¶ … inclusion" is not part of the law; instead, it states that each student must be educated in the least restrictive educational environment (LRE). Analyze all sides of "inclusion," (1. full inclusion; 2. inclusion in special classes like physical education, art, or lunch; and 3. inclusion in all classes except for reading or math). Kindergarten to Grade Twelve. The focus of literacy should begin right after the children gain access to education at schools and should continue till they reach college and are planning out goals for their careers. The elementary teachers are the main people who create the foundation of these skills that are important for every student to learn. They plan and create content that specifically focuses on linguistic analysis, oratory, literary study, English language; whole critical thinking, listening, speaking, writing and reading are integrated alongside. Similarly, children with special needs also require the same attention because the level of their learning abilities is not equal to the general students which means that providing them with inclusive education would help not only to build their confidence but also to learn things that aligns with their own level (Evers, 2011).
The term 'inclusion' means complete acceptance of every student which leads towards sense of acceptance and belonging in the classroom. Over the years, there has not been any fixed definition of inclusion, but different groups and organizations have provided their own definitions. The most basic definition of 'inclusion' states that every student with special needs are supported in 'chronologically age appropriate general education classes' in schools and get the instructions specialized for them by the Individual Education Programs (IEPs) within the general activities of the class and the main curriculum. The idea of 'inclusion' is to ensure the presence of disabled students at school along with the neighbours and friends of their community while at the same time receiving specially designed support and instructions that they require in order to get high standards and gain success in learning (FDDC, 2012).
Inclusion has different aspects which takes into consideration the severity of disability. Full Inclusion is one aspect in which every student, without taking into consideration their disability or the severity of it, would be in the regular programs of schools (Power, 2010). This term has faced a lot of issues when it comes to learning and education of the students with special needs. These children have slow judgmental capacities which need proper attention and many professionals have stated that these students would learn best in the inclusive programs in school. On the other hand, the professionals in favour of full inclusion state that every child should go through full time programs at schools and that the disabled children should also be placed in general classrooms going through general curriculum. Different researches show that several approaches were used to plan the inclusive programs. An analysis of such information was provided that showed how these programs were planned and carried out (McLeskey & Waldron, 2011).
Inclusion in Physical Education
A lot of researchers have discussed different advantages of physical education that 'inclusion' can bring in such programs. The students with disabilities are required to polish their life skills so that they can make use of them in the longer run. Physical education includes preparing for living as adults so that the children are given the opportunity to become a contributing and beneficial member. A different and separate setting might not give the individual the opportunity to function their skills in the work environments as they do not have enough opportunities to develop their skills, values and attitudes that are important to go through life as an independent member. Schools on the other hand provide the students to practice skills that they learn every day and then apply them to different settings where needed. This develops a sense of belonging in them as well as boosts their self-confidence and self-esteem. The students with special needs in a physical education surrounding gain a lot of opportunities to grow academically as well as socially because they are among their peers and get a chance to interact with them. This gives them different experiences from which they learn several things (Power, 2010).
Inclusion in all classes
The ability to think, speak, listen, write, perform and read in a variety of ways and purposes starts developing at the early stage of a child and also becomes important for the student in order to pursue different fields as he or she further grows up and studies. The Technical Subjects, History, Social Studies and Science, which are under the Common Core State Standards (CCSS) are linked with College and Career Readiness Standards (CCRS) which provides guidance to the students to help meet the challenges of literacy in every subject. This particular effort is also known as disciplinary literacy (Evers, 2011). Every subject is important and the development of every child in all the subjects is also of importance. The Common Core State Standards for Technical Subjects, History, Social Studies and Science provides standards for six to twelve ...
Justify which side you as a school leader would support.
As a school leader, I support two perspectives in which the disabled children are included as well as excluded from some programs. In my opinion, the children should experience the environment of the school but at the same time be provided with inclusive programs. As mentioned previously, physical education is a good opportunity in which the general class and the disabled children can be together. This has a lot of advantages because it is an active environment where peers learn from each other. Physical activities provide benefits that improve well-being and health as well as lessening the chances of having a stroke late in life. Other than that it also provides social benefits as the students interact with each other. This can be very important and beneficial for disabled children who think somewhat less of themselves. This is also a good opportunity for them as it provides interaction on a regular basis and that too with people other than family members, siblings and parents. Apart from the physical benefits, the disabled children also achieve psychological benefits of increased self-confidence, and self-esteem. The children with special needs can value these benefits for a healthy and independent life with high levels of confidence (Power, 2010).
With the adoption of Common Core Standards (CCS) in many states, there is little need for a separate "special education curriculum." Analyze all sides of this issue by considering whether the CCS should be used with every special education student.
The Common Core State Standards unlike the previous efforts in education have been created while keeping in mind the needs of all the students. Several indications suggest this care, one being the participation of professionals in special education in the creation of Common Core Standards. Furthermore a document 'Application to Students with Disabilities' on the website of Common Core State Standards address the ways in which it can be applied to children with special needs and also provide ways to ensure that the students have access to Common Core Standards as well. The document also mentions that the children with special needs muse be given different challenges so that they excel in the general curriculum and be ready for success in their lives after school. So the ways in which these standards are assessed and taught is of immense importance when reaching different groups of students (Thurlow, 2012).
On the other hand, the Common Core Standards also pose a threat to disabled students. These children have low mental capacities and take time to reach the level of a general student so fixing the same standards for every student not only challenges their mental capacity at higher levels but also lowers their self-esteem. The Common Core Standards are complex and rigorous and have high standards which target the course that has to be learned from Kindergarten till twelfth grade and makes the students ready for their life after school through college and career making. The disabled students on the other hand have to focus more on life skills so that they can become independent members of the society (Thurlow, 2012).
Justify your position as to which group or groups should have a separate curriculum.
Every child has their own weaknesses and strengths and if we classify the children into general and disabled, the setting of personal strengths and weaknesses remains the same. The disabled children have their own needs as they go through the problems that their disability poses for them. A child may have a disability that is recognizable like a child on a wheel chair or a child with low vision who wears glasses. On the other hand, some disabilities might not be recognizable but they disrupt everyday routine of the child. It is the responsibility of the school…
Kindergarten to Grade Twelve. The focus of literacy should begin right after the children gain access to education at schools and should continue till they reach college and are planning out goals for their careers. The elementary teachers are the main people who create the foundation of these skills that are important for every student to learn. They plan and create content that specifically focuses on linguistic analysis, oratory, literary study, English language; whole critical thinking, listening, speaking, writing and reading are integrated alongside. Similarly, children with special needs also require the same attention because the level of their learning abilities is not equal to the general students which means that providing them with inclusive education would help not only to build their confidence but also to learn things that aligns with their own level (Evers, 2011).
Inclusion Special education as a concept is historically shrouded in controversy. (Seligmann, 2001, p. 1) Additionally the demand for special education funding and implementation has only increased as the number of students recognized as needing special services has continued to grow exponentially within the past forty years. (Macht, 1998, p. 1) The cultural awareness of the challenges and concerns of developmentally delayed students has also increased exponentially since the time when
Early Childhood Special Education Curriculum, Instruction and Methods Projects This beginning chapter delineates education to the young children with special needs. In particular, early childhood special education mirrors impact and acclaimed practices resultant from the special education and early childhood fields. In the present, emphasis that is laid on early childhood does not encompass whether these young children can be provided with special needs service in typical settings but focus is
This qualitative research uses a Delphi study to explore the perceptions of special education teachers regarding retention. This Delphi study includes twenty-five to thirty special education teachers of K-12 in two California districts of less than 40,000 students. The information gathered provides leaders in the field with successful practices in retaining special education teachers. Purpose of the study The primary purpose of this study is to explore the perceptions of special education
"By the 1980s, the field had moved to a functional skills model. As the evidence for this approach mounted, the field refocused on age appropriate skills and knowledge performed in authentic settings and the functional life skills curriculum became best practice. The functional, age-appropriate curricular focus resulted in these students demonstrating skills and knowledge not thought possible earlier" (Quenemoen, 2008). In the 1990s, added significant new practices were acknowledged as
Thus, efforts aimed at helping teachers to avoid harmful stereotyping of students often begin with activities designed to raise teachers' awareness of their unconscious biases." (1989) Cotton goes on the relate that there are specific ways in which differential expectations are communicated to students according to the work of: "Brookover, et al. (1982); Brophy (1983); Brophy and Evertson (1976); Brophy and Good (1970); Cooper and Good (1983); Cooper and
.." (2004, p.3) the hands-on experience is also related as being important in the science class in the work entitled: "The National Curriculum" which states that science through inquiry: "...stimulates and excites pupils' curiosity about phenomena and events in the world around them" (the National Curriculum, 2006) and that science also "satisfies this curiosity with knowledge." (the National Curriculum, 2006) Scientific inquiry teaches students investigate skills in the areas of: