Colonialism to Globalization
Colonialism is a relationship of domination between indigenous, or forcibly imported majority, and a minority of foreign invaders, in which the fundamental decisions affecting the lives of the colonized people are made and implemented by the colonial rulers (Colonialism pp). Globalization is the intensification of economic, political, social and cultural relations across borders (Colonialism pp). Third World countries, often colonies, are economically underdeveloped countries of Asia, Africa, Oceania, and Latin America, that share common characteristics, such as poverty, high birthrates, and economic dependence on the advanced countries (Colonialism pp).
Sverker Finnstrom discusses the theory of colonialism by citing, "it is now widely accepted that colonial regimes and their successor states invented, promoted, and exploited tribal differences and traditions (Finnstrom pp). According to Finnstrom, the quotation stresses the imagined or invented aspects of group identity and the abstract and universal hegemony of colonialism and imperialism as determinant of local traditions and identity formations (Finnstrom pp). The idea of the bounded cultural entity can be related to the concept of status groups: "the authoritative claim of a nation and the assertion of a right to sovereignty being two central aspects in defining the group" (Finnstrom pp).
Globalization refers to the process of the intensification of economic, political, social and cultural relations across international boundaries and is particularly aimed at the transcendental homogenization of political and socio-economic theory worldwide (Akindele pp). Moreover, it is aimed at "making global being present worldwide at the world stage or global arena," and deals with the "increasing breakdown of trade barriers and the increasing integration of World market" (Akindele pp). It can be viewed as an evolution that is restructuring interactive phases among countries by diminishing barriers in areas of culture, commerce, and migration of nationals to the territory, or it may be the formal control over the area by the military and/or civil agents of the dominant power (Colonization pp). Factors that cause colonization include overpopulation, economic distress, social unrest, and religious persecution, however imperialism, aggressive humanitarianism, and the basic desire for adventure are also causes (Colonization pp). Before colonization can be effected, "the indigenous population must be subdued and assimilated or converted to the culture of the colonists; otherwise, a modus vivendi must be established by the imposition of a treaty or an alliance" (Colonization pp).
The Phoenicians during the tenth century B.C., established trading posts throughout the Mediterranean and eventually exercised political dominion over the commercial colonies (Colonization pp). The Greeks established colonies in Asia Minor and Italy, while the Romans sought to assimilate the native culture of their colonies into their own, and the Venetians and Genoese established commercial colonies along trade routes (Colonization pp). Portuguese colonization began with the establishment of trading ports in Africa and the East, while the Spanish concentrated most of their efforts in the Americas (Colonization pp). The Spanish and the Portuguese exercised strict governmental control over their colonies and used them mainly as a basis for rich commerce with the parent government, thus discouraging the indigenous population from becoming economically self-sufficient (Colonization pp).
Beginning in the late sixteenth century, the English, Dutch, and French began to undertake colonization through chartered companies, the greatest of these private trading companies was the British East India Company, which played a key role in the history of the British Empire (Colonization pp). The French adhered to mercantilist theory in establishing their colonies, using them basically for the economic advantage, however the English colonists in North America were "virtually independent of the parent country, the most serious restriction being the establishment of a trade monopoly by the home government through the Navigation Acts" (Colonization pp). North America…
Reciting Colonial Scripts: Colonialism, Globalization and Democracy in the Decolonized 1. Problem/Puzzle & Research Questions How have colonialism as well as the successive globalization/imperialism fiddled or tinkered with national identity, geographic boundaries, as well as civil society? These are the factors that are of great relevance to democratization. 2. Theories & Concepts: existing research that the author builds upon or refutes in order to develop their own argument. The author of the present study
One is a comprehensive means to increase gross domestic product and average real incomes via conscientious tourism and service industry occupations. Eco-tourism is a distinct possibility for a country that is well-known and well-regarded for its unique biodiversity. The presence of animals that can be found no other place on the planet can drive tourism demand for visiting Madagascar. If local communities manage their own tourism interests, rather than
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No efforts have been made to create a strong consumer base in the Philippines itself by improving the lot of the Filipino workers (Bello 3). Had a local market been created and some protections afforded to Filipino workers, development may well have proceeded in a more positive direction as the nation would have been better able to take advantage of those aspects of globalization that offered true benefits, rather
Globalization=Western Imperialism Modern science and all the various process that are involved with the modernization process evolved because of the progress made by the western countries and the progress made in the field of science, medicine and the notions held in respect of human rights and liberty. There are several sections of individuals who state that dissatisfaction that people seem to have is that they are troubled with their daily life.
, 2009, p. 80). Even the smallest museums in some of the most out-of-the-way locations "can and do participate in the globalized arena," Holo explains. The leaders of these remote museums, for example the "indigenous communitarian museum leaders in the remote mountains of Oaxaca," who have zero staff, somehow go to meetings at very obscure locations, just to link up with others in the world of art (Holo, 80). However, when