Cognitive Behavior Therapy Essays (Examples)

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applying the tools of cognitive behavioral therapy

Words: 681 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 15971027

Driving on the highway, I was cut off by an erratic driver who kept changing lanes and swerving. Angry and offended, as well as a little afraid for my own safety, I overreacted by honking, tailgating, then swerving myself to cut him off in an act of revenge. In addition to feeling angry, I also felt a sense of righteous indignation. Cognitive behavioral therapeutic techniques can help me to re-structure my cognitive and emotional states so that I can react more effectively to stressful or unnerving situations.
The “Cognitive Restructuring” document detailing Albert Ellis’ ABCD approach offers a series of steps that can be taken to become more aware of irrational beliefs. A list of irrational beliefs or philosophies also helps me to recognize which of these I can change. For example, in this situation, I believed, however irrationally, that “I can’t stand the way certain people act.” I also…… [Read More]

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Non Pharmacological Method of Treating PTSD

Words: 939 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 93378056

Treating PTSD with Cognitive Behavioral Therapy
PTSD is a mental problem that affects individuals who have been harmed either physically or emotionally. It comes as a recurrence of the distress associated with the harm suffered previously. Individuals from either gender can be affected although prevalence has been recorded on veterans after coming from war (Kar, 2011). There are very few known ways of treating PTSD, but the Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) is considered one of the most outstanding treatment options. The method is based on the logic of integrating feelings, emotions, and behavior and helping the individual towards recovery (Kar, 2011). However, other methods can be adopted under the advice of a specialist based on the evaluation the patient. The gory experiences are precursors to PTSD, and the extent of suffering relates to the extent of how they victims almost lost their lives during the event. The primary role of…… [Read More]


Cisler, J. M., et al. (20160. Changes in Functional Connectivity of the Amygdala during Cognitive Reappraisal Predict Symptom Reduction during Trauma-Focused Cognitive–Behavioral Therapy among Adolescent Girls with Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder. Psychological Medicine, 46, 3013–3023

Kar, N. (2011). Cognitive behavioral therapy for the treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder: a review. Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment, 7, 167–181.

Shubina, I. (2014). Cognitive-behavioral therapy of patients with PTSD: literature review. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 165, 208 – 216

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CBT Cognitive Behaviour Therapy Case Study

Words: 5334 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41705783

Cognitive Behavior Therapy- A Case Study

Cognitive Behaviour Therapy (CBT) Case Study

Case report

K is a forty-eight-year female who referred to Midlothian's clinical psychology psychosis service. K has a twenty-year history of mental health conditions. She first decided to contact mental health services because of the episodes of paranoia and severe depression she had experienced. During her initial contact with the mental health services she was diagnosed with schizo-affective disorder in 1996. When she was first referred to the mental health services department she was a single. She told of having only two close relationships in her past life. She however also said that she found these relationships challenging when it came to intimate contact. She also generally described that she found it somewhat difficult to form friendships or to trust people in her life. Despite the mental health conditions her general physical well-being was good. K was prescribed…… [Read More]


Bladek, M. (2014). Against memory: Acts of remembering in Jamaica Kincaid's My Brother. Retrieved from

DeJong, P. & . Berg I.K (1998): Interviewing for solutions. Thomson: Brooks/Cole.

Drisko, J. (2014). Research Evidence and Social Work Practice: The Place of Evidence-Based Practice. Clin Soc Work J. 42:123-133 DOI 10.1007/s10615-013-0459-9

Freud, S. (1924) A general introduction to psychoanalysis. New York: Boni & Liveright.
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Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Case Study Introduction to

Words: 1583 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 32592810

Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Case Study

Introduction to Cognitive Behavioral and ational Emotive Behavior Therapy

In general, ational Emotive Behavior Therapy (EBT) is one form of the broader category of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (Westbrook & Kirk, 2005). In principle, CBT provides a clinical psychotherapeutic approach that combines the most tested and proven aspects of Freudian psychotherapy or classic psychodynamic theory with behavior and cognitive therapy (Westbrook & Kirk, 2005). Under the CBT approach, psychodynamic concepts are applied to the types of clinical issues that clearly relate to psychodynamic roots and conflicts whereas behavioral and cognitive concepts are applied to help patients change the way that they perceive and process information and self-perceptions that play roles in their presenting problems. All forms of CBT emphasize retraining the patient to question fundamental assumptions and beliefs that are part of their underlying problems (Hoffman & Smits, 2008).

The EBT approach in particular is based…… [Read More]


Butler, A, C., Chapman, J.E., Formanc, E.M., and Beck, A.T. "The empirical status of cognitive-behavioraltherapy: A review of meta-analyses." Clinical Psychology

Review, Vol. 26, No. 1 (2006): 17 -- 31.

Hofmann, S.G. And Smits, J.A. "Cognitive-behavioral therapy for adult anxiety disorders: a meta-analysis of randomized placebo-controlled trials." Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, Vol. 69, No. 4 (2008): 621 -- 632.

Westbrook, D. And Kirk, J. "The clinical effectiveness of cognitive behaviour therapy:
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Cognitive-Behavior and Reality Therapies Cognitive-Behavior

Words: 1519 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 58151900

The choice to do so and then controlling oneself, rather than being pushed and pulled by controls beyond oneself is as difficult and heart-wrenching as being controlled by others. Likewise, reconnecting to the world is difficult if the world is feared and seen as the source of pain. Counselors teach the patients to not think of the past but to act and do directly those things that would make it positive today, finding a new connection and making a new plan. (Glasser, 2001)


Behavioral Therapy, (2006). etrieved September 5, 2006 at

Burns, D. (1980). Feeling Good - the New Mood Therapy. New York: Signet

Burns, D. (1999). Feeling Good: The New Mood Therapy (evised edition). New York: Harper Collins Publishers.

Glasser, W. (n.d.) Choice Theory: A New Psychology of Personal Freedom, Chatsworth, CA the William Glasser Institute.

Glasser, W. (2001.) the Institute for eality Therapy. etrieved September…… [Read More]


Behavioral Therapy, (2006). Retrieved September 5, 2006 at

Burns, D. (1980). Feeling Good - the New Mood Therapy. New York: Signet

Burns, D. (1999). Feeling Good: The New Mood Therapy (Revised edition). New York: Harper Collins Publishers.

Glasser, W. (n.d.) Choice Theory: A New Psychology of Personal Freedom, Chatsworth, CA the William Glasser Institute.
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Cognitive Behavioral Therapy vs Psychoanalytical

Words: 2924 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38678874

The therapist encourages openness and honesty on the part of the patient. This parent-like role gives the therapist the power to influence the patient positively, and to interpret his self-defeating behavior and distorted beliefs about reality. The patient must be able and willing to profit from it. Since offenders are assumed to suffer from denial, lack of motivation to change, and unwillingness to cooperate with voluntary treatment, individual psychotherapy is generally thought to be ineffective. Suspicion and lack of rapport in the criminal justice context also interfere with effective use of the method. There are few reports on individual psychotherapy with sex offenders against children.

Group psychotherapy gives members the opportunity to share experiences, gain insight, learn to control unacceptable impulses, and find acceptance. Although used more commonly than individual psychotherapy, the effectiveness is unknown. There have been no replicable, controlled studies. One review found that studies were based on…… [Read More]


Barbaree, H.E. (1991). Denial and minimization among sex offenders: Assessment and treatment outcome. Forum on Corrections Research, 3, 30-33.

Brake, S.C., & Shannon, D. (1997). Using pretreatment to increase admission in sex offenders.

Conte, J.R. (1985). Clinical dimensions of adult sexual abuse of children. Behavioral Sciences the Law, 3, 341-354.

Cowden, E.L. (1970). The relationship of defensiveness to responses on the Sex Inventory.
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Cognitive Behavioral Therapy CBT Techniques for Combat Veterans With Posttraumatic Stress Disorder PTSD

Words: 5327 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 85865281

Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Combat Veterans With Post Traumatic Stress Disorder

Although not limited to veterans, Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) may be the single most significant mental health risk to veterans, particularly to those veterans that have seen combat. PTSD is an anxiety disorder, which occurs after a person has seen or experienced a traumatic event including, but not limited to: assault, domestic abuse, prison stay, rape, terrorism, war, or natural disaster (Vorvick et al., 2011). In fact, PTSD is unique among psychiatric diagnosis in that it "requires a specific type of event to occur from which the person affected does not recover" (esick et al., 2008). Veterans are at high risk of PTSD because they experience war, but they also experience many of the other traumatic events that can trigger PTSD in the course of the war. PTSD can have serious lifelong effects for veterans. It can impair…… [Read More]


Byers, M.G., Allison, K.M., Wendel, C.S., & Lee, J.K. (2010). Pra-zosin vs. quetiapine for nighttime posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms in veterans: An assessment of long-term comparative effectiveness and safety. Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology, 30, 225-229.

Chard, K., Schumm, J., Owens, G., & Cottingham, S. (2010). A comparison of OEF and OIF

veterans and Vietnam veterans receiving cognitive processing therapy. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 23(1), 25-32.

Hassija, C.M., & Gray, M.J. (2010). Are cognitive techniques and interventions necessary? A
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Cognitive-Based Therapy

Words: 1383 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 4291134


The always developing field of psychology and the tools used to develop this science, have provided many patients with much need relief. The constant evolution of the mind requires that clinical practices within mental health treatments also evolve and grow with the human race. The purpose of this essay is to discus Cognitive Behavior Therapy (CBT), as a useful method of treating mental and psychological issues.

First CBT will be discussed in general, and useful ideas presented about the approach will be introduced. A practical example of this therapy will also be highlighted to contextualize the information. Next, this essay will address CBT can be used specifically for the treatment for depression and the issues associated with that idea. Finally, this essay will address how computerized CBT software programs are assisting in treating these types of issues.


Cognitive Behavior Therapy (CBT) is simply a form of psychotherapy that…… [Read More]


Barlow, DH, Gorman, J.M., Shear, M.K., & Woods, S.W. (2000). Cognitive-behavioral therapy, imipramine, or their combination for panic disorder: A randomized controlled trial. Jama, 283(19), 2529-2536.

Boyes, A. (2012). Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Techniques That Work. Psychology Today, 6 Dec 2012. Retrieved from

Dobson, K.S. (Ed.). (2009). Handbook of cognitive-behavioral therapies. Guilford Press.

Martin, B. (2007). In-Depth: Cognitive Behavior Therapy. Psych Central. Retrieved from
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Cognitive Behavioural Therapy

Words: 2062 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 19929272

Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT)

Cognitive Behavioral Therapy or (CBT) is currently the popular method to provide therapy to the client with weight control maladies. CBT is ostensibly necessary to assist binge eaters and those whom suffer from tendencies to bulimic episodes. According to Brody (2007), "Most popular at the moment is cognitive-behavioral therapy, with or without medication. Since binge eaters have highly irregular eating habits, the behavioral aspect introduces structure to their eating behavior: regular meals, including breakfast, and an afternoon snack if needed." (Brody, 2007)

apoport, Clark, & Wardle further ascribe CBT as a comprehensive methodology to address the psychological, not neurological, deficiencies with regard to how the client addresses their weight problem. According to apoport, Clark & Wardle (2000), "Cognitive -- behavioural treatment (CBT) for obesity also focuses on weight loss, but incorporates psychological strategies to promote lifestyle change. ecent reviews show that CBT programmes achieve weight losses…… [Read More]


Brody, J.E. (2007, Feb 20). Out of control: A true story of binge eating. New York Times, pp. F.7-F.7. Retrieved from 

Marchesini, G., Natale, S., Chierici, S., Manini, R., Besteghi, L., Domizio, S.D., . . . . (2002). Effects of cognitive-behavioural therapy on health-related quality of life in obese subjects with and without binge eating disorder.International Journal of Obesity, 26(9), 1261-1261-1267. doi:10.1038/sj.ijo.0802073

Mefferd, K., Nichols, J.F., Pakiz, B., & Rock, C.L. (2007). A cognitive behavioral therapy intervention to promote weight loss improves body composition and blood lipid profiles among overweight breast cancer survivors.Breast Cancer Research and Treatment, 104(2), 145-145-52. doi:10.1007/s10549-006-9410-x

Rapoport, L., Clark, M., & Wardle, J. (2000). Evaluation of a modified cognitive-behavioural programme for weight management. The Journal of Investigative Dermatology, 24(12), 1726-1726-1737. doi:10.1038/sj.ijo.0801465
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Cognitive Behavioral Therapy

Words: 969 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 86708159

Cognitive ehavioral Therapy

In comparison with many different types of treatments that are available cognitive behavioral therapy (CT) has been used as a way to address a host of anxiety and depression disorders without the use of prescription medication. This is because; this approach is based on the fact that health care professionals are treating someone by: looking at how their thoughts are influencing the way that they are interacting with others. To fully understand the effectiveness of this kind of treatment requires examining the use of CT to deal with: a variety of issues / disorders, discussing the implications for treatment planning, understanding what aspects should be implemented when conducting a treatment program and the different ways that you can ensure that the therapy is useful at dealing with the objectives for each patient. Once this takes place, it will provide specific insights about the underlying effectiveness of CT…… [Read More]


Burns, D. (1980). Feeling Good. New York, NY: Avon Books.

Glossoff, H. (2005). Article 2. ACA Code of Ethics.

Robbins, A. (1991). Awaken the Giant Within. New York, NY: Simon and Schuster.

Wilson, R. (2010). Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Dummies. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
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Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Focuses on

Words: 843 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 49308699

By acknowledging the validity of his emotions, Jake would learn not to be afraid of them and learn that he could express anger and embrace conflict without losing close relationships. He could be intimate with other people and express anger without the anger leading to violence.

Q5: Cognitive behavioral therapy questions the client's false assumptions about himself and the world, such as Herb's feeling that his divorce was his fault. Herb is living in the past, and dwelling on things he cannot change. The behavioral therapist would focus on Herb's core assumptions: "why was the divorce your fault? Why would things be better if she returned?" Cognitive behavioral therapy's focus on the present would make it extremely useful for Herb's inability to move his life forward. It focuses on actions and setting goals for behavior, which is useful if a client is mired in too much self-examination.

Q6.1: There is…… [Read More]

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Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Stress Management

Words: 580 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 85016672

Persons with generalized anxiety disorder often worry excessively about health, money, family, or work, and continually anticipate disaster." People with GD are accustomed to approaching life as "worriers," and the disorder can be difficult to treat. They often become highly, negatively emotionally aroused when mentally imagining future events; effective treatment must deal with these stress-inducing mental images. While the idea of "generalized anxiety" may sound like a mild problem, experts have concluded that the social, emotional, and financial costs to a patient can be severe. Michael Dugas and Naomi Koerner have identified four root psychological contributors to GD that can be effectively approached with cognitive-behavioral based therapies: intolerance of uncertainty, positive beliefs about worry, poor problem solving, and cognitive avoidance. (Dugas and Koerner)

Intolerance of uncertainty (IU) refers to a condition in which individuals are highly susceptible to worry as a result of negative beliefs about uncertainty in life. These…… [Read More]

According to New York-Presbyterian's Mental Health Glossary (, generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is "a mental disorder that causes its sufferers chronic and exaggerated worry and tension that seem to have no substantial cause. Persons with generalized anxiety disorder often worry excessively about health, money, family, or work, and continually anticipate disaster." People with GAD are accustomed to approaching life as "worriers," and the disorder can be difficult to treat. They often become highly, negatively emotionally aroused when mentally imagining future events; effective treatment must deal with these stress-inducing mental images. While the idea of "generalized anxiety" may sound like a mild problem, experts have concluded that the social, emotional, and financial costs to a patient can be severe. Michael Dugas and Naomi Koerner have identified four root psychological contributors to GAD that can be effectively approached with cognitive-behavioral based therapies: intolerance of uncertainty, positive beliefs about worry, poor problem solving, and cognitive avoidance. (Dugas and Koerner)

Intolerance of uncertainty (IU) refers to a condition in which individuals are highly susceptible to worry as a result of negative beliefs about uncertainty in life. These individuals have developed a belief system centered around the idea that uncertainty about any aspect of life is bad and should be avoided. Daily self-monitoring, an important component of CBT, shows a strong correlation between increased or decreased worry and increased or decreased IU. The development of IU is thought to be the result of information processing biases in these individuals; CBT is a promising treatment for people with information processing biases, since it attempts to target specific faulty thought patterns and replace them with more positive responses. (Dugas and Koerner)

In addition, individuals with GAD have a tendency to believe that worry is helpful and positive. As opposed to people who avoid worry or see it as destructive or a waste of energy, people with positive beliefs about worry view it as
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Cognitive Behavioral Therapy to Treat

Words: 2250 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48352032

Problem Solving: There are times when the patient can find himself in a situation, which may present problems for the recovering alcoholic. For this reason, these patients are taught a series of techniques to determine the correct solution of a given problem. The training involves a number of simulated scenarios and the patient is made to come up with moral solution to resolve the situation. This may involve the patient analyzing the situation, suggesting a way out of the situation and weighing the odds. This training helps the patients to be well equipped to come up with possible solution when the need arises.

Coping Skills Training: It is hard to undermine the value of relieving a person's psychological dependence. As stated earlier, alcohol and drug abusers are attracted to them as they find relief from them. The reason for this is the psychological acceptance that such things bring happiness and…… [Read More]


ROOM, R.; BABOR, T.; and REHM, J. (2005) Alcohol and public health. Lancet 365(9458):519-530. PMID: 15705462

MOKDAD, a.H.; MARKS, J.S.; STROUP, D.F.; and GERBERDING, J.L. (2005) Actual causes of death in the United States, 2000. JAMA: Journal of the American Medical Association 291(10):1238-1245, 2004. Erratum in: JAMA: Journal of the American Medical Association 293(3):298, 2005. PMID: 15010446

MILLER, W.R.; ZWEBEN, a.; DICLEMENTE, C.C.; and RYCHTARIK, R.G. (1995) Motivational Enhancement Therapy Manual: A Clinical Research Guide for Therapiests Treating Individuals with Alcohol Abuse and Dependence. National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Project MATCH Monograph Series, Volume 2. NIH Pub. No. 94-3723. Rockville, MD: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism.

Miller, W.R., & Pechacek, T.F. (1987). New roads: Assessing and treating psychological dependence. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 4, 73-77.
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Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Assessment Developing Intervention

Words: 1218 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 6323195

Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy Assessment - Developing Intervention

Cognitive-behavioral therapy assessment developing intervention

This intervention addresses the case of Chaney Allen as a subject and incorporates group CBT as well as journaling. Allen's case would have been helped by community CBT because in addition to needing help on a personal level, she also needed community support -- both to help in combating her depression and addiction and in order to have emotional resources for raising her children. This Treatment Plan incorporates writing into CBT, in order to help participants process the characteristics of their addiction, change their perceptions and visualize positive choices.

Develop an assessment according to DSM-IV-TR diagnosis. In the analysis, discuss any automatic thoughts and core beliefs that Chaney Allen, possibly could have had.

Treatment Plan:

Initial assessment:

Session 1: Introduction to CBT

During this session, CBT would be explained and an overview of the following sessions would be given.…… [Read More]

Works Cited

A, R., McCann, M., Flammino, F., Shoptaw, S., Miotto, K., Reiber, C., et al. (2006). A comparison of contingency management and cognitive-behavioral approaches for stimulant-dependent individual. Addiction, 267-274.

Du, Y.-s., Jiang, W., & Vance, A. (2010). Longer term effect of randomized, controlled group cognitive behavioural therapy for Internet addiction in adolescent students in Shanghai. Australian & New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 129-134.

Hawkins, M. (2011). CBT-based self-help in treating anxiety. Healthcare and Psychotherapy Journal, 24-27.

Litt, M.D., Kadden, R.M., & Kabela-Cormier, E. (2009). Individualized assessment and treatment program for alcohol dependence: results of an initial study to train coping skills. Addiction, 1837-1838.
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Cognitive Behavioral Therapy and Solution

Words: 1140 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14881754

It also relaxes them and helps build rapport, and it can give you ideas to use for treatment...Everybody has natural resources that can be utilised. These might be events...or talk about friends or family...The idea behind accessing resources is that it gives you something to work with that you can use to help the client to achieve their goal...Even negative beliefs and opinions can be utilised as resources. (p. 451)

Cognitive Behavioral Therapy also works with negative aspects of the client's life as a way to increase the positive aspects of his or her life. Cognitive behavioral therapy is a more established therapy than in solution-based therapy, although the two are conceptually twinned. The major goal of cognitive behavioral therapy is to solve difficulties that arise in the client's life as the result of the presence of behaviors and cognitions (that is, thoughts) along with emotions that are dysfunctional (Albano…… [Read More]


Jones, D. (2008). Becoming a brief therapist: Special edition. London: Lulu Enterprises.

McCullough, J.P. (2003). Treatment for chronic depression: Cognitive behavioral analysis system of psychotherapy. London: Guilford Press.

Miller, S.D., Hubble, M.A., Duncan, B.L. (1996). Handbook of solution-focused brief therapy. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers.

O'Connell, B. (1998). Solution focused therapy. Los Angeles: Sage.
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Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Case Analysis

Words: 1202 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 5164188


Case Analysis: Cognitive Behavioral Therapy

Alcoholism is a disease that many individuals face, with many suffering in silence. There are a number of persons diagnosed with alcoholism who find it very difficult to accept their condition. Chaney Allen was one of those individuals. She vacillated between acceptance and denial and had become powerless to her addiction. Chaney found out first hand that withdrawal from alcohol abuse has very dire consequences that may cause death if not appropriately treated. Not only is physical treatment required for many alcoholics, mental health intervention to address the psychological and emotional issues related to the addiction must also be addressed if there is to be real sobriety.

Background of Diagnosis

Chaney Allen is an African-American woman who was born in a strict CME family; the only daughter of a minister. She was one of 6 living children, with 5 other pregnancies resulting in miscarriage.…… [Read More]


Alcoholics Anonymous, 2008. 2007 membership survey: A snapshot of AA member-

ship. New York: Alcoholics Anonymous World Services.

Allen, C., & Mayfield, e. (1976). I'm Black and I'm Sober. Center City, MN:

Hazelden Press.
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Chaney Allen Cognitive Behavioral Therapies

Words: 604 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23058273

Chaney Allen Cognitive-Behavior Therapies

One approach that has gained a great deal of attention, particularly in the treatment of substance abuse, is cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT). Originating with classical conditioning and operant learning, combined with social learning theory and the role of cognitive experiences in determining behavior, CBT merges into a model that assumes most psychological and psycho-social problems derive from a fault coping or thinking process. There are, of course, any number of observable and latent factors that contribute to substance abuse, most early non-cognitive therapies focusing then on only the observable dynamics. Over time, however, research and mediation models have shown that CBT represents more of an integration of principles derived from both behavioral and cognitive theories, and allows for the treatment of a broader range of issues through social learning, cultural framing, and the appraisals, self-efficacy expectations, and individual attributions (an individual's explanation of why an event occurred)…… [Read More]


Chaney Allen Women's Continuum of Care. (2011). The Crossroads Center. Cited in:'s%20Continuum%20of%20Care.htm

Allen, C. And Mayfield, E. (1976). I'm Black and I'm Sober. Center City, MN:

Hazelden Press.
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Cognitive Therapy Provides a Structured Framework for

Words: 1239 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76925730

Cognitive therapy provides a structured framework for change. Describe your understanding of how this form of therapy works.

According to Cherry (2012), cognitive behavior therapy, also known as CBT focuses on helping clients to understand the thoughts and feelings that create their behaviors. If such behaviors are problematic, the client is encouraged to work on the way they think and feel about certain situations, which, it is assumed, would then also create change in the behavior. Commonly, phobias, addiction, depression, and anxiety are treated by means of CBT. This type of therapy is generally used to create short-term solutions to very specific problems, which focus on helping people to change by focusing on destructive or disturbing thought patterns that influence their behavior negatively.

The underlying cause for disturbed behaviors is then regarded as thoughts and feelings, more than repressed subconscious disturbances created by the individual's past. As such, these are…… [Read More]


Cherry, K. (2012). What is Cognitive Behavior Therapy? Retrieved from:

Haggerty, J. (2006). Psychodynamic Therapy. PsychCentral. Retrieved from:
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Cognitive and Behavioral Techniques Therapy

Words: 1233 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 45059162

Cognitive and Behavioral Therapy

Cognitive and behavioral techniques / therapy

Cognitive behavioral therapy or CBT as commonly referred to encompasses several techniques. One is behavioral experiments whereby the psychologist helps the client to do behavioral experiments to test their thoughts and help them change their behavior through self-criticism and self-kindness. Second is thought records whereby the psychologist helps the client to change their beliefs through recording thoughts and their consequences. Another technique is imagery exposure which helps to provoke memories and positive emotions in the client. In vivo exposure is also another technique whereby the patient is exposed to the feared stimulus gradually in order to help them resole an issue Schacter, Gilbert, & Wegner, 2010()

The case of the fat lady

Intervention strategy for making and maintaining relationships

In order to help Betty explore and reduce her inner conflict and be able to make and maintain relationships, a cognitive…… [Read More]


Holmes, J. (2002). All You Need Is Cognitive Behaviour Therapy? BMJ: British Medical Journal, 324(7332), 288-290. doi: 10.2307/25227348

Schacter, D.L., Gilbert, D.T., & Wegner, D.M. (2010). Psychology (2nd ed.). New York: Worth Pub

Sue, D.W., Capodilupo, C.M., Torino, G.C., Bucceri, J.M., Holder, A.M.B., Nadal, K.L., & Esquilin, M. (2007). Racial Microaggressions in Everyday Life: Implications for Clinical Practice. American Psychologist, 62(4), 271 -- 286. doi: 10.1037/0003-066X.62.4.271

Sue, S., Zane, N., Nagayama Hall, G.C., & Berger, L.K. (2009). The Case for Cultural Competency in Psychotherapeutic Interventions. Annual Review of Psychology, 60(1), 525-548. doi: doi:10.1146/annurev.psych.60.110707.163651
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Behavior Therapy

Words: 1338 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48431061

Evolution and Development of Behavioral Therapy

The 20th century approach to psychology is notable because, while there was an emphasis on the medical approach to treating psychological disorders, there was also a focus on nonphysiological therapies that began to gain some credence in the medical profession. While nonmedical interventions were generally dismissed, "at least some nonmedical practices were no longer widely regarded by either professionals or the general public as quackery. An important contributor to the increased acceptance and status of nonmedical therapies was their enhanced relationship with science" (O'Donohue & Krasner, Year). These nonmedical therapies gained greater and greater usage in the mental health arena, and eventually came to be regarded not only as complementary treatments to standard medical interventions, but as "necessary components in the treatment of problems such as depression, attention deficit disorder, schizophrenia, and many of the anxiety disorders"(O'Donohue & Krasner, Year). One of the areas…… [Read More]


Fishman, D. & Franks, C. (Year). The conceptual evolution of behavior therapy. In Book Title.

City: Publisher.

Glass, C. & Arnkoff, D. (Year). Behavior therapy. In Book Title. City: Publisher.

O'Donohue, W., & Krasner, L. (Year). Introduction. In Theories of behavior therapy:
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Cognitive Theory Cognition Is the

Words: 1824 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29875252

It thus becomes the concern of CT researchers and clinicians to address and investigate sex differences as an aspect in depression and to confront how they understand and treat women, who comprise 2/3 of clients. A feminist framework may be adopted for a more comprehensive and sensitive approach to the problem in order to benefit the large group of women clients. The new understanding must also be incorporated into the mainstream of cognitive writings and practice and treated as only a special interest topic (Hurst).

Cognitive behavior therapy, based on the five foregoing studies, has shown important gains greater than traditional counseling approach, but needs follow-up work. It has also demonstrated efficacy in producing lower relapse rate than the standard clinical treatment. The discourse approach to the negative self-perception of depressed patients has showed limitations as a technique. ut it can be useful in reducing symptoms among injection drug users.…… [Read More]


1. Brown, KM. (1999). Social Cognitive Theory. University of South Florida.

2. Dobson, K.S. And Drew, M.L. (1999). Negative Self-Concept in Clinical Diagnosis. Canadian Psychology. Canadian Psychological Association.

3. Gale Encyclopedia of Psychology. (2001). Depression. Encyclopedia of Psychology.

4. Hawkins, W.E. (2005). Depression Therapy with Injection Drug Users. American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse.
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Cognitive and Affective Psychology According

Words: 2587 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 25257859

The psychotherapist's role is then to enhance the already existing tools to help those who need it develop their intelligence and problem-solving abilities in order to promote the healing process.

Question 2


Both the cognitive and affective domains are important considerations within psychotherapy. Indeed, the two often function within a causal relationship to each other. In the Communicative Theory of emotion, as expounded by Brett et al. (2003), for example, emotions are directly related to conscious or unconscious cognitive evaluations. These cognitive evaluations then cause an emotional response, which might include happiness, sadness, or anger. The subconscious internalization of the original cognitive evaluation and accompanying emotion could then result in behavior-related problems such as prejudice. Sometimes such behavior problems are so deeply seated that they need to be treated by means of psychotherapy.

Cognitive therapy, as explained by Michael Herkov (2010), acknowledges the relationship between thought (the cognitive aspect)…… [Read More]

References (2010). Cognitive Neuroscience.

Brett, a., Smith, M., Price, E., & Huitt, W. (2003). Overview of the affective domain. Educational Psychology Interactive. Valdosta, GA: Valdosta State University. Retrieved [date], from http:/

Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct.

Eysenck, Michael W. & Keane, Mark T. (2005). Cognitive Psychology: a student's handbook. East Sussex: Psychology Press Ltd.
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Cognitive Distortions

Words: 605 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 11853084

Cognitive distortions are anomalies present in habitual thoughts that eventually lead to serious psychopathological issues. These problems are typically associated with instances of distorted thinking that emerges as a result of cognitive structures, operations, or products. Cognitive distortions can influence individuals to put across behavior that is in disagreement with the principles that they live by. People who experience cognitive distortions are in some cases probable to resort to behaving immorally or to hurting themselves or someone else. In particular situations cognitive distortions can excuse deviant behavior, as individuals involved are not fully able to control themselves and thus have no power to refrain from doing something wrong.

Doctors can interpret information that their patients provide by making use of their understanding of cognitive distortions. hile some people are inclined to consider cognitive distortions as the reason behind a series of acts, it appears that cognitive distortions can sometimes be…… [Read More]

Works cited:

O'Donohue, William T., and Fisher, Jane E., "General Principles and Empirically Supported Techniques of Cognitive Behavior Therapy," (John Wiley & Sons, 04.02.2009)

"Cognitive Therapy for Depressed Adolescents," (Guilford Press, 1994)
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Behavior Therapy Strategies and Reactivity Measures

Words: 730 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96282999

feelings/Reactions ehavior Therapy

Every behavior in behavior therapy makes sense and they are to be believed to result from punishment and reinforcement patterns from the surroundings. The treatment itself does not focus on the base of the problem but on the changing the present factors of that particular behavior including tantrums, biased thinking and feared situations. ehavior therapy has full support of research as there are a lot of studies that support its effectiveness in the issues including addiction, schizophrenia, eating disorder, depression etc.(Wedding & Corsini, 2013).

Several studies demonstrate the different types of problems and people's reactions including depression, anxiety disorder, substance abuse etc. ehavior therapy uses different strategies that not only understands the core of the problem but also helps the individual to overcome it on their own strengths. Different behavior strategies have been found effective in the issue of anxiety disorder. A person under this problem experiences…… [Read More]


Wedding, D., & Corsini, R. (2013). Current Psychotherapies. Boston: Cengage Learning.
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Cognitive Counseling This Is a

Words: 5805 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29574321

Another person reading this information might think, "Well, this sounds good but I don't think I can do it." This person feels sad and discouraged. So it is not a situation which directly affects how a person feels emotionally, but rather, his or her thoughts in that situation. When people are in distress, they often do not think clearly and their thoughts are distorted in some way (eck).

Cognitive therapy helps people to identify their distressing thoughts and to evaluate how realistic the thoughts are. Then they learn to change their distorted thinking. When they think more realistically, they feel better. The emphasis is also consistently on solving problems and initiating behavioral change (eck).

Thoughts intercede between some sort of stimulus, such as an external event, and feelings. The motivator (stimulus) brings out a thought -- which might be a weighted judgment -- which turns into to an emotion. In…… [Read More]


American Heritage Dictionary. "Medical Dictionary: "mind." 2009. 15

May 2009 .

Beck, J.S. "Questions About Cognitive Therapy." n.d. 15 May 2009 .

Biggs, D. And G. Porter. Dictionary of Counseling. Charlotte, N.C.: IAP, 2000.
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Cognitive Stimulation Therapy for Early Stages of

Words: 2424 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 98066769

Cognitive Stimulation Therapy for Early Stages of Dementia

With an aging population, issues related to cognitive abilities and impairment, including dementia, are increasing in relevance to public health officials. Being able to delay the negative results of dementia can contribute to increased quality of life for a number of aging individuals and their families. At present, many health care professionals view dementia as a condition that will deteriorate over time and do not view it as something that can be effectively stalled or reversed (Hodges & Graham, 1999). Many of the programs available for individuals dealing with cognitive deterioration or dementia are designed to provide for their safety and contentedness, but do not focus much on improving or maintaining cognitive abilities. Furthermore, the emphasis of many day programs is on providing a safe place for individuals so that their caregivers can have the much-needed respite in their care routines. Caregivers…… [Read More]


Banks, M.R., & Banks, W.A. (2002). The effects of animal-assisted therapy on loneliness in an elderly population in long-term care facilities. The Journals of Gerontology: Series A, 57(7), M428-M432.

Barker, S. & Dawson, K.S. (1998). The effects of animal-assisted therapy on anxiety ratings of hospitalized psychiatric patients. Psychiatric Services, 49, 797-801.

Breuil, V., De Rotrou, J., Forette, F., et al. (1994). Cognitive stimulation of patients with dementia: preliminary results. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 9, 211-217.

Cochran, S.D., Mays, V.M., Bown, D., Gage, S., Bybee, D., Roberts, S.J, Goldstein, R.S., Robinson, A., Rankow, E.J., & White, J. (2001). Cancer-related risk indicators and preventative screening behaviours among lesbian and bisexual women. American Journal of Public Health, 91(4), 591-597.
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Dialectical Behavior Therapy Dbt Dialectical

Words: 2722 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12226336

For them to survive crisis they are equipped with the skills to; self-soothing, thinking of the pros and cons, improving the moment and looking for destructive things to do. They can also exhibit acceptance skills by turning the mind to accept, radical acceptance and willingness vs. willfulness.

Individuals with under this therapy are taught how to regulate their emotions. This is because most of those suffering from this disorder are known to be angry, depressed, intensely frustrated and anxious among other behaviors. The steps taught towards emotional regulation include; identification and labeling of emotions, identification of obstacles to any change of emotion, reducing of vulnerability to having an emotional mind, by having more positive emotional events, giving the patient the ability to control the current emotions and wherever a negative one presents itself he/she can take the opposite action, and lastly, he/she can apply the distress tolerance techniques taught (Heard,…… [Read More]


Clarkin, J.F., Levy, K.N., Lenzenweger, M.F., & Kenberg, O.F. (2007). Evaluating Three Treatments for Borderline Personality Disorder: A Multiwave Study. The American Journal of Psychaiatry, 164(6).

Heard, M.A.S.H.L. (2009). Dialectical behaviour therapy: distinctive features: Routledge.

Westen, D. (2000). The efficacy of dialectical behavior therapy for borderline personality disorder. Clinical Psychology. Science and Practice, 7(1), 92-94.

Willem H.J. Martens. (2012). Therapy on the borderline: effectiveness of dialectical behavior therapy for patients with borderline personality disorder. Annals of the American Psychotherapy Association.
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Classical Psychoanalysis vs Cognitive-Behavioral Therapies

Words: 571 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 42711251

Cognitive-behavioral therapy is a more current theory than classical psychotherapy. This theory is based upon the reaction of the mind to external stimuli, and how this is internalized. The cognitive reaction to stimuli then manifests as behavior. When behavior becomes extreme or destructive, it is unacceptable, and therapy becomes necessary.

Therapy focuses upon finding the stimuli that originally caused the behavior. Much like client-centered therapy, the responsibility for healing lies with the client. The therapist's role is merely to guide the client towards the target behavior. One of the ways in which to do this is to provide the client with gradual behavior modification exercises until the target behavior is reached.

The role of the subconscious is based upon habit-forming cognitive activities. Perpetual external stimuli will for example form habits. Good habits can be formed by means of gradual cognitive-behavioral therapy.

My tendency is to prefer the cognitive-behavioral theory. The…… [Read More]

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CBT for PTSD Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy

Words: 1516 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64914303


Overall, the research suggests that CBT is an effective treatment for PTSD, though there definitely certain caveats that need to be raised. CBT is not entirely effective and is not necessarily more effective than certain other treatments, specifically EMD, while there is also a need for greater knowledge and understanding when it comes to PTSD and its treatment in general. As this more detailed and refined understanding is achieved, the research analyzed above and other related research will become more meaningful and more effectively situated.


Cohen, J., Deblinger, E., Mannarino, a. & Steer, . (2004). A Multi-Site, andomized Controlled Trial for Children With Abuse-elated PTSD Symptoms. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry 43(4): 393-402.

Hinton, D., Pham, T., Tran, M., Safren, S., Otto, M. & Pollack, M. (2004). CBT for Vietnamese refugees with treatment-resistant PTSD and panic attacks: A pilot study. Journal of Traumatic…… [Read More]


Cohen, J., Deblinger, E., Mannarino, a. & Steer, R. (2004). A Multi-Site, Randomized Controlled Trial for Children With Abuse-Related PTSD Symptoms. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry 43(4): 393-402.

Hinton, D., Pham, T., Tran, M., Safren, S., Otto, M. & Pollack, M. (2004). CBT for Vietnamese refugees with treatment-resistant PTSD and panic attacks: A pilot study. Journal of Traumatic Stress 17(5): 429-33.

Seidler, G. & Wagner, F. (2006). Comparing the efficacy of EMDR and trauma-focused cognitive-behavioral therapy in the treatment of PTSD: a meta-analytic study. Psychological Medicine 36(11): 1515-22.

Zayfert, C. & DeViva, J. (2004). Residual insomnia following cognitive behavioral therapy for PTSD. Journal of Traumatic Stress 17(1): 69-73.
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Cognitive Behavioral Theory the Case

Words: 1569 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81007973

However, if Margarita indicates that she feels lonely and wishes she had another best friend after the death of her previous best friend, this may provide the means for her to move on from the death and re-establish a level of enthusiasm for life in general.

Her anger seems to stem from a Napoleonic type complex where she feels insecure about physical looks and her personality. Such beliefs cause her to feel uneasy socially and at a loss to feel comfortable or interactive with peers and colleagues. So far, this attitude has not affected her job performance however, an introverted attitude will be noticed given the responsibilities inherent in her position and will cause problems professionally. The county should provide therapy for hiring her with a mental disorder as she is mentally unfit to perform the social demands inherent to her position. This is the problem of the county hiring…… [Read More]


Branch, R. (2010). Cognitive Behavioral Therapy. New York, NY: Wiley.

Frankel, V. (2004). Man's Search for Meaning. New York, NY: Ridder

Martin, B. (2011). Cognitive Behavioral Therapy. Psych Central. Retrieved from:

Roth, D. (2010). Making Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Work. New York, NY: Guilford Press.
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Cognitive and Behavioral Techniques Therapy

Words: 1586 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 9470176

Cognitive and Behavioral Therapy

Cognitive and behavioral techniques / therapy

Cognitive Therapist Behavioral Techniques

Case of the Fat Lady

Cognitive behaviorist therapy is a blend of two therapies; cognitive therapy and behavioral therapy. Cognitive therapy first developed by Aaron Beck in 1960 has its focus on individual beliefs and their influences on actions and moods. Its core aims are to alter an individual mindset to be healthy and adaptive (Beck, 1976; athod, Kingdon, Weiden, & Turkington, 2008). Behavioral therapy focuses on individual aims and actions towards changing patterns in unhealthy behaviors (athod et al., 2008). Cognitive behavioral therapy assists an individual to focus on their current difficulties and relate on how to resolve them. Active involvement of both the therapist and the patient helps in identification of the thinking patterns in distort bringing into foresight a recognizable change in thought and behavior (Leichsenring & Leibing, 2007). Exploring and encouraging discussions…… [Read More]


Beck, A.T. (1976). Cognitive Therapy and the Emotional Disorders. New York: International Universities Press.

Burns, Kubilus, Breuhl, Harden, R.N., & Lofland, K. (2003). Do changes in cognitive factors influence outcome following multidisciplinary treatment for chronic pain? A cross-lagged panel analysis. . Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 71, 81-91.

Leichsenring, F., & Leibing, E. (2007). Psychodynamic psychotherapy: a systematic review of techniques, indications and empirical evidence. Psychology and Psychotherapy, 80(2), 217-228.

Rathod, S., Kingdon, D., Weiden, P., & Turkington, D. (2008). Cognitive-behavioral therapy for medication-resistant schizophrenia: a review. Journal of Psychiatric Practice, 14(1), 22-33.
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Cognitive Therapy Is a Form

Words: 2526 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 17174315

Treatment Process

To treat dysfunctional modes of either thinking or behaving in Cognitive Therapy three general approaches are applied: 1. Deactivation through distraction or reassurance 2, Modification of content or structure 3. The construction of more adaptive modes which "neutralizes' the maladaptive modes. These steps are fundamental in the process as each step is an aspect of the developed sense of self or core belief. To describe each process is also important. The concept of deactivation is essential but usually only partial as the mode of thinking or behaving is likely based in some truth, in other words the core belief has a particle of truth that is held and developed by the individual for adaptation and survival, therefore the therapist may need to reassure those parts of the mode that are based on truth and then distract the individual by reality testing or modification of the whole of the…… [Read More]


Beck, J.S. (1995). Cognitive therapy: basics and beyond. New York, NY: Guilford Press.

Hewstone, M. Fencham, F.F. & Foster, J. (2005). Psychology. Malden, MA: Blackstone Publishing.

Robertson, D (2010). The philosophy of cognitive-behavioural therapy: Stoicism as rational and cognitive psychotherapy. London, UK: Karnac Publishing.

Sanders, D. & Wills, F. (2005) Cognitive therapy: an introduction. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
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Cognitive and Perceptual Appraisals

Words: 636 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90097382

It implies as well that most people react to things in a certain way because they want to repeat behaviors that worked well for them in the past (i.e. there was a positive experience created).

Emotions are not too fast (or too mindless, for that matter) for cognitive appraisals. Emotions, no matter how small, lead to cognitive appraisals that help individuals make sense of certain events. Take breaking up with someone, for example. If someone is broken up with, this person could feel a certain amount of sadness and this emotion is elicited by the cognitive appraisal that something good or worthwhile has been lost and cannot be recovered (Scherer, Schorr & Johnstone, 2001). It has been suggested even that emotions can be elicited with an evaluation having taken place by an event in and of itself, physiological processes (e.g. brain activity), facial expressions (or other types of expressions), behaviors…… [Read More]


Scherer, K.R., Schorr, a., & Johnstone, T. (2001). Appraisal processes in emotion:

Theory, methods, research. (1st ed.). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

Wessler, R.L., Hankin, S., & Stern, J. (2001). Succeeding with difficult clients:

Applications of cognitive appraisal therapy (Practical resources for the mental health professional). (1st ed.). Salt Lake City, UT: Academic Press.
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Cognitive Modification the Needs of

Words: 1324 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 82252365


Somewhat unsurprisingly, an instructional strategy that these teachers frequently used was modification. Our analysis identified the following modifications: reteaching the material, using instructional materials, prompting/cueing, modeling, changing the task, and giving students more practice on the task.... If the teacher believed that the modification was not sufficient in aiding student learning, she typically reevaluated the student's learning difficulty and state of mind and then selected a new modification to apply. (Stough & Palmer, 2003)

These are the types of decisions and criteria for the student with special needs that must be evaluated when attempting any type of no only cognitive modification, but any type of intervention.

Since the late nineties strategy interventions such as cognitive modification have been increasing in use in the area of special education. The has been an array of cognitive interventions put into practice such as, specific problem-solving skills, advanced organizational skills, approaching reading with…… [Read More]


Bouck, E.C. (2004). Exploring Secondary Special Education for Mild Mental Impairment: A Program in Search of Its Place. Remedial and Special Education, 25(6), 367-377

Bray, P., & Cooper, R. (2007). The Play of Children with Special Needs in Mainstream and Special Education Settings. Australian Journal of Early Childhood, 32(2), 37-48

Gersten, R., Schiller, E.P., & Vaughn, S. (Eds.). (2000). Contemporary Special Education Research: Syntheses of the Knowledge Base on Critical Instructional Issues. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Neenan, M., & Dryden, W. (2004). Cognitive Therapy: 100 Key Points. New York: Brunner-Routledge.
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Henderson a Cognitive Behavioral Study of Steven

Words: 3439 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12843400


A Cognitive Behavioral Study of Steven Henderson: Case Conceptualization and Treatment Plan

Theories of Counseling


This is a case conceptualization of a 26-year-old man who experienced sexual abuse as a child and the haunting memories of the abuse have led to difficulties in his personal, social, and educational functioning as an adult. The client is experiencing anxiety, depression, problems with motivation, an inability to confide in those close to him, and difficulties in developing educational and occupational goals for himself. He complained of very low self-esteem and believes that his inability to deal with his past sexual abuse has led to these issues. The case conceptualization explores the proposed treatment of this individual's issues using a cognitive behavioral approach. Empirical evidence for the use of cognitive behavioral treatment for trauma victims is discussed. The specific issues that the individual is experiencing as a result of the abuse are…… [Read More]


American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed.-text revision). Washington, DC: Author.

Beck, A.T., Rush, J.A., Shaw, B.F., & Emery, G. (1979). Cognitive therapy of depression.

New York: The Guilford Press.

Cloitre, M. (2009). Effective psychotherapies for posttraumatic stress disorder: A review and critique. CNS Spectrums, 14(1), S1, 32-43.
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Gestalt and Behavioral Therapies the

Words: 1762 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 43622402

The primary difference between the two however, is gestalt therapy concentrates more on the ability of the individual to make proper choices regarding their care. This theory or approach to therapy reminds the client of the connection between mind, body and spirit. The behavior approach is less concerned with the paradigm of holistic health, and more concerned with a therapist-driven approach to identifying problems and selecting appropriate solutions.

In this sense, gestalt therapy seems like it is a more effective approach, because it encourages the individual to make judgments about their health and understand the connections existing between their behaviors and emotions. Because gestalt therapy is patient-driven more so than psychotherapist drive as behavior therapy, many believe patients are able to realize relief and successful outcomes more quickly, as well as retain greater self-esteem (James & Jongeward, 1996; Palmer, 1996). If a patient wants patient-centered care that provides effective relief,…… [Read More]


Cleland, C., Foote, J. Kosanke, N., Mabura, S., Mahmood, D. & Rosenblum, a. (2005). Moderators of effects of motivational enhancements to cognitive behavioral therapy. American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, 31(1): 35.

Diemer, R.A., Hill, C.E., Lobell, L.K., & Vivino, B.L. (1996). Comparison of dream interpretation, event interpretation, and unstructured sessions in brief therapy. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 43(1): 99.

Fine, M.A. & Schwebel, a.L. (1994). Understanding and helping families: A cognitive-behavioral approach. Hillsdale: Lawrence Erlbaum.

James, M. & Jongeward, D. (1996). Born to win: Transactional analysis with gestalt experiments. Cambridge: Perseus Publishing.
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Personal Theory of Therapy

Words: 1899 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83171191

personal theories about change and therapy as part of developing a personal therapeutic approach and process. The exploration begins with examining personal beliefs regarding health, normalcy, and change. The author also includes a discussion about the theoretical foundations influencing personal style of therapy. A description of a personal therapy process and culturally responsive therapy is also included in the article. The final section provides a theory of therapy diagram based on cognitive behavioral therapy.

Cognitive Behavioral Therapy

Michael White and David Epston have played a crucial part in explaining family therapy for nearly two decades through contributing to the emergence of numerous concepts in textbooks and handbooks of family therapy (amey et. al., 2009, p.262). One of the concepts in family therapy is Cognitive Behavioral Therapy, which is used to treat people with several problems including mental health issues. The use of such theoretical approaches is based on the fact…… [Read More]


Beck, J. (n.d.). Frequently Asked Questions. Retrieved April 23, 2015, from

"Cognitive Behavior Therapy." (n.d.). Beck Institute. Retrieved April 23, 2015, from

Hays, P.A. (2012). Culturally responsive cognitive-behavioral therapy in practice. Washington,

D.C.: American Psychological Association.
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Resistance Group Therapy for Decades

Words: 991 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 82208573

Multiple studies support the use of cognitive behavioral approaches in individual therapy combined with group therapy sessions to support self-care behavior, self-efficacy and positive patient outcomes (Van der Ven, et. al, 2005; Bernard & Goodyear, 1002; Alterkruse & ay, 2000). Altekruse & ay (2000) also support the notion that group therapy may be interchangeable with individual therapy to promote positive outcomes among patients.


esults of the studies reviewed suggest a new approach to group therapy should include individual and group sessions that encourage patients to focus on their successes rather than failures. At this time the evidence supporting group therapy over individual therapy is conflicting. Much of the research suggests that both approaches may be equally effective. egardless many therapists still advocate group therapy as a primary modality for overcoming patient issues.

Pre-group training sessions may help members of the group adopt a new attitudes toward therapy that enables…… [Read More]


Altekrsue, M. & Ray, D. (2000). "Effectiveness of group supervision vs. combined group and individual supervision." Counselor Education and Supervision, 40(1):19.

Bernard, J., & Goodyear, R. (1998). Fundamentals of clinical supervision (2nd ed.).

Boston: Allyn & Bacon

Classen, C. (2000). "Group therapy for cancer patients: A research-based handbook of psychosocial care." New York: Basic Books.
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Organizational Behavior Psychology Applied Comprehension

Words: 4268 Length: 16 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 87584890

With this approach, consultation psychology focuses on the issues of the group as a whole and therefore typically uses group discussions, interviews and observations as opposed to singling out specific individuals. The result is that, by using consultation psychology in the field of industrial and organizational psychology, the focus is on the group and the roles the individuals who make up the group play. With this focus, industrial and organizational psychology is better able to meet its goals of increasing organizational productivity, well-being and success.

Case Example

In the case sample cited in the introduction of this paper, the issue was how consultation psychology could be utilized as a method for providing industrial and organizational psychological services to a mental health related organization. From the overview provided in the previous section, it can be seen that utilizing consultation psychology, as opposed to clinical psychology, will be the best method of…… [Read More]


Bass, Bernard M. (1960): Leadership, Psychology and Organizational Behavior. New York: Harper and Brothers.

Bass, Bernard M., and Pieter JD Drenth. (1987): Advances in Organizational Psychology: An International Review. Newbury Park: Sage Publications.

Brehm, S.S., Kassin, S. And Fein, S. (2005): Social Psychology. Boston: Charles Hartford.

Cameron, Kim S., and Robert E. Quinn. (2006): Diagnosing and Changing Organizational Culture Based on the Competing Values Framework. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
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How to Provide Positive Therapy for a Depressed Anxious Person

Words: 2810 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 67558079

afternoon, light rain falling and predictions of thunder storms on the way. Client was eight minutes late to his appointment. "It doesn't matter that you're a few minutes late, I am glad to see you -- but is everything going okay this afternoon?" he was asked by therapist.

Client seems defensive when no pressure at all is put on him. First he said his watch stopped, then he admitted he lost track of time because he was into playing a new video game. He asked if video games are a bad thing and was assured that entertainment was his choice.

"Oh, also," he added. "After I was in my car I went back to my apartment to get my umbrella." Client is trying to maintain a good relationship with the therapist.

The client was sweating when he sat down, and it was humid in the room so we agreed the…… [Read More]

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PTSD and CSA Therapies and Future Research

Words: 987 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 35051809

Child Abuse

Brown, J., Cohen, P. Johnson, J.G. (1999, ecember). Childhood abuse and neglect: specificity of effects on adolescent and young adult depression and suicidality. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 38(12), 1490-1496.

The authors conducted this study in order to investigate the magnitude and independence of the effects of childhood neglect, physical abuse, and sexual abuse on depression and suicidal behavior in adolescents and adults. Over a 17-year period, a cohort of randomly selected children was assessed for a range of environmental, familial, and childhood risks and psychiatric orders. The history of abuse was verified through official records of abuse and by the retrospective self-report of the 639 youths in the study. The subjects were between the ages of one year and 10 years at the beginning of the study, with a median age of five years.

The results of the study showed that adolescents…… [Read More]

Dehlinger, E., Steer, R.A., and Lippmann, J., (1999). Two-year follow-up study of cognitive behavioral therapy for sexually abused children suffering post-traumatic stress symptoms. Child Abuse & Neglect, 23(12), 1371-1378.

The researchers were interested in learning if 2-year gains found in the earlier research by Dehlinger, et al. (1996) would also be shown in this research with 100 children who had been diagnosed with posttraumatic stress disorder as a result of being abused as children. The research by Dehlinger, et al. (1996) involved 12-session pre-test and post-test randomly assigned therapeutic treatments with sexually abused children and their non-offending mothers. The random group assignments were cognitive-behavioral treatments for the child only, for the mother only, for the mother and the child, or for a community comparison condition. The study participants were followed and assessed at 3-months, 6-months, one year, and two years after treatment.

The data was analyzed through the use of a repeated MANCOVA, while controlling for the pre-test scores. Three measures of psychopathology were taken at the assessment intervals, examining specifically for the following: depression, externalizing behavior problems, and PTSD symptoms. The researchers found that the Dehlinger, et al. (1996) study was basically replicable, with the pre-treatment and post-treatment improvements shown and maintained during the 2-year period.
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Difficulty of Giving Therapy to OCD Patients

Words: 604 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 45733320

Difficulty of Treating Anxiety Disorders

Anxiety disorders are difficult to treat for a multitude of reasons; first, there is no 100% proven-to-be-effective method of therapy that acts as a one-size-fits-all treatment for patient. Behavioral therapy is used by some therapists; others utilize medical therapy, such as Zoloft, Paxil or other prescriptions. Psychosurgery is also an option for patients who do not respond well to either treatments, but such surgery requires literally burning part of the brain and is noted as only having a 50% success rate (Psych Guides, 2015). The bottom line is that anxiety disorders are a complicated manifestation of an underlying issue within the human psyche for which medical science only has a limited understanding.

Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is one of the most difficult to treat primarily because it requires a strong and durable commitment to transformative behavior therapy such as cognitive behavior therapy. In cases where patients…… [Read More]


Psych Guides. (2015). Obsessive Compulsive Disorder. Retrieved from

Sasson, Y., Zohar, J., Chopra, M., Hendler, T. (1997). Epidemiology of obsessive, compulsive disorder: A world view. The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 12(12): 7-10.

Wexler, E. (2013). Clinical neurologists: behavioral management of inherited neurodegenerative disease. Neurologic Clinics, 31(4): 1121-1144.
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Counseling by Using Family Therapy

Words: 852 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 65265794

Planning Summary


Hritek is a 14-year-old boy who is psychologically impaired by Asperger's. He is the only child of Abdon (father, male), aged 41 and Padma (mother, female), aged 39. Abdon is a college graduate who works for a biotech company. His mother is a high school graduate and does not work. She serves as the primary caregiver for Hritek since she and Abdon divorced.

Reason for Referral

Hritek's mother has presented Hritek because he cries uncontrollably when asked to do something he does not want to do, reads about murder stories on the Internet, fantasizes about killing people, and throws wild hysterics in order to avoid leaving the house.

Relevant history

Hritek's academic performance was so poor that he was going to be held back a year in 6th grade, but his mother decided to home school him so as to avoid that. Since then, his grades have…… [Read More]

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Cognitive Therapy

Words: 1275 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 86397297

Evolution and Development of Cognitive Therapy

Psychology is a relatively young science. Though it has roots in philosophy and other humanities, it has only been an official science for a little over a century. Moreover, the different treatment modalities in psychology are also relatively new. However, in a short period of time, some treatments have grown to preeminence in the field, so much so that, even though they are relatively young, they are considered the standards by which other treatments are judged. These two approaches are psychoanalysis and behavior therapy, and they have been used, with some success for decades. However, in the 1960s, a new therapeutic approach emerged: cognitive therapy. Cognitive therapy focused on the role that thoughts played in behavior and disorders, with the premise that changing thoughts would result in behavior and symptom change.

Of course, like other areas of psychology, it is important to understand that…… [Read More]


Beck, A. (1993). Cognitive therapy: Past, present, and future. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 61(2), 194-198.

Gluhoski, V. (1994). Misconceptions of cognitive therapy. Psychotherapy, 31(4), 594-600.

Montgomery, R. (1993). The ancient origins of cognitive therapy: The reemergence of stoicism.

Journal of Cognitive Psychotherapy, 7(1), 5-19.
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Cognitive Restructuring

Words: 1047 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26356198

Cognitive restructuring theory describes the various applied approaches aiming at reframing behaviors. The theory uses cognitive therapy to apply the behavioral technique. The theory involves learning how to think differently to change negative thinking and replace it with positive thinking. In addition, cognitive restructuring aims at helping people to deal with problems of anxiety and depression. In so doing, people can change their manner of thought and live their daily lives with energy and hope.

Cognitive theory is practical and can help Tom control and effectively manage his anger. As such, tom would not change significantly because the action had already taken place. For Tom, it would be better to focus his energy on how to avoid such a thing from happening and avoid future irritation. In this case, Tom would take one of the techniques offered in the cognitive therapy. Aggression replacement may help teach him some behavioral techniques…… [Read More]


Kate, S., Tony, A., Sharon, H., Irina, L. (2007). A Randomized Controlled Trial of a Cognitive

Behavioral Intervention for Anger Management in Children Diagnosed with Asperger

Syndrome. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 37.7, 1203-1214.

From: Burns, D.D. (1989). The Feeling Good Handbook: 4 Steps in Cognitive Restructuring.
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Cognitive Theory and Social Work

Words: 1015 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 85741449

Both types of reflection are ways to restructure cognition. Dynamic reflection focuses on problems and problem solving, while existential reflection seeks to discover meaning in life. In either case, the helper's role is to facilitate the reflection process.

Congruence with Social Work Values and Ethics

To determine the congruence between cognitive therapy and social work values and ethics, the writer consulted the National Association of Social Worker's (NASW) Code of Ethics (NASW, 2008). NASW's ethical principles are based on its six core values of service, social justice, dignity and worth of the person, importance of human relationships, integrity, and competence. The overriding purpose of cognitive therapy is service to the client -- helping her identify, challenge, and change the cognitive misconceptions that result in unhealthy emotions and dysfunctional behavior. Perhaps the most obvious congruence is between the values of dignity and worth of the person and social justice. The former…… [Read More]


Lantz, J. (2007). Cognitive theory and social work treatment. In M. Mattaini & C. Lowery (Eds.), Foundations of social work practice: a graduate text (4th ed.), 94-115. Washington D.C. NASW Press.

National Association of Social Workers. (2008). Code of ethics of the National Association of Social Workers. Retrieved from
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How Cognitive Psychology With Cognitive Restructuring Impacts Rape Victims

Words: 672 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 19571598

Cognitive Restructuring on Rape Victims

Recently, the growing numbers of research have been focused on psychological trauma which can be caused by physical, sexual and life threatening events. he survivors of traumatic events would exhibit great variation of symptoms, especially, self-blaming, guilt, negative beliefs about self and others, cognitive distortions, and inaccurate thoughts related to their traumatic experiences. Sobel, Resick and Rabalais (2009) proposed a cognitive processing therapy (CP) to reduce the posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms and increase the positive thought and accurate cognition of the survivors. In this seminal paper, they reviewed the literature, classified the syndromes before and after the CP, reported the statistical results and suggested a cognitive restructuring method. Cognitions are assessed using coding and analyzing the participants' statements before and after the therapy and the scaling systems used are the Clinician-Administered PSD Scale and PSD Symptom Scale. hey scaled two cognitive processes, accommodation, and assimilation…… [Read More]

The writers suggested that it was possible to observe, record, and reliably code the number and percentage of assimilated, overaccommodated, and accommodated statements that rape survivors produced in their impact statements at the beginning and end of a course of CPT. As hypothesized, there were significant decreases in the overaccommodated and assimilated processes from start to the end of therapy whereas there was an increase in the accommodated processes. Although there was a clear relationship between decreased PTSD and accommodation, this study was not able to make a clear statement about the relationship between assimilation and PTSD. Another limitation of this study is the ethnicity classification because of the limited number of participants.

This study is parallel to the studies of Foa and Rothbaum (2001), and Koss, Jose Figueredo, & Prince (2002) and the results are compatible. However, these two studies employed self-report inventories of cognitive distortions, which limited the response options available to participants and focus on content rather than process. Sobel et al. (2009) developed a more flexible strategy to evaluate the effects of CPT.

Overall, the study by Sobel et al. (2009) is chosen because it is up-to-date, rich in the literature review and very clear to provide results and limitations of the study.
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Theory Therapy Levy Meehan Kelly

Words: 4158 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 86662734

Kellogg & Young in Schema Therapy for Borderline Personality Disorder offer a comprehensive explanation of the use of Schema Therapy for patients with BPD, by first explaining the disorder and how it is particularly prime for the use of schema therapy as the disorder itself and the behavior and emotions exhibited from it can be seen as an individual traversing through a short list of schemas and are reflective of the childhood origins of BPD. The modes of BPD are described by the authors as consisting of the angry and impulsive child mode, the detached protector mode, the punitive parent mode and lastly the healthy adult mode. According to the authors if these modes are lacking in integration and emotions cannot be traversed across each, or if the modes are significantly unbalanced they become schemas that override normal adult behavior. The particulars of Schema Therapy are then described after a…… [Read More]


Clarkin, J.F. Levy, K.N. Lenzenweger, M.F. Kernberg, O.F. (June 2007) Evaluating Three Treatments for Borderline Personality Disorder: A Multiwave Study Ameican Journal of Psychology 164:6, 922-928.

Clarkin, J.F. & Levy, K.N. (April 2003) a Psychodynamic Treatment for Severe Personality Disorders: Issues in Treatment Development Psychoanalytic Inquiry 23:2 248-268.

Kellogg, S.H. Young, J.E. (February 2006) Schema Therapy for Borderline Personality Disorder Journal of Clinical Psychology 62:4 445-458.

Kimball, J.S., & Diddams, M. (2007). Affect Regulation as a Mediator of Attachment and Deliberate Self-Harm. Journal of College Counseling, 10(1), 44.
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Dysfunctions and Their Therapies Dysfunctions and Remedies

Words: 1220 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 16972289

Dysfunctions and Their Therapies

Dysfunctions and emedies involved

Treatment and Control of Dysfunctions

The Thought Focused Treatment System

The thought focused treatment systems are those which narrow down to thought processes and systems of belief. The system believes in the child developing process being the cause of dysfunction. Social learning and modeling of ideas result to the personalities of an individual. The personalities result to experiences such as thoughts and feelings, critical learning, and the imitation of these behaviors. For instance, the child develops thoughts and behaviors from the parents. If the parents hide their feelings and never cry, the child grows knowing that crying is not the solution. The environment directly affects the child's thoughts. Therefore, if an individual's development is distorted in any manner, there is likely to be an experience of dysfunctional issues or poor health. An individual learns how to cope with stress and problems in…… [Read More]


Grohol, J.M. (2004, September 21). Types of Therapies: Theoretical Orientations and Practices of Therapists. Retrieved from 

Grohol, J.M. (2011). 15 Common Cognitive Distortions. Retrieved from
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Psychology and Behavior Discuss Antipsychotic

Words: 1555 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 39699085

Therapeutic communities are important and valuable tools, but certainly not for all patients. Often, the community is made up of a certain ward or unit of the hospital, rather than the entire facility. Clearly, some patients, such as those suffering from serious debilitating diseases such as dementia or severe schizophrenia might not be physically or mentally able to exist in such a facility. However, for others, who have specific issues or health problems, and are in the facility hoping for a cure, the community concept can help them become more sure of themselves, more able to function outside the facility, and give them confidence in their decision-making abilities.

Often this term describes those in a substance abuse facility, but it can relate to other disorders and treatment facilities as well. Some of these communities are all group based, while others combine individual counseling and therapy with group activities. The main…… [Read More]


Butler, Gillian, and Freda McManus. Psychology: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000.

Smith, David L. Approaching Psychoanalysis: An Introductory Course. London: Karnac Books, 1999.