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An important point emphasized by many theorists was that it was essential for the therapeutic alliance to be flexible in order to accommodate the patient or client's perceptions. Another cardinal aspect that was emphasizes by clinicians and theorists was that the therapeutic alliance had the ability to create and promote change in the client. In other words, the therapeutic alliance should be varied enough to deal with the various levels of functioning of the patient. At the same time, it should be flexible enough to accommodate the interventions of the therapist. (Gaston, 1990)
These theories were reinforced by further studies and statistical measurement. esearchers found that there was a significant statistical correlation between therapeutic alliance and positive outcomes in therapy. In this regard, a study by Horvath and Symonds, (1991) established that alliance accounted for almost fifty percent of the variance in the measurable outcome of therapy. In the words,…
Attachment Theory. Retrieved March 22, 2008, at http://www.apsa.org/AboutPsychoanalysis/ContributionsofPsychoanalysis/tabid/211/Default.aspx
Bachelor a. And Salame R, (2000) Participants' Perceptions of Dimensions of the Therapeutic Alliance Over the Course of Therapy. J Psychother Pract Res 9:39-53. Retrieved March 22, 2008, at http://jppr.psychiatryonline.org/cgi/content/full/9/1/39
Barber J.P. et al. (2008) Therapeutic alliance as a predictor of outcome and retention in the National Institute on Drug Abuse Collaborative Cocaine Treatment Study. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 35 (1) pp. 99-119
Bordin, E. (1975). The Working Alliance: Basis for a General Theory of Psychotherapy. Paper presented at the 1975 Annual Conference of the Society for Psychotherapy Research.
The care giver must ask questions that will elicit helpful answers in establishing the goals of treatment. Good listening skills do not only refer to asking the correct questions. The care giver should also display an attitude of attentive listening while the client is speaking. He or she should do this by letting client finish what he or she is saying before speaking again, and by asking for clarification or verification where these are necessary. The client will then experience a sense that his or her problems and concerns are important to the therapist and that appropriate help will be offered.
Another influencing factor is the ability to establish good are giving goals. This should be done in collaboration with the client, based upon the initial conversation where the client's challenges were discussed. When this connection between the initial conversation and treatment goals is made, the client is made to…
Unconditional positive regard is another element that ogers believed was necessary in the relationship between therapist and patient. This part of the relationship would involve the therapist being able to experience a warm acceptance of each element of the client's experience as being a part of whom the client is. There are no conditions put on the client being who they are. It is important for the therapist to care about the patient as an individual and they must focus on treating the individual as opposed to treating some label or diagnosis that he or she has come up with. Diagnoses are not real unto themselves; it is the patient who is real and thus the patient must be treated as opposed to the diagnosis.
Empathy is another one of ogers's elements that must be understood when treating patients in a therapeutic setting. It is absolutely necessary that a therapist…
Overholser, James. (2007). The central role of the therapeutic alliance: A simulated interview with Carl Rogers. Journal of contemporary psychotherapy, 37(2), 71- 78.
Importance of the therapeutic alliance in Psychodynamic Psychotherapy
A vast number of therapists have jotted down the significance of the working alliance. One therapy sitting includes information which comprises of statements from both the patient and the therapist, as stated in the study conducted by Guilhardi (1997). This saying has been balanced off by Kerbauy (1999), who states that the appropriate variables in clinics are extensive groups that comprises of conflict to change, therapeutic relationship and relations among patient and therapist.
At present there is a wide ranging agreement between the therapists, relating to the importance of therapeutic relationship, but differences do lie as per the differing roles.
Some writers take therapeutic relationships as a technique to assist behavioral change. Not only this, the relationship is also regarded as a key to enhance the value of therapists. In addition to this, it leads to positive expectancy and solutions…
Bartholomew, K., & Horowitz, L.M. (1991). Attachment styles among young adults: A test of a four-category model. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 61, 226 -- 244.
Connolly, M.B., Crits-Christoph, P., Shappell, S., Barber, J.P., & Luborsky, L. (1997, June). The role of transference interpretations in brief supportive-expressive psychotherapy for depression.Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Society for Psychotherapy Research, Geilo, Norway.
Crits-Christoph, P., Barber, J., & Kurcias, J. (1993). The accuracy of therapists' interpretations and the development of the therapeutic alliance.. Psychotherapy Research, 3, 25 -- 35.
Crits-Christoph, P., Cooper, A., & Luborsky, L. (1988). The accuracy of therapists' interpretations and the outcome of dynamic psychotherapy.. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 56, 490 -- 495.
clinician-client relationship is not totally critical to the outcome of therapy. Additionally, we will examine the position in detail, as well as the supporting rationale. Finally, the author will show that under the right conditions, clinicians should abandon what have been traditionally thought of as very robust techniques/approaches and "wing it" in their client contacts. This is based upon the patient's welfare. If the clinician thinks that innovative or new methodology is justified to help a client, then others should support their decision about how they decide to treat their patients.
This author maintains that the clinician-client relationship is not necessarily critical to the outcome of therapy. This can be seen in two sources which we will examine that note the success of online therapy without the need for a positive clinician-client relationship. It is amazing that many people not only can relate to someone in a cyber relationship, but…
Portone, C., Johns III, M.M., & Hapner, E.R. (2008). A review of patient adherence to the recommendation for voice therapy. Journal of Voice, 22(2), 192-196.
" Concerning the type of complementary strategic alliance, it is a horizontal one, because it is formed "when partners who agree to combine their resources and skills to create value in the same stage of the value chain," it is focused "on long-term product development and distribution opportunities" and "the partners may become competitors which requires a great deal of trust between the partners."
The answer to the second question is "no," it's not a "competition response strategy" because the two companies are not really competitors, even if the profile for both company is pharmaceutical. Excel research can be consider in this case as an ally, a support for Century Pharmaceuticals, and even as a consultancy company that works for C.P.
The answer to the third question is "yes," it can be an" uncertainty reducing strategy" because if it functions as it is established, it can reduce the uncertainty about…
1. Hitt Michael a., Ireland R. Duane, Hoskisson Robert a. "Cooperative Strategy." Power Point Presentation by Charlie Cook, the University of West Alabama, and ©2007 Thomson South - Western. All right reserved.
Hitt Michael a., Ireland Duane R., Hoskisson Robert a."Cooperative Strategy" ppt, pg. 9-8
Hitt Michael a., Ireland Duane R., Hoskisson Robert a."Cooperative Strategy" ppt, pg. 9-2
Hitt Michael a., Ireland Duane R., Hoskisson Robert a."Cooperative Strategy" ppt, pg. 9-3
Wilson had the built-in sales structure to increase demand amongst physicians and established knowledge of how to reach competitors. Crawford-Beckman had the drug that Wilson desired. Crawford-Beckman, as a small company, wished to develop more pharmaceutical products, and the agreement also specified the two companies would co-develop a ne drug in the future. The companies would remain separate in structure, but a new structure would be created to support their partnership with specific delegation of responsibilities within the team. The joint divisions were, in general, partnerships of equals.
However, problems arose regarding the idea that both companies were supposed to equally support and share in the costs of marketing the drug. Wilson resented the greater investment it had made in terms of its pre-established resources into marketing the drug and Crawford-Beckman resented the burden it felt it was being forced to shoulder by a larger competitor. Each company…
Marketing in the biotechnology industry is critically important. The basic path to market involves receiving regulatory approval for products. From there, marketing is conducted to physicians directly, necessitating a relatively large sales force. The presence of competing treatments necessitates significant investment marketing, compounded by the impact of the need to recoup the sunk costs associated with product development. In addition, marketing in the biotechnology industry is strictly regulated by the Food and Drug Administration. The FDA exerts tight control over marketing -- a firm is only allowed to promote products for approved uses. Off-label marketing -- defined as marketing a product for uses not approved by the FDA -- is prohibited and firms found guilty can be subject to significant fines.
An example, of the strong regulatory influence on marketing can be found in the approval that United received in July for Tyvaso. The product, already delayed multiple…
MSN Moneycentral: UTHR. (2009). Retrieved October 29, 2009 from http://moneycentral.msn.com/companyreport?Symbol=U.S.%3aUTHR
2008 United Therapeutics Annual Report (includes Form 10-K).
United Therapeutics website, various pages. (2009). Retrieved October 29, 2009 from http://www.unither.com/
Press Release: United Therapeutics. (2009). FDA approves Tyvaso (treprostinil) inhalation solution for the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension. Retrieved October 29, 2009 from http://ir.unither.com/releasedetail.cfm?ReleaseID=400062
Procedures. All patients, regardless of whether they were participating in the study or not, received treatment as usual (TAU) for the first six months of the study. Measurement for this initial six-month period followed this sequence: A standard suite of measurements was administered at session one, session 6 and session 12; OS and SS assessments occurred at every treatment session for identified patients (IP) only. During this initial six-month period, counselors only received training in the use of the OS and SS as instruments to be added to the standard suite of outcome measures.
In the second six-month period, training in the client-directed outcome-informed approach to therapy was provided to all the counselors. The training components included the following: (1) 16 hours of formal introduction to theory of change according to the Duncan and Miller framework; (2) in-depth training on the use of OS and SS for obtaining client feedback…
Ardelt, M. And Eccles, J.S. (2001, November). Effects of mothers' parental efficacy beliefs and promotive parenting strategies on inner-city youth. Journal of Family Issues, 22(8), 944-972.
Boeree, C.G. (2006) Carl Rogers: 1902-1987. Retrieved from http://webspace.ship.edu/cgboer/rogers.html
Brann, P., Coleman, G., & Luk, E. (2001). Routine outcome in a child and adolescent mental health service: an evaluation of HoNOSCA. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 35, 370-376.
Cooper, M., Watson, J.C., & Hoeldampf, D. (2010). Person-centered and experiential therapies work: A review of the research on counseling, psychotherapy and related practices. Ross-on-Wye, UK: PCCS Books.
The authors state: "The amphetamines occasioned dose-related increases in d- amphetamine-appropriate responding, whereas hydromorphone did not. Amphetamines also occasioned dose-related increases in reports of the drug being most like "speed," whereas hydromorphone did not. However, both amphetamines and hydromorphone occasioned dose-related increases in reports of drug liking and in three scales of the ARCI. Thus, some self-report measures were well correlated with responding on the drug-appropriate lever and some were not. Lamb and Henningfield (1994) suggest that self-reports are complexly controlled by both the private event and the subject's history of experience with the drug. Some of the self-reports they observed (e.g., feels like speed) are probably occasioned by a relatively narrow range of stimuli because in the subject's experience with drug administration, these reports have been more selectively reinforced by the verbal community relative to other reports (e.g., drug liking). They also suggest that these results imply…
Budney, Alan J. et al. (2006) Clinical Trial of Abstinence-Based Vouchers and Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Cannabis Dependence. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 2006. Vol.. 74 No. 2. 2006 American Psychological Association.
McRae, a.; Budney, a.; & Brady, K. (2002) Treatment of Marijuana Dependence: A Review of the Literature. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment 24 (2003)
Pathways of Addiction: Opportunities in Drug Abuse Research (1996) Institute of Medicine (IOM)
Kamon, J; Budney, a. & Stanger, C. (2005)a Contingency Management Intervention for Adolescent Marijuana Abuse and Conduct Problems. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry. 44(6):513-521, June 2005.
Not all patient expectations will be realistic, but a mental health professional needs to be honest with a client about which expectations are reasonable and which ones are unreasonable.
Another issue to investigate in each meeting with a patient with depression and anxiety, particularly uncontrolled depression and anxiety, is whether the disorders are impairing function and otherwise negatively impacting quality of life. If so, then the facilitator needs to direct attention towards improvement of real-life skills during the counseling session. This may mean less client-directed interaction than a therapist would otherwise seek in a one-on-one counseling session, but maintaining a baseline level of functioning and quality of life is critical.
In addition, the therapist must be aware that anxiety, unlike depression, can actually be a productive and helpful emotion. Therefore, a patient manifesting some level of anxiety might not be seeking treatment for that anxiety; on the contrary, eradicating anxiety…
National Guideline Clearinghouse. (2012). Summary: Practice guideline for the treatment of patients with major depressive disorder, third edition. Retrieved May 8, 2012 from NGC website: http://guideline.gov/content.aspx?id=24158
Perampanel Therapy, Cognitive Behavioral Therapy and Physical Therapy as Interventions for the Treatment of Parkinson's Disease
Clinicians and researchers have been constantly searching for more information on how to treat the symptoms of Parkinson's disease. This paper's aim is to outline three types of therapy that qualify as valid attempts, namely pharmacologically-oriented perampanel endeavors, cognitive behaviour therapy or CBT, and finally, physical therapy. The present paper will review the relevant research pertaining to these three forms of treatment, in terms of effectiveness, validity, safety, and other filters, before suggesting how one approach might be the most effective in the treatment of Parkinson's disease.
The first clinical signs of the degenerative neurological disorder named Parkinson's disease appear only at such time as approximately 60-80% of the dopamine-producing cells of the substantia nigra has already degenerated. Data from across the European continent indicated that about 1.8 of 100 inhabitants over the age…
Christofoletti, G., Beinotti, F., Borges, G., Damasceno, B.P. (2010). PHYSICAL THERAPY IMPROVES THE BALANCE OF PATIENTS WITH PARKINSON'S DISEASE: A RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL. Parkinsonism & Related Disorders, 16(S1), S58. doi: 10.1016/2Fs1353-8020-2810-2970204-2
Cole, K., & Vaughan, F.L. (2005) The feasibility of using cognitive behaviour therapy for depression associated with Parkinson's disease: A literature review. Parkinson and Related Disorders, 11, 269-276. doi:10.1016/j.parkreldis.2005.03.002
Eggert, K., Squillacote, D., Barone, P., Dodel, R., Katzenschlager, R., Emre, M., . . . Oertel, W. (2010). Safety and Efficacy of Perampanel in Advanced Parkinson's Disease: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Study. Movement Disorders, 25(7), 896-905. doi: 10.1002/mds.22974
Ellis, T., Goede, C.J., Feldman, R.G., Wolters, E.C., Kwakkel, G., Wagenaar, R.C. (2005). Efficacy of a Physical Therapy Program in Patients With Parkinson's Disease: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 85(4), 626-632. doi:10.1016/j.apmr.2004.08.008
Depression: Not just a Bad Mood
MDD: Not Just Another Bad Mood
The term "Prozac Nation" says a lot. This catch-phrase had begun to describe the current state in the U.S. when cases of clinical depression began blooming and treatment turned to medication as a first response. According to the National Institute of Mental Health, over fourteen million of the adult U.S. population suffers from Major Depressive Disorder. Major Depressive Disorder, or MDD, is the leading cause of disability in people ages 15-44. The average age of onset is 32 (U.S. Department of, 2011.) It is often also found co-occurring with other mental disorders, such as anxiety and substance abuse. Perhaps it is worth taking a closer look at a case example in order to better understand this often debilitating disorder in our times.
Taylor is a 24-year-old single, Jewish female presenting with symptoms of depression. She reports that for…
Burns, D.D. (1989). The feeling good handbook. New York, NY: Plume.
Cornes, C.L., & Frank, E. (1994). Interpersonal psychotherapy for depression. The Clinical
Psychologist, 47(3), 9-10.
Cuijpers, P, van Straten, A, Hollon, S.D., & Andersson, G. (2010). The contribution of active medication to combined treatments of psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy for adult depression: a meta-analysis. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 121(6), Retrieved from http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/detail?hid=13&sid=568ccfe5-0fe6-4429-92a3 - cb159b2e4044%40sessionmgr115&vid=5&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZQ%3d%3
S., experts estimate the genuine number of incidents of abuse and neglect ranges three times higher than reported. (National Child Abuse Statistics, 2006) in light of these critical contemporary concerns for youth, this researcher chose to document the application of Object elation, Attachment Theories, and Self-Psychology to clinical practice, specifically focusing on a patient who experienced abuse when a child. Consequently, this researcher contends this clinical case study dissertation proves to be vital venture, which will contribute to enhancing research in the field of psychology.
For this clinical case study dissertation exploring Object elation, Attachment Theories, and Self-Psychology, along with researching information for the application of these theories to clinical practice, this researcher answered the following research questions.
What is Winnicott's elational Model Theory?
What is Bowlby's Attachment Theory?
What is Kohut's Self-Psychology?
How may components of these three theories be applied to the clinical case chosen for…
American Psychiatric Association, (2004). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Test Revised. Washington DC.
Blatt, S. (1974). Levels of object representation in anaclytic and introjective depression. New York: International University Press.
Bowlby, J. (1969) Attachment. Volume One of Attachment and Loss, New York: Basic
Experiential Family Therapy (EFT) is the central place of humanistic therapies and psychology. This therapy includes the works of Fritz Perls, Carl Rogers, and Abraham Maslow, along with the communication theories and family systems of Paul Watzlavick, Don Jackson, and Gregory ateson. It is called a meeting place for all the theorists because clearly the experiential family therapy includes multiple systems used for therapy. The authors ecvar & evcar (2006) like to call these 'experimental approaches to family therapy' instead of 'experimental models'. Virginia Satir, one of the main predecessors of the experiential approach, is also considered to be part of communication approaches as well as experiential (Lester, 2009).
The family tree of the family system has three main parts: (1) the Communications approach of Virginia Satir; (2) the Gestalt experiential approach of Walter Kempler; and (3) the Symbolic experiential approach of Carl Whitaker (ecvar & ecvar, 2006). However, the…
Becvar, D.S. & Becvar, R.J. (2006). Family therapy: A systemic integration. Boston, MA: Pearson
Broderick, P., & Weston, C. (2009). Family Therapy with a Depressed Adolescent. NCBI, 32-37. Retrieved from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2719446/
Greenburg, L.S., Watson, J.C., & Lietaer, G. (1998). Handbook of experiential psychotherapy. New York: Guilford
Israelstam, K. (1988). Contrasting four major family therapy paradigms: implications for family therapy training. Journal of Family Therapy, 179-196.
A Cognitive Behavioral Study of Steven Henderson: Case Conceptualization and Treatment Plan
Theories of Counseling
This is a case conceptualization of a 26-year-old man who experienced sexual abuse as a child and the haunting memories of the abuse have led to difficulties in his personal, social, and educational functioning as an adult. The client is experiencing anxiety, depression, problems with motivation, an inability to confide in those close to him, and difficulties in developing educational and occupational goals for himself. He complained of very low self-esteem and believes that his inability to deal with his past sexual abuse has led to these issues. The case conceptualization explores the proposed treatment of this individual's issues using a cognitive behavioral approach. Empirical evidence for the use of cognitive behavioral treatment for trauma victims is discussed. The specific issues that the individual is experiencing as a result of the abuse are…
American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed.-text revision). Washington, DC: Author.
Beck, A.T., Rush, J.A., Shaw, B.F., & Emery, G. (1979). Cognitive therapy of depression.
New York: The Guilford Press.
Cloitre, M. (2009). Effective psychotherapies for posttraumatic stress disorder: A review and critique. CNS Spectrums, 14(1), S1, 32-43.
(1999) which are:
1) Those with serious mental illnesses such as schizophrenia, bi-polar disorder with major depression and who use alcohol and drugs to self-mediate to cope with the symptoms; and 2) Those with borderline personality and anti-social personality disorders including anxiety disorder that is complicated by use of alcohol and illicit drugs. (Mather et al. 1999)
Presenting further difficulty is the establishment of problems with alcohol and illicit drug use for adolescents entering service programs outside of the AOD system. (National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2005) In an analysis of data taken form a sample group of youth in five San Diego county sectors of AOD treatment, mental health, juvenile justice, child welfare and public school-based services for severely emotionally disturbed [SED] youth gives indication that "there are relatively high rates of substance use disorders among adolescents in these systems, as determined in diagnostic interview with DSM-IV…
Amaro, Hortensia, et al. (2005) Racial/Ethnic Differences in Social Vulnerability Among Women with Co-Occurring Mental Health and Substance Disorders: Implications for Treatment Services - Journal of Community Psychology. Vol. 33 Issue 4.
An Overview of the Effectiveness of Adolescent Substance Abuse Treatment Models (2001) Thousand Oaks, December 2001. Online available at http://web.utk.edu/~dap/SA2003/EffectadolescentSATx.html
Blane, H.T. (1993) Recent Development in Alcoholism: Ethnicity: Recent Development in Alcoholism, 11, 109-122.
Bridging the Gap: What We Know and Don't Know About Dual Diagnosis (1998) Healing Hands Journal. Vol.2, No.4 July 1998.
transference and transference love, as it is manifest in the psychoanalytic environment. Different therapists have recommended different methods of dealing with this love, which range from simple, knowing transference to idealized transference, and erotic transference. These range from exploring such issues verbally, to the use of surrogates for sex therapy, to sexual involvement with patients. Certain factions within the therapeutic community advocate some or none of these methodologies.
Answering his own question, "What are transferences?" he wrote: "A whole series of psychological experiences are revived, not as belonging to the past, but as belonging to the person of the physician at the present moment.... Psychoanalytic treatment does not create transferences, it merely brings them to light.... Transference, which seems ordained to be the greatest obstacle to psychoanalysis, becomes its most powerful ally if its presence can be detected each time and explained to the person" (1895:116-120). Freud went on to…
Winnicott, D.W. (1960). "Countertransference." British Journal of Medical Psychology, 33, 17-21.
Balint, M. (1965). Primary love and psychoanalytic technique. London: Tavistock.
Reich, A. (1951). "On countertransference." International Journal of Psychoanalysis, 32, 25-31.
Loewenstein, R.M. (1969). "Developments in the theory of transference in the last fifty years." International Journal of Psychoanalysis, 50, 583-588.
There are multiple theories for effecting change in therapeutic settings; it is largely advantageous for practitioners to become well versed in all of these. Nonetheless, it is necessary for therapists to decide what sort of theory of change pathways is most natural for him or her to deploy. In deciding which one is most efficacious in this regard, it is necessary to consider a plethora of factors that can potentially impact the way change theory is utilized by the potential therapist. Firstly, he or she should understand that the most commonly used theories for change pathways involve affective, behavioral, and cognitive mechanisms of change. Significantly, these approaches are not necessarily mutually exclusive; it very well could be beneficial to utilize combinations of these approaches while working with various clients. Moreover, it is also essential to consider the patient's input in which sort of mechanism is used. Based on…
Cohen, L. H., Butler, A. C., Wenze, S. J., Gunthert, K. C., Parrish, B. P., Beck, J. S. (2008). Negative affective spillover from daily events predicts early response to cognitive therapy for depression. Journal of Consulting & Clinical Psychology. (76)6 955-965.
Feller, C.P., Cottone, R.R. (2003). The importance of empathy in the therapeutic alliance. Journal of Humanistic Counseling, Education and Development. 42(1), 53-61.
Paivio, S.C., Shimp, L.N. (1998). Affective change processes in therapy for PTSD stemming from childhood abuse. Journal of Psychotherapy Integration. 8(4), 211-229.
4, Privacy Information, Limits of Confidentiality
16. Does the site have a waiver that clients must electronically sign or mail in before beginning counseling that specifically states the limits of ensuring confidentiality over the Internet?
Confidentiality: a.4., Limits of Confidentiality; Confidentiality: c., Client Waiver
Source: Shaw & Shaw, 2006, p. 42
Other changes that will undoubtedly influence the types of codes of ethical conduct mandated for counselor in the future will be the enormous demographic shifts taking place in the United States. Indeed, Pack-Brown et al. conclude that nowhere is the change more evident than in the need for cross-cultural awareness on the part of counselors today. According to these authorities, "The recent changes in the professional ethics of American Counseling Association, American Psychological Association, and National Association of Social Workers reflect a growing sensitivity and moral-ethical respectability for the diverse cultural constructions of terms such as mental health and…
American Counseling Association. (2005). ACA code of ethics quoted in Pack-Brown et al. At Black's law dictionary. (1991). St. Paul, MN: West Publishing Co.
Blocher, DH (2000). Counseling: A developmental approach. New York: John Wiley & Sons.
Code of ethics of the American Mental Health Counselors Association. (2001). Journal of Mental Health Counseling, 23(1), 2.
Corey, G., William, G.T. & Moline, M.E. (1995). Ethical and legal issues in group counseling.
S. were "proficient in reading and math," Pytel explains. These statistics "loudly states that students entering high school" are simply not prepared, Pytel goes on. Moreover, U.S. students do not fare well on the international educational stage. At a time when globalization has brought much closer linkage between cultures, economies, and countries, American school children are lagging behind. The justification for focusing on strategies to keep children interested in school -- and to help them succeed in school -- is to be found in the fact that U.S. students' average scores are very poor in comparison to other students internationally.
To wit, according to the 2003 data from the Program for International Student Assessment (PISA) (in cooperation with the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, OECD), 15-year-old American students rank 24th out of 38 countries in science. U.S. students rank 12th of 38 countries in reading, and 26th of 38…
American School Counselor Association. (2010). Why Middle School Counselors. Retrieved January 20, 2011, from http://www.schoolcounselor.org/content.asp?contentid=231 .
Barlow, Sally H., Fuhriman, Addie J., and Burlingame, Gary M. (2004). The History of Group
Counseling and Psychotherapy. In J.L. DeLucia-Waack (Ed), Handbook of Group
Counseling and Psychotherapy (pp. 4-18). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
Society Feels About Animals
As a first order primate, humans have a natural affinity with animals of all types that has contributed to their mutual relationships throughout history. In fact, animals of different types have been since the time of the ancient Greeks to improve the emotional and functional status of humans (Mccauley, 2006, p. 358). Animal-assisted therapy (AAT) has grown in popularity in recent years based on its proven efficacy in treating a wide range of healthcare and mental health conditions. Although dogs and cats are most commonly used in AAT settings, horses, rabbits and even fish can also be used. For instance, according to Macauley, "The use of animals ranges from companion animals that provide camaraderie and emotional support to assistance animals that provide direct physical-functional support to therapy animals that aid with the habilitation-rehabilitation in physical, occupational, speech-language, and recreation therapy" (2006, p. 358). Moreover, some researchers…
Becker, D. (2013, August 26). "Four-Legged Therapy for Military Veterans with PTSD."
Healthy Pets. [online] available: http://healthypets.mercola.com/sites/healthypets / archive/2013/0.
Bleich, A. (2004, October 1). "Mental Disability." The Israel Journal of Psychiatry and Related
Sciences, 41(4), 235-237.
One of the most important ethical standards for psychologists (as well as others in similar therapeutic relationships) is the avoidance of dual relationships. Put simply, a dual relationship is one in which the psychologist has any other relationship with a client. In the scenario that we are presented with, the nature of the potential dual relationship is fairly straightforward. The psychologist and the student have an established relationship with each other with clearly defined roles as student and instructor. Because this is an established, ongoing relationship, it would not be ethical for the psychologist to engage in a therapeutic relationship with the student.
If we consider the possible future direction of such a hypothetical relationship, we can see why it would be so problematic. For example, if the psychologist began to see the student as a client and the student/client then did not pay for a session, this…
Meyer, J. (n.d.). Fresh legal perspectives: Psychologists in dual relationships. http://www.apa.org/divisions/div12/legalper.pdf .
100). Much of the focus of personnel selection using psychological testing was on new troops enlisting in the military during two world wars and the explosive growth of the private sector thereafter (Scroggins et al., 2008). Psychological testing for personnel selection purposes, though, faded into disfavor during the 1960s, but it continues to be used by human resource practitioners today. In this regard, Scroggins and his colleagues advise, "Many H practitioners, however, have continued to use personality testing with an optimistic and enduring faith in its ability to discriminate between good and poor job candidates" (p. 101).
In cases where cheating is suspected (such as in the case of an teen applicant possibly using a smartphone or consulting crib notes during testing by visiting the restroom), psychologists have a professional responsibility to conform to relevant privacy laws with respect to the results of such tests, including following the decision-making model…
Barnes, F.P. & Murdin, L. (2001). Values and ethics in the practice of psychotherapy and counseling. Philadelphia: Open University Press.
Bersoff, D.N. (2008). Ethical conflicts in psychology. American Psychological Association.
Bonventre, V.M. (2005, Spring). Editor's foreword. Albany Law Review, 68(2), vii-ix.
Charman, D. (2004). Core processes in brief psychodynamic psychotherapy: Advancing effective practice. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Carl ogers' Theory of Personality Compared to Those of Erik Erikson?
Over the past century or so, a number of psychological theorists have provided new ways of understanding human development over the lifespan, including Carl ogers, Erik Erikson and Jean Piaget. Although these theorists share some common views concerning how people develop over time, they differ in other ways with regards to what forces tend to be the most salient at different periods and how therapists should approach helping others resolve the problems they inevitably encounter along the way. To determine what ogers, Erikson and Piaget share in common and how they differ, this paper provides a review of the relevant literature concerning these theorists, followed by a personal reflections analysis. A summary of the research and important findings are presented in the conclusion.
eview and Analysis
Best known for his person-centered approach to counseling, Carl ogers was…
Comstock, Dana L., Tonya R. Hammer, Julie Strentzsch, Kristi Cannon, Jacqueline Parsons and Ii Gustavo Salazar (2008), "Relational-Cultural Theory: A Framework for Bridging
Relational, Multicultural, and Social Justice Competencies." Journal of Counseling and Development, vol. 86, no. 3, pp. 279-281.
DeCarvalho, Roy J. (1999), The Founders of Humanistic Psychology. New York: Praeger.
Demorest, Amy (2005), Psychology's Grand Theorists: How Personal Experiences Shaped
Thus, giving the patient a 'bird's eye view' of his/her life gives him/her a chance to reconsider past actions committed and change these to improve his/her relations with a partner or family member. As in family brief therapies, reconstructing a family's life according to each member's interpretation and reflection helps the therapist identify the family member who adopts a constructive or destructive view of the 'reconstructed family life.' Through SFT, the therapist is able to create a therapeutic process that would be time-efficient and beneficial to patients.
itter and Nicoll (2004) elucidated effectively the effectiveness of brief therapy treatment for couples and families (64):
brief therapists seek to establish in their clients a renewed faith in self as well as optimism and hope for their immediate and long-term futures. It is caring, however, that guarantees the client support and a safe return in a future session, now matter how the…
Bury, D. (2000). "Constructivist paradigms in other therapies." Journal of Constructivist Psychology, Vol. 13, Issue 4.
Bitter, J. And W. Nicoll. (2000). "Adlerian brief therapy with individuals: process and practice." Journal of Individual Psychology, Vol. 56, Issue 1.
____. (2004). "Relational strategies: two approaches to Adlerian brief therapy." Journal of Individual Psychology, Vol. 60, Issue 1.
Disque, J.G. And J. Bitter. (2004). "Emotion, experience, and early recollections: exploring restorative reorientation processes in Adlerian therapy." Journal of Individual Psychology, Vol. 60, Issue 2.
Ethics to Practice: Analysis of 'end of life' decision making
The foregoing discussion is an incursion into nursing ethics. Implication(s) to 'omission' of information as a customary practice within our healthcare institution is reviewed in relation to best practices pertaining to 'informed consent,' and hospital policy is not definitive. Directed at the evolution of ethical decision making, the general query to the study focuses on the parameters of informed consent where individual practice is concerned.
In the nation of Canada where I am a nurse the number of situations where patient informed consent decisions might be subject to our national code of nursing ethics is many. e face critical ethical dilemmas every day, as emergency procedures and critical care interventions are standard practice. Complexity in decision making is furthered in the conduct and approaches made by international colleagues on contract in our institution by way of exchange.
The primacy of…
Bullough, B. ed. The Law and the expanding nursing role. New York, NY: Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1980.
Callahan, Joan, ed. Ethical Issues in Profesional Life. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1988.
Canadian Medical Protection Association (CMPA), 2010. Web.
Finlay and Fernandez. Failure to report and provide commentary on research ethics board approval and informed consent in medical journals is discussed Journal of Medical Ethics, 34.10 (2008), 761-764. doi:10.1136/jme.2007.023325.
Chistian counseling has become an impotant teatment modality fo a gowing numbe of health cae pactitiones and patients acoss the county in ecent yeas. Intoduced duing the ealy 1980s, Chistian counseling advocates integating eligious pactices and beliefs founded on eligious taditions with psychotheapeutic techniques to povide an optimal appoach to helping people cope with a wide ange of pesonal poblems and family issues. The pupose of this study is to povide a citical and systematic eview of the elevant liteatue in geneal and Gay R. Collins's book, Chistian Counseling: A Compehensive Guide (2007) in paticula, concening the oigins and tends in Chistian counseling and how this appoach can be used to povide the timely and essential inteventions that can help people bette cope with pesonal and family poblems. A summay of the eseach and impotant findings concening these issues ae pesented in the study's conclusion.
Table of Contents
references regarding prayer as a counseling intervention. Journal of Psychology and Theology, 35(4), 328-340.
West, W.S. (2004). Spiritual issues in therapy -- Relating experience to practice. Basingstoke:
Wood, G.D. & Ellis, R.C. (2003). Risk management practices of leading UK cost consultants. Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management, 10(4), 254-262.
The psychotherapist's role is then to enhance the already existing tools to help those who need it develop their intelligence and problem-solving abilities in order to promote the healing process.
Both the cognitive and affective domains are important considerations within psychotherapy. Indeed, the two often function within a causal relationship to each other. In the Communicative Theory of emotion, as expounded by Brett et al. (2003), for example, emotions are directly related to conscious or unconscious cognitive evaluations. These cognitive evaluations then cause an emotional response, which might include happiness, sadness, or anger. The subconscious internalization of the original cognitive evaluation and accompanying emotion could then result in behavior-related problems such as prejudice. Sometimes such behavior problems are so deeply seated that they need to be treated by means of psychotherapy.
Cognitive therapy, as explained by Michael Herkov (2010), acknowledges the relationship between thought (the cognitive aspect)…
AudioEnglish.net. (2010). Cognitive Neuroscience. http://www.audioenglish.net/dictionary/cognitive_neuroscience.htm
Brett, a., Smith, M., Price, E., & Huitt, W. (2003). Overview of the affective domain. Educational Psychology Interactive. Valdosta, GA: Valdosta State University. Retrieved [date], from http:/www.edpsycinteractive.org/brilstar/chapters/affectdev.doc
Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct. http://web.uvic.ca/psyc/tuokko/Ethical%20Principles%20of%20Psychologists.pdf
Eysenck, Michael W. & Keane, Mark T. (2005). Cognitive Psychology: a student's handbook. East Sussex: Psychology Press Ltd.
Kellogg & Young in Schema Therapy for Borderline Personality Disorder offer a comprehensive explanation of the use of Schema Therapy for patients with BPD, by first explaining the disorder and how it is particularly prime for the use of schema therapy as the disorder itself and the behavior and emotions exhibited from it can be seen as an individual traversing through a short list of schemas and are reflective of the childhood origins of BPD. The modes of BPD are described by the authors as consisting of the angry and impulsive child mode, the detached protector mode, the punitive parent mode and lastly the healthy adult mode. According to the authors if these modes are lacking in integration and emotions cannot be traversed across each, or if the modes are significantly unbalanced they become schemas that override normal adult behavior. The particulars of Schema Therapy are then described after a…
Clarkin, J.F. Levy, K.N. Lenzenweger, M.F. Kernberg, O.F. (June 2007) Evaluating Three Treatments for Borderline Personality Disorder: A Multiwave Study Ameican Journal of Psychology 164:6, 922-928.
Clarkin, J.F. & Levy, K.N. (April 2003) a Psychodynamic Treatment for Severe Personality Disorders: Issues in Treatment Development Psychoanalytic Inquiry 23:2 248-268.
Kellogg, S.H. Young, J.E. (February 2006) Schema Therapy for Borderline Personality Disorder Journal of Clinical Psychology 62:4 445-458.
Kimball, J.S., & Diddams, M. (2007). Affect Regulation as a Mediator of Attachment and Deliberate Self-Harm. Journal of College Counseling, 10(1), 44.
EFFT and Stepfamilies
Blended families or "step families" have one parent who is not the biological parent of the children in the family. These families will often face unique challenges due to their makeup. Furrow and Palmer (2007) discuss Emotionally Focused Family Therapy (EFFT) for stepfamilies. Furrow and Palmer identify four basic challenges that stepfamilies face:
(1).The past experiences of the different families join compete with the new family's ability to consolidate newer relational commitments.
Typical family boundaries are clouded in stepfamilies (e.g., who disciplines which child, who is the real parent of whom, etc.).
There is an "inheritance of loss" that occurs through remarriage that can affect the parents and the children of both original families. This can interfere with the development of the new stepfamily.
(4). There are different developmental needs in stepfamilies compared to other families.
These four specific challenges can make working with stepfamilies particularly difficult.…
Furrow, J. & Palmer, G. (2007). EFFT and blended families: Building bonds from the inside out. Journal of Systemic Therapies, 26(4), 44-58.
human service professional in the helping process has many dimensions. One of the most important of these, according to Murphy and Dillon (2012) is the ethical aspect, because "ethical codes stress the primacy of the service obligation to the client, confidentiality, integrity, and follow-through." The needs of the client should be the primary concern of the human service professional, which is why years of training and practice are required before they are truly qualified and fully prepared to take on the responsibility of helping other individuals who are in crisis.
Adherence to strong ethical codes is of crucial importance in this profession. Having a clear and specific set of ethical guidelines is essential because human service professionals are human beings with their own personal values. They have sets of beliefs which may be deeply engrained, including prejudices formed from their cultural, social, and educational backgrounds. These are sometimes so deeply…
Corey, G. (2009). Theory and practice of counseling and psychotherapy (8th
Ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.
Murphy, E., & Dillon, C. (2012). Interviewing in action in a multicultural world (4th Ed.).
self-therapy in the context of what needs to be done to elevate the healing process in life. The therapy that is often used to treat is that which people rely on to practice self-treatment. In this paper, Art Bohart's talk on self-healing is will be used to manifest what is best-used means of conducting self-therapy. In this paper, the general supportive treatment of stress and other psychological ailments will be covered. The aim is to reach out to the diverse sections of the therapy and how it may be of use to the people. The paper also discusses the relevance of this program in the treatment of emotional challenges that people face. Finally, the paper will discuss whether the lessons learned from Art Bohart's talk can be integrated into real life. The focus extends to include the texistential-humanistic therapeutic interventions and the benefits associated with their use on patients.
Bohart, A. C., & Tallman, K. (1999). What Do We Mean By The Client As Active Self-Healer? In, How Clients Make Therapy Work: The Process of Active Self-Healing (Pp. 3-23). Washington, DC, U.S.: American Psychological Association. doi:10.1037/10323-001
Bohart, A. C., & Tallman, K. (1999). Research Results That May Surprise You -- How Do We Know the Client is an Active Self-Healer? In, How Clients Make Therapy Work: The Process of Active Self-Healing (pp. 25-55). Washington, DC, U.S.: American Psychological Association. doi:10.1037/10323-002
Bohart, A. C., & Tallman, K. (1999). Self-Healing Without a Therapist. In, How Clients Make Therapy Work: The Process of Active Self-Healing (Pp. 57-84). Washington, DC, U.S.: American Psychological Association. doi:10.1037/10323-003
Bohart, A. C., & Tallman, K. (1999). Self-Healing With a Therapist. In, How Clients Make Therapy Work: The Process Of Active Self-Healing (Pp. 87-104). Washington, DC, U.S.: American Psychological Association. doi:10.1037/10323-004
The counselor should address issues at the time they occur with the patient and:
acknowledge importance of feelings, emphasize the provider-patient relationship and the importance of maintaining objectivity"; and finally "emphasize that the rejection of a requesting behavior does not imply a lack of caring." (arbour, 2007)
If the boundary issues affect the ability of the counseling in providing objective and compassion care, the counselor should seek professional counseling for self and possibly for the patient and their family. (arbour, 2007)
The work of Michael Liimatta entitled: "Issues of Personal oundaries in Counseling: Part I" states that many times the phrase 'professional distance' is taken by people to mean cold and uncaring but in reality 'professional distance' is quite opposite of uncaring and is actually a strategy geared toward protecting the client from the counselors loss of objectivity." (Liimatta, 2001)
IV. Maintaining the Delicate alance between Rapport and Professional oundaries…
Anastasi, a. (1988). Psychological testing (6th ed.).(New York: Macmillan)
Barbour, Lise Taylor (2007) Fast Fact and Concept #172: Professional-Patient boundaries in Palliative Care. End-of-Life Physician Education character. American Journal of Psychotherapy, 28, 194-207.
Claiborn, W. (1982). The problem of professional incompetence. Professional Delrojo, James (2004) Six Tips for Building and Maintaining Rapport. Counseling and Therapy. Online available at http://www.enhancedhealing.com/articles/view.php?article=862
Dubin, S. (1972). Obsolescence or lifelong education: A choice for the professional.
Technology and Health Care
E-therapy also know as online therapy, tele-therapy, or e-counselling is new method for mental health where the therapist offers support and psychological advice over the internet (Sucala et al., 2012). This can be done using email, online chat, video conferencing, or internet phone. E-therapy can be carried out in real-time via phone conversations and chat rooms. Using e-mail messages, the therapist offers the service in a delayed format. E-therapy cannot replace traditional therapy since it is not considered psychotherapy. E-therapy is only used for substituting traditional therapy in a situation where the therapist cannot access the patient. Using e-therapy a therapist can only offer advice to patients experiencing problems in work, life, or relationships. The therapist is not able to diagnose or treat mental illness using e-therapy. In situations where the therapist is unable to meet with the patient physically, e-therapy offers a means for the…
Loucas, C.E., Fairburn, C.G., Whittington, C., Pennant, M.E., Stockton, S., & Kendall, T. (2014). E-therapy in the treatment and prevention of eating disorders: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Behaviour Research and Therapy.
Postel, M.G., de Haan, H.A., ter Huurne, E.D., Becker, E.S., & de Jong, C.A. (2011). Characteristics of problem drinkers in E-therapy vs. face-to-face treatment. The American journal of drug and alcohol abuse, 37(6), 537-542.
Stasiak, K., Fleming, T., Lucassen, M., Shepherd, M., Doherty, I., & Merry, S. (2012). The journey towards new generation e-therapy for adolescents with depression. Neuropsychiatrie de l'Enfance et de l'Adolescence, 60(5), S144.
Sucala, M., Schnur, J.B., Brackman, E.H., Constantino, M.J., & Montgomery, G.H. (2013). Clinicians' Attitudes Toward Therapeutic Alliance in E-Therapy. The Journal of general psychology, 140(4), 282-293.
" In the process, one learns to see oneself as strong and resilient, courageous, and empowered. Whether the individual can get up and go on and have a happy life after the loss depends on how the person views self
Is he or she a victim or a survivor? A strong person making spiritual progress or weak and debilitated? Whiting & Bradley (2007) argue that there must be an outcome for every loss. Whether the outcome is "reconciliation" or "vulnerability" or "victimization" depends on successful and positive identity reconstruction.
It used to be believed that the grieving individual had to achieve detachment from the person who had died. This was Freud's theory, that "grieving people need to break free from the deceased, let go of the past and reassert their individualism by charting a new course for life.
A healthy grief experience, according to Freud [was] one in which the…
Anderson, R.A. (2006). Immunity and grief. Townsend Letter: The Examiner of Alternative Medicine, 276, 128.
Briggs, C.A. And Pehrsson, D. (2008). Use of bibliotherapy in the treatment of grief and loss: A guide to current counseling practices. Adultspan Journal, 7 (1), 32-43.
Bush, H.K. (2007). Grief work: After a child dies. The Christian Century, 124 (25), 36-40.
Care of the elderly - bereavement: An essential guide (2006). The Practitioner (June 29), 22-29.
However, he questions the research that has been done in this area. First, he wonders whether the exercise is a placebo effect based on the anticipation of improvement. The second question is the acceptability of this treatment. Many CFS patients actively avoid exercise and many healthcare providers in fact recommend rest at all costs rather than a concern of relapse. However, the positive aspect of the CBT and the exercise is that it has the patients question their fears. In both cases, there is a psychotherapeutic affect that may be beneficial.
The use of antidepressants is another approach that has been suggested and studied. However, the results on this have also been mixed. As Demitrack (1996, p. 282) states, "At the present time, it is unrealistic to present medication as a sole treatment for this disease." It may be that medications could work in the short-term and provide enough symptomatic…
Center for Disease Control (2006, May 9). Chronic Fatigue Syndrome. Retrieved January 30, 2007 http://www.cdc.gov/cfs/cfsbasicfacts.htm .
Demitrack, M. And Abbey, S. (1996) (Eds) Chronic Fatigue Syndrome. New York: Guilford Press.
Hyland, M.E. et. al. (2006) Letter to the Editor. The Lancet 367 (9522), 1573-1576
Komaroff, a., & Fagioli, L. (1996) Medial Assessment of Fatigue and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome. In M. Demitrack and S. Abbey (Eds) Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (pg. 154-181). New York: Guilford Press,.
Moal chaacte, that is, having couage, being pesistent, dismissing distactions and so on in pusuit of the goal.
These ae attempts to define ethics by descibing actions, and faily specific constellations of actions at that. Fedeich Paulson, a 19th centuy philosophe of ethics, defined ethics as a science of moal duty (1899).
Almost 100 yeas late, Swenson also used the concept of study in defining ethics, saying that it included the systematic study of concepts such as ight and wong. Othe eseaches note that the idea of systematic study is common in dictionay definitions of ethics, with the Ameican Heitage Dictionay focusing on thee elements: " the study of moal philosophy, the ules of a pofession (o moe boadly the chaacte of a community), and moal self-examination (Soukhanov, 1992).
Hill (2004) offes a 'definition' that is mainly pactical but also incopoates some theoetical content. They believe that ethical…
references for confidentiality of records. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 34, 62-67.
Welfel, E.R. (1992). Psychologist as ethics educator: Successes, failures, and unanswered questions. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 23, 182-189.
Welfel, E.R. (1998). Ethics in counseling and psychotherapy: Standards, research, and emerging issues. Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole.
Welfel, E.R. (2002). Ethics in counseling and psychotherapy: Standards, research, and emerging issues (2nd ed.). Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole.
Graduate Certificate Nursing Education
Learning of Anorexia Nervosa & Handling Its Patients
Final Learning Report
DESCRIPTIN F BJECTIVES & THEIR STATUS
Drafting a learning contract and adhering to it along with constant support from my supervisor, was an effective activity which constituted of four weeks. every objective had a milestone plan and necessary measures which were required to be taken for achieving them. Self-expectation after reaching these goals was also documented in order to have a clear picture of my proficiency level in the developing knowledge of Anorexia Nervosa after this activity. The primary objective was to have clear understanding of Anorexia Nervosa, its causes, symptoms and possible treatments. Furthermore, second main objective was to deal with patients having this disorder and their families. These two major goals encompassed the rest. Through reading of the concerned topic were performed and were brought into practical application. Furthermore, efforts were made to…
Owen, T. (2002). Self-Directed Learning in Adulthood: A Literature Review.
William, J. (2009), Anorexia Nervosa: Self Sabotage in Adolescence
Final Report-Anorexia Nervosa Page 4
Counseling is described by Kobeisy as the professional form of guidance that is aimed at addressing concerns as well as aid individuals in improving their attitude, coping skills as well as behavior (Kobeisy 1).Counseling can help people, families as well as groups in achieving optimal growth and development for the stages of life in which they go through. Counseling as a profession has many specialties like marriage, grief, and pastoral as well as career. It is worth noting that apart from pastoral counseling, the field of counseling is meant to be a free.This is to imply that the counselor should be open minded while approaching their clients with an attitude that is non-judgmental. They are also not allowed to impose or even direct their clients. The counseling process should therefore help the clients to clearly see their choices, appropriately set their objectives while making the necessary changes in order to…
Caldwell, Benjamin E, Woolley, Scott R, Caldwell, Casey J. Preliminary estimates of costeffectiveness for marital therapy. Journal of Marital and Family Therapy, 33:392 -- 405, 2007
Carr, Alan. Family Therapy: Concepts Process and Practice (2nd edn). Chichester:
Cohl, D'Vera "At Long Last, Divorce." Pew Research Center < http://pewresearch.org/pubs/1617/long-duration-marriage-end-divorce-gore
Newborn pain is an example of an everyday occurrence where achieving neonates' interests are through making them comfortable and pain-free. As the neonatal intensive care nursery gives rise to many potentially painful procedures, a dilemma exists for caregivers in assessing if sick and/or premature infants are in pain (Nagy 1998). Although newborn pain affects the short-term interests there are possibilities that the lasting effects may also be harmful (Spence, 2000).
For a long time, the medical profession has given its members with the knowledge and skills that are required to treat disease and deformity. Physicians have often been the front line of technological mastery, increasingly emotional with the onerous responsibility of determining when intervention is suitable. Underlying this responsibility is a foundation of core principles, including beneficence, non-malfeasance, and compassion. Conscious use of these principles is not often supportive when the best interests of patients are diverse and apply to…
Head, David W., Head, Becky and Head, James L. (1985). Life or Death of Severely Disabled
Infants: A Counseling Issue. Journal of Counseling & Development. 63(10), p. 621.
Kopelman, Loretta M. (2005). Are the 21-Year-old Baby Doe Rules Misunderstood or Mistaken? Pediatrics. 115(3), pp. 797-802.
Morrow, Jason. (2000). Making Mortal Decisions at the Beginning of Life: The Case of Impaired and Imperiled Infants. Journal of American Medical Association. 284, p. 1146-
Merrill, in the UK. Following his experience with heart surgery using innovating surgical techniques, the physician noted the problems he experienced in understanding all of his alternatives compared to a simpler earlier procedure, and finally trusted to the advice of his cardiologist to surgically intervene. In response to the experience, Dr. Merrill emphasized that, "As a physician talking to colleagues, I had the best information possible under the circumstances. But it wasn't the same as my hernia repair. The experience brought home to me the realization that the progress of medicine has made informed consent impossible -- even for me" (Merrill 1999: 190).
ationale of Study
Taken together, the foregoing issues indicate that there is an ongoing need for an assessment of knowledge levels of informed consent among perioperative nurses and operating department practitioners. Perioperative nurses and operating department practitioners, though, are frequently subjected to an enormous amount of stress…
Calloway, S.J. (2009) 'The Effect of Culture on Beliefs Related to Autonomy and Informed
Consent.' Journal of Cultural Diversity 16(2): 68-69.
Cobb, W.G. (2005) 'Defending the Informed Consent Case.' Defense Counsel Journal 72(4):
In G. Landsberg, M. Rock, & L. Berg (Eds.), Serving mentally ill offenders and their victims: Challenges and opportunities for social workers and other mental health professionals. New York, NY: Springer.
Carroll K.M. (1997). Enhancing retention in clinical trials of psychosocial treatments: Practical strategies. In L. Onken, J. Blaine, & J. Boren, (Eds.), Beyond the therapeutic alliance: Keeping the drug-dependent individual in treatment. [NIDA Research Monograph Series #165, 4-24]. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.
Chou C.P., et al. (1998). Interaction effects of client and treatment program characteristics on retention: An exploratory analysis using hierarchical linear models. Substance Use & Misuse, 33(11), 2281-2301.
Goldkamp, J.S., White, M.D., & Robinson, J.B. (2001). Do drug courts work? Getting inside the drug court blackbox. Journal of Drug Issues, 31(1), 27-72.
Snyder, H., Finnegan, ., Stahl, A., & Poole, R. (1999). Easy access to juvenile court statistics: 1988-1997 [data presentation and analysis package]. Pittsburgh,…
The Developmental Pathways Model (2005) Health Services Technology Assessment Text HSTAT Online available at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/bv.fcgi?rid=hstat5.section.18578
Deborah Prothrow-Stith, M.D., Deadly Consequences "An Endangered Species -- Young Men of Color Living in Poverty" Chapter 5,-page 64-79 (1991).
African-American Males and the Correlation Between Substance Abuse
Psychopathy: diagnosis and implications for treatment
Medical research has advanced to such an extent as to allow diseases that would have in the past been considered without a medical cure to be nowadays a limited challenge in the face of new technologies, techniques, and methods of treatment. Unfortunately some of the most difficult to cure diseases are those related to the nervous system and of physiological nature. One such case is psychopathy, a complex of states of mind and attitudes that transform the individual in particular degrees of sanity or insanity.
There have been numerous articles and research project conducted on this subject both to try to determine the nature of psychopathy as well as to provide different types of solutions for curing its manifestations and finding out the root causes of psychopathy. One such study is the one concluded by Mairead Dolan and Michael Doyle from the University of…
Dolan, M. And Michael Doyle. (2007) "Psychopathy: diagnosis and implications for treatment" in Psychiatry, volume 6, Issue 10, Oct.
Framwork for Practise and Presentation
Sociology -- Social Work
There are several factors that contribute to seeming intractability and complexity of social issues. We cannot retrieve an actual picture of any problem considering a single issue. The root causes of social issues are related to individual circumstances and some are beyond the individual control. Central goal of social work profession is the social justice. Social workers can better serve all the needs of the service users if they will have the tools that are required to analyze the existing social policies and problems. This term paper is based on the ideology and the theories embraced by social workers; also their practice strategies and inclusiveness of cultural diversity is discussed in detail.
FINAL PAPE -- FAMWOK FO PACTISE AND PESENTATION
We find several social issues in our surroundings. Every social issue does not depend on a single cause rather there are…
Antonio, A., & Resko, S.M. (2008). Cognitive-Behavioral Theory. Retrieved July 3rd, 2012, from http://www.sagepub.com/upm-data/40689_2.pdf .
Clines, F.X. (1993). Dealing with Drug Dealers: Rehabilitation, Not Jail; Hynes Tries Alternative Approach Intended to Stop a Problem by Curing and Addiction. The New York Times. Retrieved July 3rd, 2012, from http://www.nytimes.com/1993/01/20/nyregion/dealing-with-drug-dealers-rehabilitation-not-jail-hynes-tries-alternative.html?pagewanted=all&src=pm
CBR. (2004). A Strategy for Rehabilitation, Equalization of Opportunities, Poverty Reduction and Social Inclusion of People with Disabilities. Community-Based Rehabilitation. Retrieved August 3rd, 2012, from http://whqlibdoc.who.int/publications/2004/9241592389_eng.pdf .
Flores, P.J. & Georgi, J.M. (2005). Substance Abuse Treatment: Group Therapy. Retrieved June 02, 2012, from http://www.ctcertboard.org/files/TIP41.pdf .
Review of Saudi Arabia
Muslim culture is one of the religions with the oldest and most extensive histories. It has its impacts on the world's greatest civilizations such as Sultanate of Usmania, Saudi Arabia, and Middle East and in different eras, Muslim rulers have extended their kingdoms to various parts of the world. Muslim culture even has its imprints on various fields of Science and Sociology. Despite all the richness of this culture, it is the one facing major criticism globally. One after another, events are taking place in a sequence which has highlighted the importance of Muslim countries in global Politics and economy.
These days, political decisions taken by the governments of Iran, Saudi Arabia, Pakistan and other Muslim countries have become part of daily news headlines. On the other hand, the incident of 9/11 has changed the global scenario of this world. Policies of many western…
socio-cultural issues that have the greatest influence on the administration of psychological testing. One social and legal issue that arisen in the recent literature is the use of psychological testing in conjuncture with genetic testing. Indeed, the article notes that there are ethical challenges and training implications for current and future psychologists in the field. The article notes that modern advances in the field of genome sequencing and genetic testing have created issues and ethical challenges relating to the general field of psychology. The reason there is an issue is that, more and more, patients will know their family's genetic history and will present with a disorder in mind rather than allowing for diagnosis to run its course. Further, this knowledge of the family history can lead to undue stress and problems with the patients themselves. There are further concerns that can rise from that overall paradigm including values conflicts…
Bram, A.D. (2013). Psychological Testing and Treatment Implications: We Can Say
More. Journal Of Personality Assessment, 95(4), 319-331.
Chong, V., & Kuo, B.H. (2015). Racial Identity Profiles of Asian-White Biracial Young
Andrea M. is a 21-year-old female in her fourth year of college with aspirations to become a civil rights attorney. She was first recommended to seek treatment when she experienced her first panic attack three years ago. At the time, a friend advised her to seek counseling. However, Andrea never did seek counseling at that time. Andrea has since been avoiding certain types of social situations, has gravitated towards jobs with as little social contact as possible, and fears that her anxiety may be impacting her performance in school and her ability to find viable work as an intern this summer. She loves "diving into my work" and becoming absorbed in her academics, but when it comes to attending classes, Andrea feels stressed and has been missing more classes than she has ever before. After not showing up to classes for two weeks, and an incident involving alcohol poisoning during…
Amir, N. & Bomyea, J. (2010). Cognitive biases in social anxiety disorder. In Hoffman, S.G. & DiBartolo, P.M. (2010). Social Anxiety. 2nd Edition.
Andersson, G., et al. (2012). Therapeutic alliance in guided internet-delivered cognitive behavioural treatment of depression, generalized anxiety disorder and social anxiety disorder. Behavior Research and Therapy 50(9), 554-550.
Anxiety and Depression Association of America (2014). Social anxiety disorder. Retrieved online: http://www.adaa.org/understanding-anxiety/social-anxiety-disorder
Bogels, S.M., Alden, L. et al. (2010). Social anxiety disorder. Depression and Anxiety 27, 169-189.
1. What behaviors would indicate that the client is sustaining at a healthy baseline?
The therapies mentioned in Eliza’s case will be instrumental in stabilizing her behavior; if they are conducted regularly. Cognitive behavioral therapy is effective in stabilizing several factors that cause problems for Eliza in her life. Eliza’s problems including anxiety, obsessive compulsive disorder, trauma sensitivity, and eating disorder can be addressed and cured in several therapy sessions. Stability of these factors can be an indication of Eliza’s health based on evaluation.
CBT has presented promising outcomes when applied early to forestall mental disorders. The method consists of education relating to trauma reactions, training on relaxation, restructuring of beliefs related to fear, imaginary exposure to memories that are traumatic, and exposure to situations avoided. A number of controlled studies have indicated that 5 sessions a week that run for one and…
Factors related to hospitals and the patient population influence incidents of discharge Against Medical Advice, also known as AMA (Karimi et al., 2014). There is a high rate of discharges against the doctor’s advice after admission into emergency units. There is a need to probe the reasons behind such a trend (Shirani et al., 2010). It should be noted with concern that AMA is a healthcare institutions’ problem across the world because, in cases where children are discharged in such a manner, the blame cannot fall on these children. Children do not contribute to such decisions (Mohseni et al., 2013). Figures show that out of every 65 to 120 discharges from general hospitals across the world, one is a case of AMA. Such action is prone to dire consequences including litigation (Devitt et al., 2000). The scenario is a challenge to physicians across the globe (Taqueti, 2007). It is…
The opening phase of dynamic psychotherapy helps the therapist to understand why the patient is seeking treatment; what kind of triggers to current problems are present; and house troubled the patient is in terms of both physical and psychological health (text p. 41). Yalom (1989) allows for several sessions of introductory therapy, also in keeping with the psychodynamic model. At this introductory phase, the therapist gets an idea of what treatment options to present and how to proceed. Yalom (1989) also determines the frequency of the treatment in the introductory phase (text p. 41). The core way that the relationship between Yalom (1989) and Carlos exemplifies psychodynamic therapy is in regards to the transference neurosis, which intensifies in therapy (text p. 53). However, transference is worked through as a core element of the therapeutic process. In the case with Carlos, neurotic transference is exemplified most clearly in the way…
Corsini & Wedding (n.d.). Textbook.
Yalom (1989), I.D. (1989). "2 - If Rape Were Legal..." In Love's Executioner and Other Tales of Psychotherapy. New York: Basic, 1989. 59-78.
Pharmaceutical industries have to operate in an environment that is highly competitive and subject to a wide variety of internal and external constraints. In recent times, there has been an increasing trend to reduce the cost of operation while competing with other companies that manufacture products that treat similar afflictions and ailments. The complexities in drug research and development and regulations have created an industry that is subject to intense pressure to perform. The amount of capital investment investments required to get a drug from conception, through clinical trials and into the market is enormous. The already high-strung pharmaceutical industry is increasingly investing greater amounts of resources in search of the next "blockbuster" drug that can help them gain market position and profits. Laws, regulations and patents are important to the industry while spending billions of dollars in ensuring the copyright of their products.
It is the intention of this…
Ansoff, H.I. (1957). Strategies for diversification. Harvard Business Review, 35(5), 113-124.
Ansoff, H.I. (1965). Corporate Strategy. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.
Ashour, M.F., Obeidat, O., Barakat, H., & Tamimi, A. (2004). UAE Begins Examination of Patent Applications. Tamino.com. Retrieved January 18, 2004, from the World Wide Web: http://www.tamimi.com/lawupdate/2001-01/intprop.htm
Bain, J.S. (1954). Economies of scale, concentration, and the condition of entry in twenty manufacturing industries. American Economic Review, 44, 15-36.
Ethical Practice Involves Working Positively Diversity Difference
Counseling is a profession that involves associations based on principles and values ethically. Patients are able to benefit by understanding themselves better and through creating relationships with others. Through counseling, the clients are able to make positive alteration in life and enhance their living standards. Communities, organizations, couples and families are different groups of individuals are main sources of relationships (BACP Ethical Framework, 2013, p.4). Frameworks of ethical practice direct the attention of counseling practitioners to engage in ethical responsibilities. This stud describes the purpose of each principle following the development of good counseling practice. Practitioners make reasonable decisions grounded on these principles without making any contradictions. Nevertheless, research indicates that professionals have met barriers hindering them to integrate all the principles in some cases. In such situations, they are forced to select between required principles. A course of action or a decision…
BACP Ethical Framework. (2013). The Ethical Framework for Good Practice in Counselling. Pp 1-10. Accessed April 7, 2013 from www.bacp.co.uk/admin/structure/files/pdf/9479_ethical%20framework%20jan2013.pdf
Clarkson, P. (2009). The Therapeutic Relationship. New York NY: Wiley
Handout 1. MkSame-Sex Relationships, an Historical Overview. A review by Robin Heme
Handout 2. What are the potential abuses of these kinds of power in the relationship between counsellor and client? Janet Dowding 02.2010 saved as power
Eating disorder is characterized by abnormal eating habits involving excessive or insufficient intake of food which is detrimental to the individual's physical and mental well-being. There are two common types of eating disorders although there are other types of eating disorders. The first is bulimia nervosa which is excessive eating coupled with frequent vomiting. The second type is anorexia nervosa which is immoderate restriction of food which leads to irrational weight gaining. The other types of eating disorders include eating disorders not otherwise specified which are essentially where a person has anorexic and bulimic behaviors, binge eating disorder which is compulsive overeating without any kind of compensatory behavior, and pica which is craving for certain non-food items such as glue, plaster, paper. It is estimated that roughly 10-15% of cases of eating disorders occur in males and statistics show that women are at a higher risk of developing eating disorders…
Doll, H.A., Petersen, S.E., & Stewart-Brown, S.L. (2005). Eating Disorders and Emotional and Physical Well-Being: Associations between Student Self-Reports of Eating Disorders and Quality of Life as Measured by the SF-36. Quality of Life Research, 14(3), 705-717. doi: 10.2307/4038820
Kime, N. (2008). Children's Eating Behaviours: The Importance of the Family Setting. Area, 40(3), 315-322. doi: 10.2307/40346135
Krauth, C., Buser, K., & Vogel, H. (2002). How High Are the Costs of Eating Disorders - Anorexia Nervosa and Bulimia Nervosa - for German Society? The European Journal of Health Economics, 3(4), 244-250. doi: 10.2307/3570016
Martin, A.R., Nieto, J.M.M., Jimenez, M.A.R., Ruiz, J.P.N., Vazquez, M.C.D., Fernandez, Y.C., . . . Fernandez, C.C. (1999). Unhealthy Eating Behaviour in Adolescents. European Journal of Epidemiology, 15(7), 643-648. doi: 10.2307/3582136
Thus, each counselor in training was exposed to identical client situations and cues. Their behavior and general strategy in reacting to those cues was then what was measured through quantitative analysis. Perceived rapport was then measured by the trained client replicate with a measurable scale of one to five. Such data was recorded with an electronic device which reported levels of rapport minute by minute during the context of the session. Out of the total fifty nine interviews, 2773 minutes were highlighted for analysis. The data collected from this time duration of interviews was then statistically analyzed using MANOVA based on the number of variables within counselor behavior that can affect the rapport with the client. This method effectively provided study designers with a reliable and measurable way to assess therapist behaviors and their effectiveness in building rapport.
What did the research claim to show?
Based on the data analysis,…
Christopher F. Sharpley, Emma Fairnie, E Tabary-Collins, Rebecca Bates, Priscilla Lee. Counseling Psychology Quarterly. Abingdon: Mar 2000. Vol. 13, Is. 1; pg. 99, 18 pages
These values can be as operational for the parent/child association as it is for the owner/pet relationship.
Strategy for communication
The objective of any family is for all members to live in agreement with each other. It is the first basis of a Childs education and moral standards (Gouze & Wendel, 2007). With that said, a strategy called floor planning is what will be utilized for Jeff and Roger.
This method should also be done throughout the instigating stages of counseling for Jeff and Roger. Jeff and Roger will be requested to draw a floor plan of their house. They will then be asked to remember the odors, sounds, colors, and people that are in their home. While they are drawing particular questions are asked regarding the environment such as;
What room does the family gather in?
What conversations take place in the various rooms?
Are any rooms…
Gouze, K.R., & Wendel, R. (2007). INTEGRATIVE MODULE-BASED FAMILY THERAPY: APPLICATION AND TRAINING. Journal of Marital and Family Therapy, 286-296.
Hogarty, G.E., Greenwald, D., Ulrich, R.F., Kornblith, S.J., & a, e. (1997). Three-year trials of personal therapy among schizophrenic patients living with or independent of family, II: Effects on adjustment of patients. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 56-89.
Kissane, D.W., & McKenzie, M. (2006). Family Focused Grief Therapy: A Randomized, Controlled Trial in Palliative Care and Bereavement. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 56-78.
Lund, L.K., Zimmerman, T.S., & Haddock, S.A. (2002). The theory, structure, and techniques for the inclusion of children in family therapy: A literature review. Journal of Marital and Family Therapy, 67-89.
Although the San Francisco police do not carry stun guns they do carry Tasers, and Tasers work on the same mechanism as those of stun guns shooting darts that deliver electric shots to stun suspects. It is said that 334 individuals died from these electric shots during the years 20001 to 2008. If that is so, the AHP can publish the results on its page pointing out that the effects of so-called not-so-lethal stun guns are actually quite lethal indeed.
The Belmont eport
The basic ethical principles to be considered in all human research studies involves:
1. espect for persons -- This involves two categories: (a) that all people regardless of ethnic, gender, mental, physical and any sort of distinction should be treated with dignity and respect, and accorded their autonomous right to do as they wish. (b) That individuals who are more vulnerable should be accorded special…
The Belmont Report HHS.gov http://www.hhs.gov/ohrp/humansubjects/guidance/belmont.html
Rutgers Protection of human research subjects http://orsp.rutgers.edu/index.php?q=content/announcement-human-subjects-international-researcher-guidance-and-procedures
The Truth About Psychiatric Drugs (Thursday, 11 August 2011). AHRP.
Community Analysis: Columbus, Ohio - Hilltop Area/Franklinton
Identification and History
The Franklinton/Hilltop area of Columbus, Ohio is located on the west side of the greater metropolitan area. Franklinton is in a river valley next to the Scioto iver and the Hilltop area is just west of that on a rise. The Hilltop area is defined as the area between I-70 on the north, the B & O. railway to the east and south, and the I-270 outerbelt to the south and west (Greater Hilltop Area Commission, 2011). Its main street is West Broadstreet, otherwise known as U.S. route 40. There are welcome signs to the area near Mound Street and Hague Avenue. Franklinton is bordered by the Scioto iver on the north and east, Hague Avenue on the east, Stimmel oad and Greenlawn Avenue on the South, and I-70 on the West. The main street in this area is also…
Bush, Bill (2011). Census shows Columbus' growth was uneven. February 11, 2011. The Columbus Dispatch. Retrieved from http://www.dispatch.com/content/stories/local/2011/03/11/census-shows-columbus-growth-was-uneven.html
City-data.com (2011a). Franklinton neighborhood in Columbus, Ohio. Retrieved from http://www.city-data.com/neighborhood/Franklinton-Columbus-OH.html
City-data.com (2011b). Greater Hilltop neighborhood in Columbus, Ohio. Retrieved from http://www.city-data.com/neighborhood/Greater-Hilltop-Columbus-OH.html
City of Columbus (2003, July). The Franklinton Plan. Department of Development, Planning Division. Retrieved from http://development.columbus.gov/UploadedFiles/Development/Planning_Division/Document_Library/Plans_and_Overlays_Imported_Content/franklinton.pdf
For example, they should be required to complete at least 20 hours of training on brain disorders. It is ideal if consumers and family members become part of the activity and process. It must also be emphasized that, in most cases, dangerous or violent acts committed by persons with these brain disorders are the consequence of neglect, inappropriate or inadequate treatment of their illness (NAMI).
The Alliance also contends that the unpopular insanity defense should be retained and should be tested according to both volitional and cognitive criteria or standards (National Alliance of Mental Illness 2006). At the same time, the Alliance opposes the adoption of laws or position on "guilty but mentally ill. Instead, it advocates systems, which will provide comprehensive, long-term care and supervision in hospitals and the community where such individuals are found who are "not guilty by reason of insanity," "guilty except for insanity," or similar…
1. Amnesty International. (2006). The Execution of Mentally Ill Offenders. Amnesty International Library. http://web.amnesty.org/library/index/ENGAMR5002206
2. Anynomous. (2006). Forensic Psychiatry - Criminal. http://www.stanford.edu/group/psylawseminar/blank%20Page%206.htm
3. Fellner, J. (2006). A Corrections Quandary: Mental Illness and Prison Rules. http://www.law.harvard.edu/students/orgs/crc/vol41_2/fellner.pdf
4. Human Rights Watch (2006). Difficulties Mentally Ill Prisoners Face Coping in Prison. Human Rights Watch.org. http://www.hrw.org/reports/2003/usa1003/7.htm
eason for eferral:
The client is a 15-year-old male who has issues with anger management. The client is also a gang member and given his age and background he is considered to be at risk for a number of antisocial behaviors.
Clinical concerns: Anger management/acting out.
Clinical concerns: Interpersonal isolation/relationship issues.
Clinical concerns: Underage cigarette smoking.
Client is a high potential risk for substance abuse.
Clinical concerns: Client is at a high potential risk for depressive symptoms.
The client has been in counseling with another counselor for four months before being transferred to this counselor's caseload. According to the reports from his previous counselor this client had made very little progress and was uncooperative.
He was uncooperative during the initial assessments and did not wish to discuss his feelings or acknowledge that he has difficulties with managing his anger. He tends to…
American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed.-text revision). Washington, DC: Author.
Beck, R., & Fernandez, E. (1998). Cognitive-behavioral therapy in the treatment of anger: A meta-
analysis. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 22, 63 -- 74.
Boxer, P. & Goldstein, S.E. (2012). Treating juvenile offenders: Best practices and emerging critical issues. In Grigorenko, E.L. (Ed.), Handbook of juvenile forensic psychology and psychiatry (pp. 323-340). New Haven, CT: Springer.