Counseling Master Questionnaire Counseling Questionnaire Define Research Questionnaire

Length: 15 pages Sources: 1+ Subject: Psychology Type: Questionnaire Paper: #85640226 Related Topics: Counseling, Personal Counseling Theory, Counseling Theory, Pluralism

Excerpt from Questionnaire :

Counseling Master Questionnaire Counseling Questionnaire

Define research

A counseling session with an individual may qualify research as, putting together of information and understandings, followed by determination of validity of the conclusions and activities central on the shared knowledge (McLeod, 2003 p.4). A working definition of research is; an organized course of decisive investigation resulting to legitimate suggestions and conclusions, which are conveyed to other interested people. Based on this definition, there are several concepts that need evaluation. Critical inquiry is the drive whereby human beings are curious to know, learn and offer solutions to problems. As a process, research includes steps or stages, which further relies on observation, reflection and experimentation.

In the case of systematic, this means that research takes place within a theoretical system, and research includes application of principles aiming at achieving valid information. Results of research are propositions meaning that, after a research, there is a need to communicate the results to the public domain. Validity is the concept of authenticity of a research. Therefore, every research should provide empirical evidence into the problem. Finally, research is communicated to interest others, meaning that research studies offer a person, pieces of information that combine to form the complexity of the literature on the subject matter (McLeod, 2003, p.4).

2) Why is research important for counselors based on McLeod's perspective?

According to McLeod (2003, p. 1-2) research is significant to counselors for various reasons. Research has helped counselors gain a broad perspective. Research studies allow counselors to learn from works of other counselors hence increasing their knowledge in a broad perspective. Research has also assisted counselors develop new ideas. This is because counseling and psychotherapy are emerging professions, meaning that there are constant advancements in theory and innovations. Another significance of research is that counselors can apply counseling in new areas. This is mainly because of the development of methods, which has led to emerging of new clients.

3) Explain the philosophical tensions of what research is according to McLeod's perspective

The aim of McLeod's book Doing Counseling Research is to enable efficient research in the field of counseling; however, it is misleading to represent counseling research as a straightforward matter following specific guidelines (McLeod, 2003, p.6). This has resulted to severe conflicts within the research field in relation to what constitutes valid research techniques. To avoid such conflicts, counseling researchers should consider the choices they make when they come up with research designs when carrying out research. Most of the choices will require philosophical considerations.

It is apparent that research in counseling does not follow the philosophy of science; McLeod claims that the concepts in philosophy work well when incorporated in evolution of sciences such as physics and chemistry (McLeod, 2003, p.7). However, trying to fit science in counseling and psychotherapy will lead to difficulties. In addition, copying the techniques of sciences in social and human sciences will lead to failure. From this perspective, McLeod suggest that it is wrong to conceptualize people as objects that can fit into experiments because it is not possible to manipulate people similarly to physical entities.

4) What are the conditions that Roger suggests for personality change to occur from McLeod's perspective?

The person-centered approach is a psychological approach to an individual, which has the capacity to reorganize behavior. Owing to this approach, Roger suggests some psychological conditions, which may aid in personality change. He suggests that, although there is criticism concerning the human nature, as being naive and overly optimistic, such representations do not deny human beings the ability to have destructive thoughts; however, it also emphasizes the potential of personal development. In addition, a belief in the goodness of the client is fundamental, whereby, the client having had some experience to the counselor's attitudes can have potential influence in consequent behavior re-organization. Therefore, it is possible to help a client to change personally if the following condition is met; developing a relationship embodied with values, which will in turn make him or her discover his or her strengths and move toward finding solutions making personal sense individually (McLeod, 2003).

5) Explain the process outcome research in detail with all its components from McLeod's perspective

Outcome research aimed at offering a comprehensive piece of research. The studies provide results that affect healthcare process on the health of patients. This is because the approach incorporates ethical and professional safeguards. In addition, Sloane et al. (1975) first used this approach, but later faced criticism (p. 120). The study aimed at identifying whether counseling is a beneficial process for the client. However, outcome research is a difficult process, which has some threats of validity.


Threats to internal validity include statistical regression, selection biases, differential attrition rates and external events. Threats to external validity include test reactivity, reactivity of experimental arrangements, findings confined to specific environments and pre-test sensitization (p. 122). The process of outcome research is one that has offered substantial innovation and activity in the field of counseling (p. 121).
6) Explain methodological pluralism

Methodological pluralism is the use of numerous theoretical approaches and methodological models in the course of scientific practice. However, in the field of counseling research, it is apparent that there are alternative methodological alternatives. In psychology and medicine, the traditional method of research is dominant. On the other hand, there is qualitative research highly influenced by classical phenomenology. Therefore, methodological pluralism will have to show or incorporate these approaches for it to fit in counseling research. A typical example in counseling research is Howard (1983) who utilized methodological pluralism.

He proposed that in order to comprehend the needs of humanity, one should consider several ontological views, various perceptions on humanity and utilize multiplicity of empirical research techniques. He further suggested that in order to understand humanity, methodological pluralism will facilitate the understanding. However, there was a challenge on how to put together findings from different perspectives into a single picture of human activity. In response, Howard (1983) suggested that researchers would determine whether conclusions on similar problems resulted to contradictory results (McLeod 2003, p. 179).

7) Explain the strategies for combining qualitative and quantitative research

One of the strategies for combining qualitative and quantitative research is the use of the triangulation technique. Triangulation utilizes the combination of survey questionnaires with non-standard interviews (Hauser, 2009, p. 149). The core principle in triangulation is that if various types of data offer similar conclusions, there is an increase in the conclusions (Hauser, 2009, p. 149). In addition, sequencing is another strategy that may help in combining qualitative and quantitative methods. A typical is a study has a qualitative phase of data followed by a quantitative stage of evaluating the data, whereby interviews are coded, and coding frequencies is determined; the evaluation of data may involve the construction of types by utilizing numerous evaluations. Another approach is by "hybrids" which originally comprise of a combination of the two methods of research. The aspects may have close packing to avoid differentiation, systematic content evaluation that combines the qualitative coding of information with the quantitative determination of coefficients of agreement.

8) Name the current criticism of therapy research by practitioners from McLeod's perspective

There are several criticisms apparent in therapy research. Owing to the fact that most of counseling and psychotherapy research occur within the field of psychology, as cited by (Heaton p.193) suggests that it is not advisable to base therapy on psychology. In addition, he suggests that theoretical work in therapy should foster recognition of the limits of language and the emerging context (McLeod, 2003 p. 193).

9) Explain the contributions of counseling to research

In recent years, counseling psychology has emerged as one of the most self-concerned disciplines that aim at helping professions. In addition, counseling has also contributed a lot in research. For instance, counseling has contributed to research in a manner that has led to emerging of other professions in the same field. In addition, through the interventions such as healing, which are outcomes of counseling, has led to further research on the effectiveness of counseling on clients. This means that counseling has led to the development of models such as the personal centered models, which help people to change individually and enhance personal development. Another significant contribution of counseling is that it has led to further research whereby scholars have produced numerous literatures and enhanced knowledge on counseling.

10) What is the role of theory from McLeod's perspective?

McLeod suggests that the role of theory is a significant issue in counseling and psychotherapy research. However, theory has offered significant assistance in this field of research. For instance, some researchers have utilized theoretical approaches, whereby their work has aimed at testing or extending the model. Theory assists the researchers to develop methods and instruments that allow them to measure theoretical designs such as self-concepts or important conflicting relationship arguments. In addition, the role of theory helps in conducting research according to the "grounded theory" methodology.

The model involves the collection of detailed accounts of personal experience, an afterwards coding the material in a way that provided meanings to emerge into the theory that is strongly…

Sources Used in Documents:


McLeod. J. (2003). Doing counseling research (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Crotty, M. (2005). The foundations of social research: Meaning and perspectives in the research process. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Houser. R. (2009). Counseling and educational research: Evaluation and application. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Cite this Document:

"Counseling Master Questionnaire Counseling Questionnaire Define Research" (2013, October 28) Retrieved October 4, 2023, from

"Counseling Master Questionnaire Counseling Questionnaire Define Research" 28 October 2013. Web.4 October. 2023. <>

"Counseling Master Questionnaire Counseling Questionnaire Define Research", 28 October 2013, Accessed.4 October. 2023,

Related Documents
Rick Houser's Book Counseling and Educational Research
Words: 6074 Length: 15 Pages Topic: Psychology Paper #: 60383503

RICK HOUSER'S BOOK COUNSELING AND EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH Rick Houser's book "Counseling and Educational Research" Rick Houser's book "Counseling and Educational Research" Why is it important to acquire necessary skills in research for a counselor? Clinical counselors are doctoral-level providers of health services skilled in counseling clients while evaluating and treating emotional and mental disorders utilizing scientific theories and methods. Adequate interpersonal correspondence skills are imperative. A clinical counselor must have the ability to listen

Conselling Master Questionnaire Describe the Boolean Approach
Words: 4070 Length: 15 Pages Topic: Education - Mathematics Paper #: 6118072

Conselling Master Questionnaire Describe the Boolean Approach (Hauser, 2009 p. 18) In order to use counseling databases to search for information, it is important to develop appropriate search practices. The terms one types when searching will most likely provide the results owing to their meaning. Therefore, it is up to an individual to come up with a search strategy and learn the tips of using counseling databases. The tips will assist an

Counseling Groups Give Members the
Words: 9035 Length: 30 Pages Topic: Psychology Paper #: 57245828

" This involves coming up with a list of the consequences of reacting to an event (Budman, 1992). This means that they describe what emotions the activating event made them feel. The principles facilitate being rational because they shift focus from emotions to logic. The group gets an opportunity to look at the problems they face from a rational perspective, which creates room for possibilities. Thinking rationally helps in creating many

Quantitative Research Critique of Buprenorphine Induction in Primary...
Words: 1533 Length: 5 Pages Topic: Psychology Paper #: 3277318

Buprenorphine Induction in Primary Care Abstract of the study provides a clear overview of the study. It introduces the uses of the buprenorphine in the primary care settings and the study grouped in the case. It provides the methodology used to study and analyze the topic. For example, it uses different methods of collecting data such as assessment, follow-ups, urine toxicology testing, and measurement of the primary outcomes associated with

Survey for Online and Land Based Counseling Students Self Effiacy
Words: 836 Length: 3 Pages Topic: Counseling Paper #: 92243073

Perceptions of Self-Efficacy Among Counseling Students Today, increasing numbers of college students are enrolled in online courses that either supplement or entirely replace traditional land-based counseling graduate degree programs (Smith, Mcaullife & Rippard, 2014). These trends may have an effect on the respective levels of self-efficacy that counseling students develop as a result of their online or land-based coursework. To help determine the extent of these differences, if they exist,

Justification for the Research Page
Words: 12922 Length: 40 Pages Topic: Teaching Paper #: 39447745

S. were "proficient in reading and math," Pytel explains. These statistics "loudly states that students entering high school" are simply not prepared, Pytel goes on. Moreover, U.S. students do not fare well on the international educational stage. At a time when globalization has brought much closer linkage between cultures, economies, and countries, American school children are lagging behind. The justification for focusing on strategies to keep children interested in school