Personal Counseling Theory Essays

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Personal Counseling Essay

Words: 2354 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 17119225


Develop your theoretical orientation to the counseling process and identify how this approach compares to Cognitive Behavioral theory

Since its inception nearly fifty years ago, Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) has become recognized as perhaps the most effective therapeutic approach. Indeed, CBT has myriad uses, and is applied in a number of situations, including depression, personality disorders, and wellness and rehabilitation. However, there also exist limitations to cognitive behavioral therapy, mainly surrounding treatment with patients from diverse cultures. This paper develops appropriate therapeutic orientations, discussing different therapeutic concerns and approaches. First, attention is paid to the nature of people; next, the role of the individual in families and other systems is addressed. Then, multicultural considerations, wellness and prevention, and the nature of problems are discussed. Finally, the paper addresses the process of change and how the orientations enacted are successful in practice.

The nature of people

People are diverse, not only with regard to their race, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status but also their psychological makeup. For example, two people who were raised in the same household could hold vastly different perspectives concerning their background. Although most people likely agree on certain accepted truths regarding morality and upstanding conduct, different cultures still have widely contrasting and even antithetical views toward how people should conduct themselves and the goals to which they should aspire. For example, some cultures stress that people should be as ambitious and competitive as possible, while other cultural viewpoints contend that people should work more cooperatively with one another. To this end, effective conduct entails the ability to coexist with different cultural viewpoints while maintaining their personal beliefs. Mental health is also fluid and a person's mental status can change over time. Effective functioning involves the ability to adapt to their environment. Accordingly, mental health refers to the interplay between a person's neurological profile and their external environment. It is also important to note that just because someone's external situation thrives, this does not ensure that their mental health is in good standing. Indeed, news headlines are constantly filled with reports of wealthy individuals who have become addicted to drugs, or people who have gone into rehab for…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
Beck, J., & Tompkins, M. (2007). Cognitive therapy. In Handbook of Homework Assignments in Psychotherapy. (pp. 51-63). New York: Springer Science.

Brown, J. (1999). Bowen family systems therapy and practice: Illustration and critique. A.N.J.Z. Family Therapy, 20(2), 94-103.
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Counseling Theories Essay

Words: 2191 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31525156

Counseling Theory

Existential therapy, person-centered therapy, and gestalt therapy all fall under the rubric of humanistic psychology. They share a considerable amount of theory, philosophy, and practice. Yet each of these practices is stemmed in its own theoretical framework; therefore, existential, person-centered, and gestalt therapies differ in key ways. Recent scholarship on existential, person-centered, and gestalt therapies builds on the rich canon of literature in these three core humanistic traditions, but is more than just summative. The following review of literature shows how existential therapy, person-centered therapy, and gestalt therapy are practiced in the 21st century, and in so doing, reveals the similarities and differences between these three humanistic psychological frameworks.

Existential Therapy

Existential therapy has been called "a way of thinking rather than…a particular style of practicing," (Corey, 2008, p. 216). Corey (2008) claims that existential therapy is "not a separate school or a neatly defined, systematic model with specific therapeutic techniques," (p. 216). Instead, there are several existential therapies that can be loosely grouped together due to their common concerns with existential themes. These themes eschew behaviorism and emphasize personal freedom of choice (Corey, 2008). The four ultimate focal points of existential therapy are death, freedom, existential isolation, and meaninglessness (Corey, 2008). The universal themes addressed in existential therapy are therefore applicable to a modern counseling scenario in which the client population will be from diverse ethnic and cultural backgrounds, possessing different political points-of-view, and having different life experiences (Schneider & Krug, 2010). Emphasis on diversity in therapy is a relatively new trend in existential therapy (Schneider & Krug, 2010).

Because of its emphasis on personal freedom and free will, existential therapists will emphasize personal responsibility when working with clients. An existential therapist will shun even the word "victim," and instead asks the client to choose his or her reality (Corey, 2008). The therapist will also coach the client to explore various alternatives, especially those that had not before been considered.

The search for meaning is primary…… [Read More]

Ceil, C. (2012). Person-centered therapy. Social Science Electronic Publishing. Available at SSRN: or

Corey, G. (2008). The existential approach to groups. Chapter 9 in Theory and Practice of Group Counseling. Cengage.
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Counseling Theories & 8230 THERE Is No Essay

Words: 2699 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41114157

& #8230; in its heyday there was elitism and arrogance among psychoanalysts, a sense of having superior knowledge that set us up for a fall" (Altman, ¶ 3). In a field that claims to possess knowledge of the unconscious, Altman asserts, this constitutes an occupational hazard. To counter the temptation to feel more knowledgeable than others, whether patients or the public in general, therapists who practice psychoanalytic therapy, need to remember that the depths of their own unconscious realms are as unfathomable as those they treat.

Psychoanalysis, nevertheless, possesses particularly valuable offerings, despite numerous attacks on meaning. Due to the fact that people currently, continuing to move faster and faster as they pursue success and security. Consequently, "thoughtfulness and self-reflection get crowded out. People are instrumentalized, working around the clock, on their cell phones and e-mail and Blackberries, allowing themselves to be exploited in the service of the corporate bottom line" (Altman, 2007, ¶ 4). A recent study related in the New York Times and Newsweek, regarding the treatment of depression, found antidepressant medication alone proved superior to psychotherapy alone. The addition of psychotherapy, nevertheless, complemented the efficacy of the medication. One individual who conducted the study contends that as people currently do not have time for psychotherapy; in turn, medication proves to be effective.

In the journal publication, "Whatever happened to symptom substitution?" Warren W. Tryon (2008), Fordham University, Department of Psychology, Bronx, New York, Tryon (2008) examines the empirical evidence for symptom substitution. Tryon contends that without psychoanalytic intervention, a person's ongoing unconscious conflict, will not resolve itself. Tryon explains: "A neurotic symptom is held to be a compromise formed in response to an unresolved conflict between a forbidden unconscious impulse and the ego's defense against it (Tryon, 2008, p. 964)." According to this perception, the symptom is held to be persistent at any time by a coexisting symptom.

Hence, Tryon (2008) argues, if the individual's repressed unconscious wish is not psychoanalytically lifted, the person's underlying neurosis will continue, even if/when his/her therapy smothers the particular symptom the neurosis evidences at the time. While the neurotic conflict persists, the patient's psyche will recall the defensive service the banished symptom.that was previously rendered. Consequently, particularly in severe cases, "the unresolved conflict ought to engender a new symptom" (Tryon, 2008, p. 964). Fifty or so years ago, symptom substitution constituted a significant…… [Read More]

American Journal of Psychotherapy. American Journal of Psychotherapy Belfer

Education Center. Retrieved October 01, 2009 from HighBeam Research:
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Christian Personal Christian Theory of Essay

Words: 2458 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 17212565

Anderson (2000) converses spiritual oppression and how Satan and his fallen angels are in the process of trying to overpower the believers will. He also provides the phases to independence, for example: fake vs. factual, dishonesty vs. truth, resentment vs. tolerance, revolt vs. obedience, arrogance vs. self-effacement, and oppression vs. lack of restrictions. Fake vs. real step show how we need to absorb to recognize God's certainty so we do not fall into Satan's trap. If fall for these tricks of deception then we automatically give up God's truth for what is considered a lie. Dishonesty vs. truth shows that we should battle Satan's trickery with God's reality. If we become deceived then we must do away with any misleading views for the truth that will bring us our liberation.

Bitterness vs. forgiveness is showing us that we do not need to harbor that illness in our hearts because Satan wishes us have this for others so we will not and forgive them just as God would like us to. This will also reason a lot of people to feel much better because then they will not have to carry grudges any longer. Rebellion vs. submission is basically just saying that we need to do away with the rebellion that is against God and then do what he wants so that it will be much easier to succumb to His power in our livelihood once again. As Christians, if we really love God and what the word of God says about him then we will want to submit to our entire life to him. Pride vs. humility part denotes that we need to do away with pride and boasting about the unfruitful things in our flesh and with Satan and then return to a more Godly humility like the way Jesus had performed. Being humble will keep a Christian more closer to God so that Satan will…… [Read More]

A., H.D. (1999). The Anxiety Cure: You Can Find Emotional Tranquility and Wholeness. Thomas Nelson, Inc. .

Adams, E.J. (1986). How to Help People Change: The Four- Step Biblical Process. Grand Rapids: Zondervan .
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Substance Abuse Counseling Theories Substance Essay

Words: 3044 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 13009622

It has been argued that despite this fact, because substance abuse treatment has been developed by men, for men, it emerged "as a single-focused intervention based on the needs of addicted men." (Covington 2008). Without empowering substance abusers whose lives have become severely impaired in terms of basic life functioning, treating the abuse or disability as a purely biological function will have little effect, and only address the physical withdrawal symptoms, and surrendering to the addiction may not address the need to seek out new, positive social relationships and to actively construct an environment that does not facilitate the addiction.

Even addicts with jobs who are minimally socially functional may have social structures revolving around their addiction. In the case of many women in particular, the life pattern of being involved with an abusive partner, which may have driven the women to abuse drugs in the first place, becomes a cycle of addiction and dependence upon an abusive person for self-esteem, access to drugs, and economic support. For patients who are substance abusers in economically deprived area where drug addiction is normalized, removing the patient from the subculture and the environment, and supplementing treatment with vocational support may be more important as the personally-focused, small, anonymous setting of AA or NA. The individual may also need more outside assistance than is typically provided by the person-focused AA approach.

Non 12-step advocates believe treatment must be holistic and consistent, and counselors who focus only on the addiction and cannot assume other issues will "resolve themselves" (Covington 2008). The attitude that other problems may 'resolve themselves' is only appropriate if the other problems have their root cause n the addiction. But a woman married to an abuser, for whom enduring abuse is a common life pattern, may need additional social support for education, vocational assistance, and a way to reconfigure her life and self-esteem, even if she is committed to recovery. "Treatment for women's addictions is apt to be ineffective unless it acknowledges the realities of women's lives, which include…… [Read More]

Bakalar, Nicholas. (2006, July 25). Review sees no advantage in 12-step programs.

The New York Times. Retrieved September 27, 2009 at
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Counseling Therapy Counseling Problem Sexual Identity Essay

Words: 651 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 62228722

Some other factors may also be addressed such as the client's perception of his or her role in homosexuality, if he comes from a culture where it is normal or acceptable for men to be sexually active with other men, so long as he is not sexually passive -- this may affect his sense of his sexual identity as well.

It must be stressed, above all, at the first session, that the counselor cannot provide the client with an all-encompassing answer to his or her dilemmas regarding family and identity. The counselor cannot be the person who gives permission to 'leave,' or the person who orders the individual to 'stay.' Rather, the counselor is there as a sounding board. At this early juncture, once the client's readiness to leave or not leave his current marital session is assessed, it may be helpful to have another counselor deal with the problems the individual's wife will have deal with, should the individual express the desire to reveal his sexuality to his wife, and to leave the relationship.

At the end of the session, it is unlikely that the client will leave with an answer regarding his or her sexuality. However the client will hopefully lead with a blueprint, or a set of guidelines to approaching the subject with his current wife that will initiate a painful, but hopefully a constructive line of dialogue for both the family and the client.

Works… [Read More]

Works Cited:
Gladding, Samuel. (2005) Counseling Theories: Essential Concepts and Applications. New York: Prentice Hall
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Client Centered Theory John S Essay

Words: 2492 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 11258539

But did she mean well sometimes? Or is she always so rude towards you?

Analysis: This example illustrates a long process in a short amount of space, but it helps to point out some aspects of Roger's theory. According to Rogers, such dialogue can be observed with nearly every client as generalizations are broken down to acute experiences (Rogers, 1951). Such breakthroughs in the origins of the problem rely on a patient's freedom to fully express the self while the therapist provides guidance and acceptance (Rogers, 1951). The therapist guides the client as the client comes to understand the reasons for his or her thoughts.

Example 3:

Client: I feel like I can't talk to you, that you have judged me guilty. This feeling sticks with me, I don't know what to do, but I don't like you.

Therapist: So you think I have put you up for trial and judged guilty?

Client: Yes, I can't tell you anything because you don't have any respect for me.

Therapist: Is it me that has no respect for you?

Client: Well maybe I have no respect for myself, or my actions, and I feel I have to be disrespected by you somehow.

Analysis: This show the idea of transference in which a client, for whatever reason, assumes that the therapist is not treating him or her properly and has developed a sort of hatred or dislike for the therapist (Rogers, 1951). It is up to the therapist to overcome these hindrances to therapy by using the client centered theory. That is, the therapist must never show judgment, and must try to help the client to realize that his or her ideals are based on notions within him or her self, and are not based on real evidence.

ANALYSIS believe Carl Roger's theory on client centered therapy is the most effective form, as it recognizes strengths and weaknesses within the treatment of a patient. Rogers himself, admits that "we do not really know what is the essential process…… [Read More]

Bozarth, Jared D., & Brodley, Barbara Temaner. (1991). Actualization: A Functional Concept in Client-Centered Therapy. Handbook of Self-Actualization, Vol. 6, 45-60.

Bugental, J.F.T. (1964). The Third Force in Psychology. Journal of Humanistic Psychology, Vol. 4, No. 1, 19-25.
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Personal Theory of Career and Essay

Words: 3731 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90159360

Gushue, Clarke, Pantzer, et al., (2006) examine the application of social cognitive theories to career counseling, reporting that self-efficacy is a pertinent issue in this process. In particular, these authors report that:

Career decision making self-efficacy refers to the degree to which individuals feel confident in their ability to successfully engage in tasks associated with making a career choice and with commitment to a career. It has also been observed that career-related self-efficacy in general may prove to be an important element in formulating a model of career development...(p. 308).

Gushue and coworkers go on to argue that when career self-efficacy is high, individuals are more assertive in the career counseling process. Thus, by developing career self-efficacy, career counselors can effectively improve interactions with clients and facilitate a greater understanding of client needs with respect to career decision making.

Applying this to the larger context of social learning theory, it becomes evident that social cognitive approaches are clearly influenced by the individual's environment and development. If the client has previously been exposed career decision making or specific types of vocations or occupations, he or she may have a higher degree of self-efficacy when it comes to making decisions in this area. Thus, social learning and the larger environment will have marked ramifications for the cognitive structures that the client uses to understand and integrate career counseling and information. These issues must be addressed by the counselor if he or she is to provide service that is meaningful for the client's overall development.

Synthesizing social cognitive approaches with the other theories noted in this investigation, it becomes clear while each of the approaches is often examined separately in the literature each is connected through the individual. For instance, social cognitive approaches allow for the professional to asses the individual's competence with respect to career decision making. However, this process will be influenced by issues directly related to social development, environment and personality. Thus, it becomes clear that while individual theories can facilitate the educational development of the career counselor, integration is essential to understand the client. Social cognitive approaches appear to provide a culmination point,…… [Read More]

Arbona, C. (2000). Practice and research in career counseling and development -- "1999. Career Development Quarterly, 49(2), 98-134.

Flores, L.Y., Scott, a.B., Wang, Y.W., et al., (2003). Annual review: Practice and research in career counseling and development -- "2002. Career Development Quarterly, 52, 98-131.
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Counseling the Environment Can Have Essay

Words: 2423 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 503442

This is accomplished by using a number of different tactics in conjunction with each other to include: examining their lifestyle, developing client insights, establishing a strong relationship with the patient and creating a change in behavior. When interacting with children, these views are used to comprehend how: their connections with friends and family members are influencing their desire to be accepted. ("Theories of Counseling," 2010) (R, Tice, personal communication, October 25, 2012)

The Freudian approach is looking at how the child is developing base upon their relationship with others and the way they are dealing with the different stages in their lives. These include: studying the unconscious mind, analyzing dreams, examining the effects on the id / ego / superego and psychosexual development. The combination of these factors are designed to provide the therapist with a complete picture of what events are impacting the social, mental and emotional development of a child. When this takes place, they will be able to understand how their relationship with friends and family members are contributing to the challenges they are facing. (Storr, 1989) (R, Tice, personal communication, October 25, 2012)

The cognitive approach is when there is a focus on understanding how the child will interpret and analyze different events. During this process, the private practice clinician will work with the patient to see how their thoughts are impacting their behavior. When this happens, they can bring about changes in how: children are interacting with others, their self-esteem and attitudes towards the future. This is the point that they can have a transformation in their beliefs. ("Theories of Counseling," 2010) (R, Tice, personal communication, October 25, 2012)

When comparing the two, it is clear that school counselors that will use different tools to influence the attitudes of students. During the course of their activities is when they must utilize a combination of them together. This is because there are a host of situations and personalities that they are dealing with. While private practice clinicians, could focus on using one single approach or a variety of them. This is from the professional…… [Read More]

School Counseling. (2012). All About Counseling. Retrieved from: 

School Counselors. (2012). Kids Health. Retrieved from:
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Counseling Giving a Hand Counseling Essay

Words: 3049 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38221058

Defense mechanisms, the unconscious, coping mechanisms, self-actualization and archetypes are other examples. The ultimate and most useless example is the "little person," that resides in everyone and explains his behavior. These include ideas like soul, mind, ego, will, self and personality. Skinner, instead, suggests that psychologists should put their energies on what is observable, such as the environment and human behavior occurring in the environment (Boeree).

Person-Centered Therapy

This therapy states three core conditions under which growth may occur (Mulhauser,

2011). These core conditions proceed from the assumption that a person naturally possesses the inner resources for growth. He is the best authority on his own experience. He also believes in his capability to realize his own potential for growth. The therapy, however, recognizes that the realization depends on favorable conditions. Under adverse conditions, a person is often denied unconditional acceptance and positive regard. He then fails to apprehend the true meaning of his own experience. His tendency to grow in meaningful directions is often stunted. Conditional acceptance leads him to incorporate conditions to acceptance into their own self-views. These may include concepts like never being late or always respecting other or keeping the house clean. In the pursuit of positive regard, a person prefers to be that kind of person others expect him to be. Being anything else will risk losing their positive regard. In time, his identity and self-valuation are often replaced by the preferred identity created by others for him. He allows people's judgments and meaning to replace his genuine own. Psychological disruptions develop when his self-concept collide with immediate personal experience. This happens when his own sense or judgment conflicts with the infused self-concept of "ought" from others. These disturbances tend to persist for as long as he depends on the conditional positive judgments imposed by others for self-worth. They also persist for as long as he relies on a self-concept partly derived from positive judgments. His experiences, which clash or challenge infused self-concept, are likely to be confusing or denied in…… [Read More]

Retrieved on February 8, 2011 from

Steven, J.C. (2010). Common counseling theories. Basic Counseling Skills. Retrieved on February 8, 2011 from
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Theory Counseling Exist Giving a Background Fit Essay

Words: 1063 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 24351985

theory counseling exist, giving a background fit views personality. My views: Life experiences play a vital role's life. These experiences negatively positively effect future. Our life choice, decide destiny.

In today's mental health services, almost anyone either with a university degree or by paying some fees upon following specific courses, can call himself a therapist or a counselor. That professional training is not required when practicing psychotherapy is either something to be worrying us a lot or something we should be thankful for. In the first case, people may be misleading themselves into thinking they can treat patients with mental health issues simply because they've been accredited by nonaccredited training programs. When information is poor and experience is less, we must consider that patients' situation can either not improve or even worsen. On the other hand, there may be a lot of individuals out there with prolific abilities into treating people: alcohol counselors, nurses with a relevant master's degree, etc. What is relevant here is that, in any of these cases, therapists can incorporate some previous either academic or life experience into the way they conduct therapies. A counselor who experienced addictive behavior himself can now empathize with his patients on a different level. Likewise, a nurse's work environment is likely to have helped the former nurse, now therapist into applying counseling more efficiently. But, generally speaking, when applying therapies, the most important aspect, we would believe is to know oneself. Because of the various approaches in treating patients with mental health issues, it is relevant to match our personality to the techniques because it would affect our work positively. Also, feeling confident about ourselves reflects on our patients and thus on their situation. We have found that our beliefs and core values identify, in regards to theories of counseling, with existential counseling and transactional analysis. That is to say…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
Corey, G. (2012). Theory and practice of counseling and psychotherapy (9th ed.). Belmont, CA: Brooks/Cole.

May, R. (1950). The meaning of anxiety. New York, N.Y.: The Ronald Press Company.

Stewart, I. (1992). Eric Berne. London, California, New Delhi: SAGE Publications Inc.
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Personal Experience Essay

Words: 1532 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90306543

Education: Is there additional information you would like us to know in order for us to evaluate your undergraduate record?

My family never gave me advice, discussion, or thought about college. They felt that it was not their role to decide what I was to become; without their input I was left to decipher the world with my own eyes and to decide myself what I was to become.

A never realized in the earlier grades how important high school success, measured by GPA, would be in my future life. As a result of this oversight, I was unable to attend a university immediately. My undergraduate career began at a community college and was completed at Arizona State University. These years were a time of great personal growth, but I was unprepared for the pressures of college life. I did not excel as a student during the first few years of college. Although I enjoyed my independence, I had low self-esteem and no clear goals. After failing two courses in the first semester of my freshman year, I suffered mentally and emotionally.

Beginning the second semester of my freshman year, I embarked on a personal journey. I began to acquire knowledge of a different kind and to understand who I was from the inside out. In pursuit of this knowledge, I entered psychotherapy. Through therapy I developed a sense of enthusiasm and an understanding of how my past experiences affected my ability to function emotionally and academically.

In my junior year, I made an earnest effort to improve my grades. Dedicated to this goal, I was finally able to transfer to Arizona State University and complete a Bachelor (of XXXXXXX Arts/Sciences) in four years.

My undergraduate education base is broad and includes research in several interrelated areas of study, including communication, psychology, and sociology. Exposure to these fields led me to complete my Bachelor's degree in Communication. Effective communication is crucial to all aspects of life, and is requisite for therapists. Communication skills are essential to a therapist's success: by being sensitive to the needs of clients, a therapist can foster growth…… [Read More]

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Amalgamation of Counseling Theories Essay

Words: 4501 Length: 14 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 18822730

Integrative Approach to Counseling

The theories that the author will compare and contrast within this document include gestalt theory, choice theory and its practical application, reality therapy, and psychoanalytic therapy. There are definite points of similarity and variance between these theories. The natural starting point for comparison and contrasting lies with an analysis of gestalt theory and choice theory/reality therapy. Gestalt theory was largely founded by Frederick Perls (Wagner-Moore, 2004, p. 180) and Miriam and Erwing Polster (Jacobs, 2010, p. 25), whereas Glasser is widely credited with launching the notion of reality theory (Bradley, 2014, p. 6). A critical point of similarity between these theories is that they are unequivocally focused on the present, or the proverbial 'here and now' of the patient and his or her cognitive, emotional, and physical states. Interestingly enough, these theories take different perspectives for addressing those present needs of the individuals counseled. The primary distinction between them is that gestalt theory acknowledges a direct correlation between the past and lingering emotions or events that affected an individual's past and the present. Choice theory and reality therapy, on the other hand, makes a point to deliberately forsake critical aspects of the past (Bradley, 2014, p. 6). Subsequently, the true point of distinction in the focus on temporal causative agents is that reality therapy is a lot less willing to acknowledge the role that the unconscious mind plays in the sort of difficulties an individual may have. Gestalt theory, however, attributes a good deal of significance to the unconscious -- which either may or may not be related to the past -- and attempts to explicate and work through it in order to best help an individual. The degree of emphasis on the unconscious is a point which greatly relates to psychoanalytic theory, which was arguably most popularized by Sigmund Freud (Bornstein, 2010, p. 133). Freud did some of the pioneering work on the notion of an unconscious mind and its effects that it can produce on people in present times, which may have stemmed from earlier events. Psychoanalytic theory, for the most part, is concerned…… [Read More]

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Counseling Master Questionnaire Counseling Questionnaire Define Research Essay

Words: 4305 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 85640226

Counseling Master Questionnaire

Counseling Questionnaire

Define research

A counseling session with an individual may qualify research as, putting together of information and understandings, followed by determination of validity of the conclusions and activities central on the shared knowledge (McLeod, 2003 p.4). A working definition of research is; an organized course of decisive investigation resulting to legitimate suggestions and conclusions, which are conveyed to other interested people. Based on this definition, there are several concepts that need evaluation. Critical inquiry is the drive whereby human beings are curious to know, learn and offer solutions to problems. As a process, research includes steps or stages, which further relies on observation, reflection and experimentation.

In the case of systematic, this means that research takes place within a theoretical system, and research includes application of principles aiming at achieving valid information. Results of research are propositions meaning that, after a research, there is a need to communicate the results to the public domain. Validity is the concept of authenticity of a research. Therefore, every research should provide empirical evidence into the problem. Finally, research is communicated to interest others, meaning that research studies offer a person, pieces of information that combine to form the complexity of the literature on the subject matter (McLeod, 2003, p.4).

2) Why is research important for counselors based on McLeod's perspective?

According to McLeod (2003, p. 1-2) research is significant to counselors for various reasons. Research has helped counselors gain a broad perspective. Research studies allow counselors to learn from works of other counselors hence increasing their knowledge in a broad perspective. Research has also assisted counselors develop new ideas. This is because counseling and psychotherapy are emerging professions, meaning that there are constant advancements in theory and innovations. Another significance of research is that counselors can apply counseling in new areas. This is mainly because of the development of methods, which has led to emerging of new clients.

3) Explain the philosophical tensions of what research is according to McLeod's perspective

The aim of McLeod's book…… [Read More]

McLeod. J. (2003). Doing counseling research (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Crotty, M. (2005). The foundations of social research: Meaning and perspectives in the research process. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
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Counseling Psychotherapy Why Counseling Life Can Be Essay

Words: 1958 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 4347584

Counseling Psychotherapy

Why Counseling?

Life can be shattering. Deception, lies, and tremendous heartache can derail the most prodigious, honest, and sincere individual. Devastation can acquiescent a beautiful and wonderful spirit into a horrendous downward spiral to where there appears to be no hope. When our 'bubble' of a world is popped, we often become disoriented, unable to ascertain the fact from fiction, and can then start having negative and harmful thoughts.

Given the circumstances to which I have had to overcome, a tremendous amount of resolve was required, which enabled me to persevere through my darkest moments. Betrayal and heartache can ruin one's perception of what life is about. Indeed, there are many who never enjoy the love or reach a pinnacle of happiness that I've enjoyed. To these individuals, I feel my empathy given my triumphs and set backs will undoubtedly enable a clear perspective, rich with insight to each and every client that comes to me seeking help.

Additionally, my thoughts of suicide were a subconscious release of the stresses and morose that I had felt during the moments that revolved around my boyfriend and the circumstances of what was a promising love life and a bright and happy future with a committed partner. Men and women often suffer from deceit and heartbreak. The manner to which one addresses these unfortunate circumstances and to how they respond to building their life back is the critical aspect.

The empathetic counselor I truly believe is the most effective. To understand the nature of a mental and physical breakdown is imperative to enabling a client in need to reassess their life and provide a new sense of self given the overwhelming circumstances that life can often bring our way.

My desire to help others in emotional distress is reflective of the help I needed during my time of tribulation. I did not have a support group or access to a trained or empathetic individual that was capable of understanding specifically how my life was drastically affected by the acts of my partner within the parameters of our committed relationship. Granted, the dishonesty that led to my partner's trouble is perhaps a blessing in disguise, as there was a chance this…… [Read More]

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Counseling for Mental Health Professionals Working With Essay

Words: 1085 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14279514


For mental health professionals, working with patients can be challenging. This is because they will have issues that could be directly associated with their condition. In the movie One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest, it is discussing these problems. To fully understand how this relates to crisis theory and intervention requires comparing different scenes from the film that are relevant. This will be accomplished by focusing on: the precipitating event, identifying the type of crisis, examining the material / personal / social resources available, studying the different perspectives, looking at how it was handled by the protagonist, suggesting coping skills, discussing referral sources that are available and biblical perspectives. Together, these elements will provide specific insights as to the way it is illustrating crisis theory and intervention challenges.

Identify precipitating events

The main event is when Randal Patrick McMurphy is sent to a mental hospital from the state prison. He is at a work farm serving a sentence for the statutory rape of 15-year-old girl. Many people believe that he is not sick and is trying to avoid doing hard labor. While others think that he is a violent sociopath with passive aggressive traits. (Wright, 2011) (Douglas & Forman, 1975)

This creates a situation where he will engage in actions to demonstrate that something is wrong with him. In a number of instances, this results in some kind of deviant behavior. As time goes by, his outbursts become more violent and focused on the staff inside the facility. This is when he begins to direct his anger at Nurse Ratched. She is in charge of the ward and is often seen as someone who is influencing his attitudes. The movie ends after McMurphy is given a frontal lobotomy from an attempted escape attempt and trying to kill Nurse Ratched. (Wright, 2011) (Douglas & Forman, 1975)

Identify the type of crisis (Situational, Developmental, Existential)

The crisis is based upon situational and developmental factors. The way that it is situational, is many of the…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
Holly Bible New International Version. (1985). Oak Ridge, TN: Gideon's International.

How Do I Find a Local Support Group. (2012). NMHA. Retrieved from:
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Counseling and Coaching Coaching Case Study Key Essay

Words: 1108 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10342089

Counseling and Coaching

Coaching: Case Study

Key Differences Between Coaching and Counseling

In considering the case of Antti Kytolandd it is critical to differentiate his possible mental health needs from those that are strictly work performance issues. As we consider the differences between formal psychological counseling and employment coaching models it is obvious that there are key differences in the approaches and the most useful and correct approach can often be determined by the client's specific needs (Egan, 1998). To that end it's critical to first consider Antti's overall mental health and stability prior to making key decisions regarding how to counsel or coach him.

The main differences between counseling and coaching lie in the fact that coaching clients are primarily well functioning individuals seeking ways in which to actively participate in the improvement of personal or employment issues. In a psychological counseling model clients may have an underlying mental health disorder or pathology that causes them to behave dysfunctionally, blocking their professional progress and personal growth. One key aspect of psychological treatment is to consider the medical and clinical aspects of the presenting issues. A psychologist or psychiatrist would likely make a full assessment of Antti's personal situation and develop a treatment plan based on a combination of counseling and any necessary medical interventions.

Antti's case is not completely well suited for basic coaching interventions in the employment or human resources setting because he is displaying symptoms of psychological distress. He has displayed increasingly erratic behavior including fits of inappropriate anger and disorganized thought, such as refusing a career promotion and displaying what may be paranoid thoughts regarding his present employers. His current situation seems characterized by obvious signs of mental distress and the possible onset of a major mental health disorder. He has lost weight, he is not sleeping, and close friends report a major change in his personality and interpersonal behaviors. It's fairly clear that a basic coaching intervention may…… [Read More]

Egan, G. (1998) The Skilled Helper: A problem Management and Opportunity Development Approach. Thomson Learning.

Glassman, W., Hadad, M. (2009) Approaches To Psychology. Open University Press
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Personal & Organizational Ethics Personal and Organizational Essay

Words: 2664 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88810160


Personal and Organizational Ethics Values for, for-Profit and Non-Profit Organizations

Ethics is a requirement of the society to both individuals and organizations. Ethics are applied to business and personal behaviors, and are used to determine how companies and individuals abide to policies. To indicate the application of ethical principles in organizations, an analysis is carried out of For-Profit and Non-For-Profit organizations, in this case Bank of America and Boys Club of America. This is by analyzing an ethical dilemma they are experiencing, their approach to the problem, and the legal, political, and social outcomes emerging from this cause of action.

Part One

The Boys Clubs of America is a non-for-profit organization founded in 1860s in Harford, Connecticut Formed with the aim of giving boys who roamed the streets a positive alternative. The club has undergone major changes beginning in 191 when several boys' clubs affiliated to form the federated boys clubs and later the Boys Club of America (BCOA, 2011). It later changed to the Boys and Girls Club of America in 1990 after incorporating girls to fulfill the mission that enables young people, especially those with needs to reach their full potential as caring, responsible, and productive citizens. Currently the club's headquarters are in Atlanta, Georgia, with major branches in Dallas, Chicago, Los Angeles, and New York. The clubs employs 51,000 professionals, 218,000 volunteers, and 26,000 board volunteers (BCOA, 2011). The club focuses in key areas of development like leadership, career and education, character, arts, health, and life skills. They also work with specialized programs like Latino outreach, gang and delinquency prevention, and unity among the youth (BCOA, 2011). The organization is based on a congressional charter with the government under title 36, with part of its funds coming from the government and others from member and corporate donations.

The Boys and Girls Clubs of America…… [Read More]

Anonymous. (2009, Dec 16). Boys & Girls Clubs of America, Lowe's Announces $1 Million

Bach, R. (2010, March). A Letter from our Chairman Emeritus: March 2010. Retrieved from Boys and Girls Club of America: 
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Counseling Is Described by Kobeisy as the Essay

Words: 5150 Length: 17 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 51824402

Counseling is described by Kobeisy as the professional form of guidance that is aimed at addressing concerns as well as aid individuals in improving their attitude, coping skills as well as behavior (Kobeisy 1).Counseling can help people, families as well as groups in achieving optimal growth and development for the stages of life in which they go through. Counseling as a profession has many specialties like marriage, grief, and pastoral as well as career. It is worth noting that apart from pastoral counseling, the field of counseling is meant to be a free.This is to imply that the counselor should be open minded while approaching their clients with an attitude that is non-judgmental. They are also not allowed to impose or even direct their clients. The counseling process should therefore help the clients to clearly see their choices, appropriately set their objectives while making the necessary changes in order to realize their goals. In order to practice as a professional counselor, a master degree in counseling is the bare minimum that must be attained by the practitioner (Kobeisy 1). As a consequence of increasing level of diversity in the U.S. And the rest of the world, a multicultural perspective has been added as a necessary component in all forms of counseling. This implies that there is specialization in counseling. In order to possess the necessary knowledge and competency as a counselor, it is necessary to possess three different skills. The counselor must have the skill, knowledge and awareness of self, client as well as counseling approaches.

In regard to self, the counselor should have the ability to recognize their sources of information, the possible biases as well as faulty assumptions regarding others as well as understand their strengths and limitations. In regard to the client, the counselor should be aware of the opinion of the client in a manner…… [Read More]

Caldwell, Benjamin E, Woolley, Scott R, Caldwell, Casey J. Preliminary estimates of costeffectiveness for marital therapy. Journal of Marital and Family Therapy, 33:392 -- 405, 2007

Carr, Alan. Family Therapy: Concepts Process and Practice (2nd edn). Chichester:
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Counseling Supervision Leads to a Essay

Words: 2108 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 1596646

Frankel (2008) argues that formal on-to-one supervision facilitates positive staff development. . Effective supervision practice promotes professional growth and development. An individual staff needs to interact always with a supervisor to enhance knowledge development. With the shortcoming identified in the supervision practice in various professions and my work place, the paper provides recommendations to enhance supervisory practice.

Recommendations to enhance Supervisory Practice.

Ideal supervisory practice requires good communication. Within a work environment, an organization should make it mandatory for a supervisor to implement effective communication with the supervisees to enhance the professional development.

Moreover, an organization should provide enough time for a supervisor to implement an effective supervisory role. For example, in my place of work, my supervisor always complains of lack of time. This means that my supervisor has been given more jobs that she can cope with, and this has affected her supervisory role. To avoid this issue, an organization should allow a supervisor a free work place to perform his or her supervisory roles.

In addition, supervisors should go for the regular trainings to enhance their skills in the supervisory practices. By going for regular trainings, supervisors will understand their commitments towards the supervisees. They would be able to understand that they perform important roles towards the professional development of supervisees, and this understanding will make them to be more committed to their jobs.


The essay explores the statement of Koster (2003), which states "supervision leads to a mental and emotional education that can guide practical work, frees from fixed patterns of experience and behaviour and promotes the willingness as well as the ability to act suitably, carefully and courageously." (pp. 1-2). The paper identifies several important contributions of supervision towards the professional development. The concept counselling is also been viewed to go hand-in-hand with supervision. To implement effective supervision within an organization, a supervisor needs develop counselling skills to perform his supervisory roles.

Several benefits of supervision have been identified.…… [Read More]

ACCEL (2011). Productive Workplaces People, Job and Environment. Theory and Practice. ACCEL Handbook.

Australian Institute of Professional Counselors, (2011). The Importance of Counseling Supervision. AIPC Article Library.