO, 2005).
Max Weber defined state as "a human community that (successfully) claims the monopoly of the legitimate use of physical force within a given territory whether that legitimacy derives from charisma, tradition, or law" (Hokim 2012). Weber held that domination of people being ruled by a ruler is an unavoidable political fact. His vision for democracy in Germany was a political marketplace where charismatic rulers are elected by winning votes in free competition, whether in struggle or not. He saw localized, public associational life as the breeding ground of charismatic rulers.
Weber suggested that social pluralism should be the sociocultural ground for political education of lay citizens, which requires an organized civil society. He also suggested that the political education should contain ethics in conviction and responsibility. The political ethics also involved value-freedom and value-relativism.
Under Weber's definition, North Korea under Kim Jong-il, after American invasion or Cambogia under the Khmer…
"Charisma." New World Encyclopedia. Apr 2, 2008. http://www.newworldencyclopedia.org/entry/Charisma (accessed Jan 26, 2013).
Hokim, S. "Max Weber." Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. July 31, 2012. http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/weber / (accessed Jan 25, 2013).
Norman, J. The world's enduring dictatiors: Kim Jong-il, North Korea. June 4, 2011. http://www.cbsnews.about.com/od/profilesofasianleaders/p/BioKimJongil.htm (accessed Jan 25, 2013).
totalitarism. 2013. http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/600435/totalitarism (accessed Jan 25, 2013).
Yeh-Shen: A Cinderella story from China (Louie, 1982); (Carr, 2012); (Snuggs, 2007).
Chinye: A West African folk tale (Onyefulu & Safarewicz, 1994); (Nigeriaworld, 2012); (Snuggs, 2007),
The Korean Cinderella (Climo, 1993); (Shapiro, 1993); (Snuggs, 2007).
Tattercoats: An old English tale (Webster Steel, 1976); (Advameg, 2012); (Snuggs, 2007).
The rough-face girl (Martin, 1992); (Native Languages of the Americas, 2011); (Snuggs, 2007).
Names of Cinderellas
"In the dim past," according to first publication in 850-860 AD
"Long ago," according to the book published in 1994.
"Long ago," according to the 1993 book.
"…there once dwelt"
"Once, long ago" according to the 1992 book.
"Treated roughly and not allowed to go to the springtime festival to choose her marriage partner."
"Chinye must run a dangerous errand through the forest…
Korea had gone from 22% literacy in 1945 to almost 90% by the end of the 1970s. Thus the Korean workers' knowledge level picked up the slack - Koreans were working smarter rather than simply harder.
One of the reasons productivity decline in the 1970s was increased political instability. A wealth gap had emerged in Korean society, evidenced by a reduction in the Gini coefficient. Park was assassinated, resulting in increased instability. After the economic boom was established, further changes were made in economic policy at the political level. Deregulation was imposed in order to rectify some of the social sacrifices that had occurred as a result of the nation's push to prosperity. The Park government had been roughly modeled on a colonial system and reforms were required. Inflation was high and the country was developing strong class divisions that threatened the social order.
These reforms brought South Korea its…
Gregg, Donald. (1999). Park Chung Hee. Time Magazine. Retrieved December 10, 2008 at http://www.time.com/time/asia/asia/magazine/1999/990823/park1.html
Menarguez, Francisco Garcia-Blanch. (2002). Economic Growth in South Korea, 1961-2000. Universidad Complutense Madrid. Retrieved December 10, 2008 at http://www.ucm.es/info/eid/pb/Book02FGB.pdf
No author. (no date) the Economy Country Studies - U.S. Library of Congress. Retrieved December 10, 2008 at http://countrystudies.us/south-korea/45.htm
Myung Soo Cha. (No date). The Economic History of Korea. EH.Net. Retrieved December 10, 2008 at http:/ / the.net/encyclopedia/article/cha.korea
aid President George W. ush in policy formulation. It is an all-inclusive paper dealing with a wide range of issues such as the American economy in general- discussing issues such as budget deficits, tax cuts, medical assistance and benefits for retired people, the weakening American dollar, allocations for the military, intelligence and homeland security, job growth and the regime and policies of free trade. With regards to security, it features the recent American initiate on the war on terrorism. The issue of Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD) and nuclear proliferation are discussed quite at length.
Another aspect listed in the paper is the 'future', as it was viewed from the era of the Vietnam War. The relevance of the cold war is also outlined as a great American victory. Compelling issues such as the role of oil, OPEC, the Middle East and the socio-political and economic situation after the incidents…
Bush's tax cut' Retrieved from;
http://amateurpundit.hypermart.net/features107_bushtaxing.htm Accessed on March 5, 2004
Economy: Job Creation' Retrieved from;
http://ipsnews.net/africa/interna.asp?idnews=22469 Accessed on March 5, 2004
academic and popular discourse on East Asia, Korea has a long, strong, and unique history. The culture of Korea has evolved over the last several millennia to become one of the world's most distinctive, homogenous, and intact. Being surrounded by large and ambitious neighbors has caused Korea to have a troubled history, evident in the most recent generations with the division between North and South. The division between North and South Korea is the first time the peninsula has been divided since its initial unification in the mid-7th century CE. Until the Korean War, the people of Korea have been bound together by common language, customs, and political culture. No significant minority culture or linguistic group has made Korea its home, and although Korea has been invaded and encroached upon by others, it has also never been an expansionist or imperialistic culture either.
The Korean peninsula has been inhabited since…
Armstrong, C.K. (2015). Korean history and political geography.
Eckert, C.J., Lee, K., et al. (1991). Korea Old and New. Korea Institute, Harvard University Press.
"Hidden Korea," (n.d.). PBS. Retrieved online: http://www.pbs.org/hiddenkorea/history.htm
Nelson, M.N. (1993). The Archaeology of Korea. Cambridge University Press.
On page 138 Halberstam explains that the initial American units "…thrown into battle were poorly armed, in terrible shape physically, and, more often than not, poorly led" (Halberstam, 2007, 138). The U.S. was trying to get by "…on the cheap," Halberstam explains, and it Korea "it showed immediately"; Truman wanted to keep taxes low, he wanted to try and pay off the debt from the enormous expenditures in II, and as was referenced earlier, Truman really wanted to keep military expenditures down.
But what that austerity program meant was that the first troops that were being trained at Fort Lewis (prior to their orders to fight in Korea) were asked to "…use only two sheets of toilet paper each time they visited the latrine" (Halberstam, 138). Moreover, the lackluster performance by the initial troops sent into harm's way in Korea was reported back in the states and caused serious concerns.…
Halberstam, David. 2007. The Coldest Winter: America and the Korean War. New York:
Kaufman, Burton I. 1983. The Korean War: Challenges in Crisis, Credibility, and Command.
Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press.
Korean History: The Climate and Culture of Foreign Business
The challenge of any cultural history undertaken to determine the foreign business fitness of a location is to make sure that there is due respect afforded the society with regard to issues that might not be seen as directly affecting the bottom line. So much of the time in the business world we are collectively focused on the ideas that surround the continued development of the global world economy, without regard for the existence of prior national issues. An easily made mistake for a researcher addressing issues of Korea from the United States would be to distill Korean history into a form that only include the interests of this country after the Korean-American ar.
This account will attempt to address those issues by addressing the culture through its earliest history to its present state through modern demographics, religion, education, housing, leisure…
North Korean crisis starts to hurt South Korea economically." February 11, 2003. American
City Business Journals Inc. February, 11 2003 ( http://tampabay.bizjournals.com ).
South Korea gross national income soars." February 9, 2003. American City Business Journals
Inc. February 11, 2003. (