Cobit, Tuberculosis TB Was Revealed Research Proposal

Length: 8 pages Sources: 4 Subject: Disease Type: Research Proposal Paper: #8994404 Related Topics: Meningitis, Pathophysiology, Infectious Disease, Antibiotic Resistance
Excerpt from Research Proposal :

The drugs must also be of quality. This is often not the case, as substandard anti-tuberculosis drugs are widely available on the market in man countries.

The World Health Organization is at this time assessing the quality of drugs produced by different manufacturers, an important exercise which should make possible developing countries to acquire pre-qualified drugs of guaranteed quality. Today, however, there are no pre-qualified sources of anti-tuberculosis drugs in formulations suitable for children, nor are there any pre-qualified sources of streptomycin, one of the drugs used against TB. TB disease can be treated by taking several drugs for 6 to 12 months. It is very important that people who have TB disease finish the medicine, and take the drugs exactly as prescribed. If they stop taking the drugs too soon, they can become sick again; if they do not take the drugs correctly, the germs that are still alive may become resistant to those drugs. TB that is resistant to drugs is harder and more expensive to treat. In some situations, staff of the local health department meets regularly with patients who have TB to watch them take their medications. This is called directly observed therapy (DOT). DOT helps the patient complete treatment in the least amount of time.

Strategies to Control TB

The cost-effectiveness of short-course drug therapy for TB has been central to the global promotion of directly observed treatment short course (DOTS) by the World Health Organization. However, the DOTS approach alone may not be sufficient to bring TB under control, and interest is growing in other methods, such as developing a more effective vaccine, treating latent TB infection, testing for TB drug resistance, treating HIV co-infection, and active case finding. It is not clear how money can be best allocated for TB control; although DOTS programs are a good value, their full cost may be greater in countries where a broader investment in the health sector is needed (Tuberculosis, Perspectives in Health, 2009).

Impact of Tuberculosis

TB is a disease of young people. This is due to the fact that the greatest...

...

Even in countries where TB is uncommon and most disease arises from remote infection, most individuals who will be infected become infected by the age of 20 years. The association of TB with youth makes this disease an important factor in the economy of many countries, which simultaneously experience a low gross national product and a high incidence of TB, because the disease affects the most economically productive sector of the economy.

As a result, an organized TB control program, unlike many other health-related activities, is a net contributor to economic development (Kaufmann and Hahn, 2003). Once infected with TB, women of reproductive age are more susceptible to developing active TB than men of the same age. As a result, in certain regions, young women ages 15 to 24 with TB outnumber young men of the same age with the disease.

Strategies to Prevent TB

Preventive measures BCG vaccination has limited application in developed countries where the incidence of TB is low. It is an effective vaccine in reducing TB meningitis and death in babies and children less than five years in countries of high TB prevalence. It is not recommended for general use in the Australian community but should be considered for specific high risk groups such as infants and young children traveling for extended periods to countries with a high incidence of TB (Communicable Diseases Section, Victorian Government Department of Human Services, 2005).

Prevention Cost

Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccine, a live attenuated preparation derived from Mycobacterium bovis, is given to approximately 75% of infants worldwide. It is estimated that the number of tuberculous meningitis and miliary TB cases prevented by BCG vaccination and calculated the cost of vaccination per TB case or death prevented and the cost per disability-adjusted life-year (DALY) gained. They used estimates of prevalence of smear-positive pulmonary TB, contact rate, and annual risk for infection by country to extrapolate numbers of cases and deaths prevented in children in the 5 years after vaccination. They calculated illness and deaths prevented by geographic region using estimates of BCG efficacy (73% against tuberculous meningitis and 77% against miliary TB) from the published literature and a cost estimate of $2-$3 per BCG dose (Journal Watch Infectious Diseases, 2006).

Reference List

Communicable Diseases Section, Victorian Government Department of Human Services, 2005. The Blue Book: Guidelines for Control and Infectious Diseases. Victoria, Melbourne: Communicable Diseases Section, Public Health Group.

Kaufmann, S.HE., & Helmut, H. (2003). Mycobacteria and TB. Basel, Switzerland: S. Karger AG.

Palomino, J.C., Leao, S.C., & Ritacco, V. (Eds.). (2007). Tuberculosis 2007: From Basic Science to Patient Care. BourcillierKamps.

Trunz BB et…

Sources Used in Documents:

Reference List

Communicable Diseases Section, Victorian Government Department of Human Services, 2005. The Blue Book: Guidelines for Control and Infectious Diseases. Victoria, Melbourne: Communicable Diseases Section, Public Health Group.

Kaufmann, S.HE., & Helmut, H. (2003). Mycobacteria and TB. Basel, Switzerland: S. Karger AG.

Palomino, J.C., Leao, S.C., & Ritacco, V. (Eds.). (2007). Tuberculosis 2007: From Basic Science to Patient Care. BourcillierKamps.

Trunz BB et al. Effect of BCG vaccination on childhood tuberculous meningitis and miliary


Cite this Document:

"Cobit Tuberculosis TB Was Revealed" (2009, February 26) Retrieved December 4, 2021, from
https://www.paperdue.com/essay/cobit-tuberculosis-tb-was-revealed-24471

"Cobit Tuberculosis TB Was Revealed" 26 February 2009. Web.4 December. 2021. <
https://www.paperdue.com/essay/cobit-tuberculosis-tb-was-revealed-24471>

"Cobit Tuberculosis TB Was Revealed", 26 February 2009, Accessed.4 December. 2021,
https://www.paperdue.com/essay/cobit-tuberculosis-tb-was-revealed-24471

Related Documents
Tuberculosis Communicable Disease: Tuberculosis Is a Widespread,
Words: 1532 Length: 4 Pages Topic: Disease Paper #: 96947249

Tuberculosis Communicable disease: Tuberculosis Tuberculosis is a widespread, lethal, and infectious/transmittable disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. This bacterial infection usually begins in the form of innumerable strains of mycobacteria. In the past, tuberculosis was also termed as Phthisis or Phthisis pulmonalis. Its short form is known worldwide to be TB, or MTB. Stereotypically, tuberculosis is a lung infection that attacks the lungs; however, it can as well affect the other parts of

Tuberculosis in Newham Borough of London the
Words: 3182 Length: 10 Pages Topic: Disease Paper #: 76120328

Tuberculosis in Newham Borough of London The Urban Health Profile It is true that as long as there have been human beings on planet earth there has been a certain amount of struggle against disease and creatures that carry disease along with bacteria and viruses. These are the types of struggles and successes which have determined whether or not civilizations would triumph or be defeated, and these are the struggles which will

Tuberculosis TB Is a Serious
Words: 1542 Length: 5 Pages Topic: Disease Paper #: 54759782

Others are more reckless and assume that they simply will not get sick. No matter who they are or where they come from, though, anyone can contract TB if they get around someone who is infected, so people must put social, cultural, and other opinions aside in order to protect themselves and others around them from potentially deadly diseases like TB (Lawlor, 2007). Conclusion It is very easy to see that

Tuberculosis TB Prevention and a
Words: 6084 Length: 22 Pages Topic: Criminal Justice Paper #: 30437069

5 per 100,000 in 1986. In 1994, the number of TB cases among residents of correctional facilities for 59 reporting areas had reached 24,361 (4.6% of the total reporting correctional population) (Braithwaite et al.). The incidence rate was 139.3 per 100,000 by 1993 and the unadjusted case rates for prison populations in many areas are significantly higher than the rates for the general population (Braithwaite et al.). According to these

Tuberculosis Prevalence and Statistics. In
Words: 2742 Length: 10 Pages Topic: Disease Paper #: 74020275

From the lung apices to the hemi-diaphragms, 1.5-mm thick sections were taken at 10-mm intervals. The images were prospectively reconstructed with the use of a high-resolution bone algorithm in diagnosing the lung lesions. The HRCT results were then compared with the results of clinical and para-clinical work-up on the patients. The analysis and comparison of rank values were performed using the chi-square P-values less than 0.05, and the sensitivity,

Tuberculosis, Commonly Abbreviated As TB and Known
Words: 1450 Length: 5 Pages Topic: Healthcare Paper #: 6737506

Tuberculosis, commonly abbreviated as TB and known throughout historical literature as consumption, is an infection caused by the Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacteria. (Psy Guy, 2005) Pulmonary TB is the most common type of infection, which affects the lungs. There are several other manifestations of the infection including an infection of the central nervous system, known as meningitis, an infection of the circulatory system, known as miliary TB, as well as infections