Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder ADHD Essay

Excerpt from Essay :

Executive Summary

Attention-deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD) is a rare psychiatric complication, which is diagnosed among children. To children who grow into adolescence without proper diagnoses, there is a huge difference in presentation compared to patients who are diagnosed early in their childhood. They depict major challenges to the guardians and teachers attempting to cope with their condition. In most cases, the challenge is often reported late to medical practitioners (Muhammad et al, 2011).

This is a case of an adolescent with school truancy presented to a primary care clinic. At first, he was treated for depression and subsequently defiant disorder, as well as sibling rivalry. It is only after a keen and procedural follow up of the medical history that ADHD was correctly diagnosed. Further investigation was necessary because there was positive improvement after the use of methylphenidate for his condition. Escitalopram was prescribed alongside the medication to cater for his depression. The use of behavior therapy and parenting interventions played a key role in ensuring success of his management. There still remains a need to raise knowledge of ADHD through public awareness forums aimed at many parents as well as teachers exposed the children. In such a case, the changes can be instituted early (Muhammad et al, 2011).


ADHD is a neurodevelopmental disorder, which emerges in children especially during their preschool and early school years. The disorder affects between three to five percent of ages six to nine years. According to Khemakhem et al., (2015), boys are more prone to the disorder than their female counterparts. Diagnosis remains difficult because the symptoms can be seen in all children occasionally. In most cases, accurate diagnosis is determined by the age of seven years. At this time the symptoms are obvious and may increase as the children mature. Up to sixty per cent of patients grow with the symptoms into adulthood (Khemakhem et al, 2015). A picture below depicts the prevalence of ADHD among the young people of different races.

Some of the most vivid and unmistakable characteristics of the disorder include; dif?culties with paying attention, impulsive behavior, and over-activity. Children living with this condition will not find it easy to manage their immediate reactions and often act impulsively as if they did not think ?rst. ADHD causes significant changes in the children’s activities seen when they fail to finish what they are doing. Most children with this impairment have dif?culty concentrating and remembering instructions. Those with hyperactivity often seem to talk too much and behave noisily. These children appear to be always ‘on the go’ and depict restlessness especially when they are expected to calm down. The patients may also show carelessness dangerous situations putting them at risk of harm. ADHD causes the children to constantly interrupt, and intrude on others. This challenge means they have dif?culty taking turns in games or sustaining long conversations. When they grow older, the adolescent patients are often unable to make reliable plans or get themselves organized (Khemakhem et al, 2015).

Previous Models

While there may still be no cure for ADHD to date, there are multiple treatment options available, which have proven effective for some of the patients. The most effective strategies include; behavioral, pharmacological, and multimodal methods (Henderson, 2003).

Behavioral Approaches

Effective behavioral approaches provide a wide range of specific interventions designed to achieve the common goal of manipulating physical and social environment to alter, and change behavior. These options are used in the treatment of ADHD, as they provide a structure for the child to enhance appropriate behavior. For the best outcome, it is necessary for parents to work alongside other professionals, from psychologists, school personnel, to community mental health therapists, and primary care physicians. The common types of behavioral approaches are; clinical behavioral therapy, behavioral training for parents and teachers, a systematic program of contingency management, (training in problem-solving and social skills), and cognitive-behavioral treatment (This includes; self-monitoring, verbal self-instruction, development of problem-solving strategies, self-reinforcement) (Henderson, 2003).

Generally, the available approaches utilize direct teaching and reinforcement strategies for positive behaviors and direct consequences for inappropriate behavior. Among the options available, the most effective interventions proven to provide adequate solution are the systematic programs of intensive contingency management conducted in specialized classrooms and summer camps with the setting controlled by highly trained individuals. Recent studies show that two approaches, (classroom behavior interventions and parent training in behavior therapy) have proven useful in changing the behavior of children with ADHD. Moreover, most home-school interactions support a consistent approach, and are critical to the success of behavioral approaches (Henderson, 2003).

Pharmacological Approaches

Pharmacological approaches to treatment remain among the most effective and reliable alternatives to ADHD. Although common, it is still an extremely controversial form of ADHD treatment. The most…

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…Texas Children’s Medication Algorithm Project. Likewise, the guiding principles laid down by the Global ADHD Working Group give suggestions on how to choose ADHD therapies (Verma, Balhara & Mathur, 2011).

Awareness and Proficiency to deal with ADHD

This entails creating awareness on ADHD using different platforms so that all stakeholders affected by ADHD are able to manage the condition regardless where they are. In the family setup, youngsters with ADHD together with their caregivers ought to undergo counselling in order to accept and deal with the condition. In learning institutions, awareness on ADHD needs to be crusaded across, by forming ADHD Club as well as bringing in ADHD experts to talk to teachers, students and administrators on how to deal with ADHD. Last but not least, forming communal support platforms will go a long way in enhancing coping skills both in the patients as well as their caregivers and those around them (National Institute of Mental Health, 2016).

Personal management of ADHD can be recorded in a sheet like the one below:


ADHD can be described as a collection of wide-ranging conditions of the brain in relation to certain mental processes as well as behaviors. In order for physicians to be able to identify the nature of this illness in youngsters as well as mature people, it is imperative for them to generate indicators for diagnosis which are custom made for each age group. Currently, the use of pharmaceutical drugs which offer a reprieve for ADHD include: modified drugs whose effects are gradually released into the system, drugs which are enteric-coated to prevent them from being inactivated by gastric juices, inactive drugs which are activated upon consumption, medicated adhesive patches as well as drugs which target the brain cells to improve attention (Vasconcelos et al, 2003).

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) affects the behavior patterns in toddlers, teenagers as well as mature people. The key traits of ADHD are lack of concentration, too much activity as well as reacting at the spur of the moment. ADHD affects all factors of one’s life, from the domestic relations to poor performance in school. Managing ADHD requires tapping into various dimensions such as understanding the victim’s background and using treatment which involves the victim’s daily surroundings. While treating patients with ADHD, it is imperative to utilize the stated dosage to minimize any adverse outcomes (Virtual Medical Centre,…

Sources Used in Document:


Henderson, K. (2003). Identifying and treating attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: a resource for school and home. US Department of Education Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services, Washington, DC.

Khemakhem, K., Ayadi, H., Moalla, Y., Yaich, S., Hadjkacem, I., Walha, A. & Ghribi, F. (2015). Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder at schools in Sfax-Tunisia. La Tunisie Médicale, 93(5), 302-307.

Muhammad, N. A., Wan Ismail, W. S., Tan, C. E., Jaffar, A., Sharip, S., & Omar, K. (2011). Attention-deficit hyperactive disorder presenting with school truancy in an adolescent: a case report. Mental health in family medicine, 8(4), 249-54.

National Institute of Mental Health. (2016, March). Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. Retrieved February 21, 2019, from

Vasconcelos, M. M., Werner Jr, J., Malheiros, A. F. D. A., Lima, D. F. N., Santos, Í. S. O., & Barbosa, J. B. (2003). Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder prevalence in an inner city elementary school. Arquivos de neuro-psiquiatria, 61(1), 67-73.

Verma, R., Balhara, Y. P., & Mathur, S. (2011). Management of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Journal of pediatric neurosciences, 6(1), 13-8.

Virtual Medical Centre. (2017, June 13). The Family Impact of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Retrieved February 21, 2019, from

Tresco, K. E., Lefler, E. K., & Power, T. J. (2010). Psychosocial Interventions to Improve the School Performance of Students with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. Mind & brain: the journal of psychiatry, 1(2), 69-74.

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