Colonization Essays (Examples)

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Final Draft on Indigenous Communities

Words: 1725 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 21472307

Colonization on Indigenous Communities

Indigenous communities survive a long history of significant influence of the colonial rulers. In the contemporary space, some think that the indigenous communities to have undergone significant resistant and struggle in the hands of the colonialists. hile most communities consider colonialism to have brought considerable losses that are central to healing in the current world, some see it as a source of opportunities that opened the indigenous communities to the outside world. The variability in the view of the influence of colonialism to the indigenous communities translates to realm also referred to as de-colonization that can be achieved through negotiation between the colonizer and the colonized (Suzack, Cheryl 87). Therefore, the following essay that forms the final part of the study focuses on the ways in which colonization influenced the indigenous or aboriginal communities across the world. The study adopts different perspectives to create significance of…… [Read More]

Works cited

Gann, Lewis H., and Peter Duignan. Colonialism in Africa, 1870-1960 [in 4 vols].. London: Cambridge U.P, 1969. Print.

Happle, Robert William. Globalization and the effects of colonialism and modern tourism on the West Indies. New York: Cengage, 2008. Print.

Hogan, Patrick Colm. Colonialism and cultural identity: crises of tradition in the anglophone literatures of India, Africa, and the Caribbean. New York: State University of New York Press, 2000. Print.

Kelm, Mary. Colonizing bodies aboriginal health and healing in British Columbia, 1900-1950. Vancouver: UBC Press, 1998. Print.
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1415 Europeans Began a Long Process of

Words: 1046 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 1575099

1415 Euopeans began a long pocess of expansion though impeial conquest and colonization. This ealy moden fom of impeialism continued up to the late eighteenth o ealy nineteenth centuy. Explain how and why the vaious Euopean powes expanded beyond thei oiginal bodes and in many instances beyond the continent. Be sue to distinguish between at least thee of the pincipal Euopean impeial powes, among which wee the Potuguese, Spanish, Bitish, Fench, Dutch, and Russians.

Thee wee many factos that caused Euopean powes to expand beyond thei oiginal bodes and, in many instances, beyond the continent.

One of these was simply colonization whee one county battled anothe and claimed its teitoy as its own. Anothe facto was tade whee the tade dealings of specific counties bought them into contact with anothe and, theeby impoted thei influence into foeign soil. The slave tade too was a contibutoy facto whee people fom one…… [Read More]

references

Jiu-Hwa Upshur (2012) World History Wadsworth; comprehensive, compact 5th edition)

John M. Cohen (1969) The Four Voyages, Penguin: UK
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Economic Developments in America From

Words: 1945 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 63328180

More importantly, the puritans had considered essential for the future of economic success the access to education and therefore established elementary schools throughout the state (Wright, 1947). Therefore, the degree of literacy was greater than in other parts of the country because there was a comprehensive access to education.

By comparison, the South was different in this area. The southern society had a particular system of private tutoring which allowed children to have access to education. However, for ordinary people, this was not an option and they most often appealed to the assistance of the minister. Still, the quality of education received in this way was limited and in many situations the young generation remained illiterate. It can be said therefore that the poor level of education was in part due to the lack of financial support and in part to the economic practices existing in the South which did…… [Read More]

References

Jenkins, P. A history of the United States. New York: Palgrave, 1997.

McAllister, J. "Colonial America, 1607-1776." The Economic History Review, New Series, Vol. 42, No. 2. (May, 1989), pp. 245-259.

Weinberg, Meyer. A Short History of American Capitalism. Gloucester: New History Press, 2002.

Wright, Louis B. The Atlantic Frontier: Colonial American Civilization, 1607-1763. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1947.
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Conference Berlin Consequences B the History of

Words: 1492 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 1152404

Conference Berlin consequences b)

The History of Contemporary frica

Ever since parts of its region became colonized by Europeans (which began happening fairly regularly since the early part of the nno Domini timeline), frica has suffered an abundance of problems relating to its political, social, and economic spheres of existence. fter its introduction to what is best termed a fledgling globalization through colonization in several of its countries by a number of European nations, frica has understandably endured a number of issues relating to its primary systems of government, economics, and socialization. lthough events related to the conclusion of World War II were largely responsible for decolonization in this part of the world, many nation states on the continent would struggle for several years -- and are still struggling -- to overcome the effects of colonization and the inherent instability it provided to many of the key infrastructures within today's…… [Read More]

A large degree of political turmoil took place in Uganda following its liberation from colonization midway through the 20th century. A number of political factions vied for power in the ensuing years; many of these were associated with religious groups set up by the European colonialists, such as Catholic and Protestant supporters. Economically, the country had a strong Indian population that was in control of much of the commerce nad industry there, which is why dictator Idi Amin expelled them in the early 1970's. Deforestation issues have affected Uganda quite significantly. Urbanization and expanding farmlands are responsible for much of Uganda's deforestation problem, while like most regions in Africa, the population housed within this country has seen an explosion in the number of victims of AIDS and HIV. Civil wars and internal fighting, however, would regularly plague Uganda into the new millennium. In more recent times, efforts have been made to reduce barriers to women owning property and being an economic influence within this country. The traditional gender equality within Uganda has certainly circumscribed its growth.

One of the most insidious instances of neo-colonization in Africa, however, was evinced in South Africa. The system of apartheid, which was essentially a legalized subjugation of people of African descent that highly favored Europeans and those of European descent, was responsible for political instability for several years as black South Africans strove to overturn such a repressive regime. Apartheid was eventually overturned in 1994 with the presidency of Nelson Mandela, but economically, unemployment was largely rampant in the country as it struggled to transition to true independence. Other contemporary issues plaguing this country are a nationwide rapid deforestation process, as well as rampant AIDS infection (South Africa may have the most people with AIDS in the world today). Women have played a significant role in the true liberation of this country from first its colonial history and then its repressive reign of Apartheid, as is evinced within the perseverance and political inclinations of Winnie Mandela.

There were several things about Africa that I learned while taking this course. One was that there was a highly planned, systematic implementation of repression that is responsible for keeping Africa socially, economically, and politically years behind many other parts of the world. This repression truly took hold during colonialism, but the bouts of neocolonialism that many countries endured even after formal colonialism was dispelled certainly contributed to this cause. I was also unaware of the contemporary problems that Africa has regarding issues of deforestation. I had no idea that the cutting down of trees and the reduction of forests could take hold of this area as quickly as it had, and continue to affect the environments there today.
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Philippine Women Fashion Clothing History the

Words: 2191 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89151499



The idea of dressing in civilized and well clothed are well deserving of freedom because t this group that is highly valued despite the fact that the Malay peasants who struggled for the independence have been devalued in the official history of nation -- building and their mark and contribution has been ignored. 'This shown that apart from the influences from the other cultures social classes have been instrumental in shaping the clothing style of the Philippine.' (Grace, 2008) Due to this many would want to dress in a particular recognized and accepted way to be recognized in the class of the rich. This is just part of the culture that has been impacted to the Filipinos which ahs influenced their manner of dressing.

Despite the different Muslim groups in he south and the mountain tribes have their own distinctive garments and seem to have influenced less. The Maranao Muslims…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Alfredo R. (2008) Philippines Culture Shock; California, Wiley Publisher

Grace R. (2008) Culture Shock! Philippines: A Survival Guide to Customs and Etiquette California, Wiley Publisher

Helena M. (2007) Introduction to Philippines Culture; New York, Sage Publications,

Renato. P. (2006) An Introduction to Philippines way of dressing; New York, Periplus
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Empire and Race

Words: 2101 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 68167284

narrative analysis of historical content, themes, patterns, and events related to "race and empire in U.S. History. For this reason, six books have been considered. The paper will cover the narrative analysis of historical content related to race and empire in U.S. History, summary of the chronological themes, and the strengths and weaknesses for each book.

Manifest destinies: the making of the Mexican-American race

Narrative Analysis

The key to the approach of Gomez is the thought that Mexican-Americans do not from ethnicity, in fact a race. The difference lies in societal construction. Rather than having inborn worth, race is history reliant and given meaning by social processes, institutions, and persons. In the view of Gomez, the identity of Mexican-American is a result of social attitudes and legal definitions during the era, after the war between U.S. And Mexico. In fact, for Mexicans, there was no proper racial model[footnoteRef:1]. [1: Gomez,…… [Read More]

8. Hardy, T.J.. Race as an Aspect of the U.S.-Australian Alliance in World War II. (Diplomatic History, 2013)

9. Mora, A.P.. Jose Angel Hernandez. Mexican-American Colonization during the Nineteenth Century: A History of the U.S.-Mexico Borderlands. (The American Historical Review, 118(3), 818-819., 2013)

10. Guyotte, R.L., & Posadas, B.M.. Filipinos and Filipino Americans, 1870 -- 1940. Immigrants in American History: Arrival, Adaptation, and Integration, 347, 2013
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Eradicating Suicide Canadian Aboriginal Youth

Words: 3080 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 28505221

CANADA'S ABOIGINAL PEOPLE

Suicide amongst Canada's Aboriginal People

Suicide amongst Canada's Aboriginal People

The aboriginal people of Canada have faced injustices perpetrated through colonization, cultural prejudice, and forced assimilation among many other social injustices. The perpetrators, who include the Canadian dominant population, did this without considering the aboriginal people's well-being. Therefore, in an attempt to reduce the social problems they faced, the aboriginal people taken part in habits such as alcoholism, violence, and suicide. The aboriginal youth remain the most affected, mainly because of the development of suicidal thoughts, which have driven them to commit suicide (Kirmayer, & Valaskakis, 2009). To make it worse, the aboriginal people are denied access to healthcare services, which has contributed to lack of identification of suicidal youths.

The social problems they face result to depression, and some of the people opt to take part in some life-threatening habits, for example, suicide (Lavelle & Poole,…… [Read More]

References

Baskin, C. (2011). Strong Helpers' Teachings: The Value of Indigenous Knowledge in the Helping Professions. Toronto, ON: Canadian Scholar's Press.

Blackstock, C. (2009). The Occasional Evil of Angels: Learning from the Experiences of Aboriginal Peoples and Social Work. First Peoples Child and Family Review, 4(1), 28-37.

Hart, M., Sinclair, R., & Bruyere, G. (2009). Wi-cihitowin: Aboriginal social work in Canada.

Halifax: Fernwood Pub.
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Elder Thomas King's Green Grass Running Water

Words: 2834 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 84543786

elder Thomas King's Green Grass, Running Water world "bent" "fix." This task explore ways American Indian literature helps imagine ways fix bent things world explain findings matters world.

Most people are likely to acknowledge that society has severe problems and that urgent action needs to be taken in order for it to be able to recover from a moral point-of-view. Powerful bodies have always had the tendency to persecute minorities and groups that have generally been unable to stand up for themselves. Thomas King's 1993 novel "Green Grass, Running Water" discusses in regard to how the world is bent and describes particular characters as they vainly try to fix it. It is very probable that the writer wants his readers to accept the impossibility related to changing human nature and uses satire with the purpose of having them considering accept that society is broken. Similarly, Joseph oyden's manuscript "Three Day…… [Read More]

Bibliography:

Buzo, Adrian, The Making of Modern Korea (New York: Routledge, 2002)

Cox, James H., "All This Water Imagery Must Mean Something": Thomas King's Revisions of Narratives of Domination and Conquest in "Green Grass, Running Water,"

American Indian Quarterly, Vol. 24, No. 2 (Spring, 2000)

Scott, Jamie S., "Colonial, Neo-colonial, Post-colonial: Images of Christian Missions in Hiram M. Cody's the Frontiersman, Rudy Wiebe's First and Vital Candle and Basil Johnston's Indian School Days," Journal of Canadian Studies 32.3 (1997)
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Ceremonies of Possession in Europe's Conquest of the New World 1492-1640

Words: 1013 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 51709417

Ceremonies of Possession/Differences in How America as Settled

Patricia Seed in her book, Ceremonies of Possession, assumes a novel position in regard to the settlement of the New orld by the various European powers. Seed's theory is that each of the five main nations involved in the settlement of the New orld: England, France, Spain, Portugal, and the Netherlands, did so in their own unique way and that these unique ways were more closely related to the individual country's rituals and practices as opposed to their inherited traditions. Reducing Seed's theory to its least common denominator: "Englishman held that they acquired rights to the New orld by physical objects, Frenchmen by gestures, Spaniards by speech, Portuguese by numbers, Dutch by description

The demonstration of the English dependence on physical objects can be seen in their heavy reliance on building, erecting, and planting as part of their cultural development when they…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Seed, Patricia, Ceremonies of Possession: Europe's Conquest of the New World, 1492-1640. (Cambridge University Press: 1995).

Ceremonies of Possessions

Seed, Patricia, Ceremonies of Possession: Europe's Conquest of the New World, 1492-1640. (Cambridge University Press: 1995). p. 179.
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Colonial Transplantation That Occurred in Virginia Maryland

Words: 910 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 36383781

colonial transplantation that occurred in Virginia, Maryland, and Massachusetts Bay. What were the major sources of friction between the Indians and the English in Virginia and Massachusetts Bay? Also explain the impact of the Glorious evolution on British rule and describe the policy of 'salutary neglect' and what it did for the government within the colonies. Be specific in your essay.

Colonial transplantation in Virginia, Maryland and the Massachusetts Bay

The colonization of Virginia, Maryland and the Massachusetts Bay represent crucial points on the history of the modern day United States. In the three regions, colonial transplantation processes were developed and these were characterized by distinctive elements. In both three regions, the colonization process was marked by a shortage of financial resources and the need to receive more money from London.

In Virginia for instance, the colonial transplantation effort had a grim start. Striving to protect themselves against the aboriginals,…… [Read More]

Reference:

Chapter 2: Transplantations and borderlands

Chapter 3: Society and culture in provincial America
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Industrial Capitalism and Imperialism Throughout

Words: 2253 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 1397342

In the 20th century, both of these tactics were utilized to successfully gain independence for a number of countries. (Conrad 83 -- 149) (Hochschild 101 -- 164) (Gainty)

However, Africans also helped European efforts. This was accomplished by many individuals becoming actively involved in: the political, economic and military structure. Over the course of time, these activities divided entire nations against one another. Once this took place, is when the European powers were able to exercise greater amounts of control over its colonies. (Conrad 83 -- 149) (Hochschild 101 -- 164) (Gainty)

hat was the impact of European colonialism (overseas acquisition up to approximately the mid-1700s) and imperialism (overseas acquisition from the mid-1700s) in Africa?

The impact European colonialism was to exercise direct control over entire regions. This was a part of an effort to increase their access to natural resources. Moreover, many of these colonies were established based upon…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Conrad, Joseph. Heart of Darkness. Hamondsworth: Penguine, 1975. Print.

Duiker, William. The Essential World History. Boston: Wadsworth Learning, 2011. Print.

Engels, Frederic. The Condition of the Working Class in England. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2010. Print.

Gainty, Denis. Sources of World Societies. Boston: St. Martins, 2009. Print.
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Blauner's Hypothesis and the Hispanics'

Words: 513 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 46910288

"

The case of the Hispanic race was no different from the black Americans'. One of the rapidly increasing minority groups in the country, even surpassing the African-American minority group, Hispanics had experienced similar conditions that made them a colonized minority group. Hispanics demonstrate the characteristics that Blauner argued as illustrative of the African-American experience: firstly, they (Hispanics) belong to the economic periphery and secondly, they become susceptible to greater racial discrimination.

Hispanics are a colonized minority group because they are not given sufficient economic support in the society. Most members of this minority group engage in labor with lower-than-the-minimum wages; this is a result of Hispanics being illegal migrants in the country. As a result of these low incomes, Hispanics move further towards the economic periphery due to lack of opportunities, such as availing proper health services and attaining higher educational attainment.

Apart from becoming part of the socio-economically…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Blauner, B. (2001). Still the Big News: Racial Oppression in America. NY: Temple University Press.
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Intergenerational Relationships in Identity Construction

Words: 8675 Length: 33 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 61602694

al. 11). In the same way that European colonialism itself depended on a limited view of the world that placed colonial subjects under the rule of their masters, European theory was based on a view of literature and identity that had no place for the identities and literature of colonized people. Postcolonial theory is the ideal basis for this study, because in many ways the process of developing a new, hybrid identity born out of the conflicting experiences of first and second-generation immigrants is analogous to the process of developing postcolonial theory in the first place.

In particular, this paper draws most heavily on the notion of hybrid identity, a complicated subject that has arisen within postcolonial studies. The term is difficult to define precisely due to the fact that hybridity itself suggests something complicated and heterogeneous, and at the same time, "if hybrid identity is seen as formed at…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Ashcroft, Bill, Gareth Griffiths, and Helen Tiffin. The Empire Writes Back: Theory and Practice

in Post-Colonial Literatures. New York: Routledge, 2002.

Ball, John. Satire and the Postcolonial Novel. New York: Routledge, 2003.

Bhabha, Homi. Nation and Narration. London: Routledge, 1990.
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Wretched of the Earth When Nations of

Words: 1643 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 63833823

retched of the Earth

hen nations of Europe set out on boats, they determined to find lands and claim them for the empirical country, regardless of any objections coming from the people actually living on those lands. In the colonized land, the native population were marginalized, oppressed, and limited in their civil rights. Many were turned into slaves on large farms run by the emissaries from the motherland. The natives were sometimes outnumbered but the number of the enemy seldom mattered because the colonial soldiers usually were in possession of more sophisticated weaponry with which they could subjugate the aboriginal peoples. Sometimes these colonies existed for centuries and lines of ethnically determined social status kept the descendants of colonists in the upper echelons of society while those descended from the natives were kept subservient to their European oppressors. Understandably this did not go well with the natives or their descendents…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Fanon, F. (2004). The Wretched of the Earth. Grove: New York, NY.
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Post Colonial Drama

Words: 3158 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 50225783

Post-Colonial Drama

Approaching the complexities of the colonial or post-colonial situation has been a major theme in drama for as long as colonialism has existed: Shakespeare wrote his Tempest on the heels of the very first English efforts to establish overseas colonies in the Americas and in Ireland. If we expand our definition of the colonial situation to comprise any ideologically-tinged cross-cultural encounter, we can even trace the roots of the theme all the way back to the earliest extant "estern" drama, the Persae of Aeschylus. To a certain extent, these well-established canonical examples may only represent a desire to place "otherness" onstage for the sake of spectacle -- the elements of masque and pageantry in each of those examples are most likely what spoke to their initial audiences, rather than any kind of analytical or critical stance regarding the colonial situation itself. But contemporary writers cannot approach the issue…… [Read More]

Works Cited

MacLeod, Joan. Amigo's Blue Guitar. Winnipeg: Blizzard, 1992.

Wertenbaker, Timberlake. Our Country's Good. London: Methuen, 1991.
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Colonized Peoples Readings on Discourse on Colonialism

Words: 613 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31624584

Colonized Peoples

eadings on Discourse on Colonialism and Lost Names

Discourse on Colonialism

When, in the process of rebuking colonialism's "howling savagery" (p. 15), author / poet / social critic Aime Cesaire invokes a hot-button name like Hitler, the ultimate savage, slaughterer of millions of innocents, it is no surprise. Cesaire does not limit her justifiable vitriolic passion to Hitler's carnage and brutality; she also rages against "pseudo-humanism" and against racist attitudes which do not originate with Hitler. But when Cesaire attacks clergy, such as "ev. Barde," and Barde's "fellow Christian, the ev. Muller," it is indeed worthwhile to learn about her indignation towards men of the cloth.

Because, this is perhaps her way of showing that the Bardes and Mullers of the world are contributing to the "colonization of the spirit" of oppressed peoples.

Cesaire is outraged at those who are not outraged at Barde; Barde, according to Cesaire,…… [Read More]

References

Cesaire, Aime. Discourse on Colonialism. New York: Monthly Review Press, 1972.

Kim, Richard E. Lost Names: Scenes from a Korean Boyhood. New York: Praeger

Publishers, 1970.
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Christianity in the Modern World Modern Christians

Words: 5085 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 39460805

Christianity in the Modern World

Modern Christians looking back into history may find it hard to comprehend the various atrocities that have been committed in the name of Christianity. While religion has consistently been an excuse for one group to claim superiority over another, nowhere was this more apparent than when the Puritans came to America. While the lens of time reveals the Puritan actions against the native population to be both arrogant and cruel, it is important to remember that the Puritans did not view their actions in the same manner. In contrast, their actions were motivated by their deeply held religious belief that it was their divine mission to come to America and begin a colony where they would be free to practice their religion.

Like many modern-day advocates of religious freedom, the Puritans had a narrow view of the term. They did not seek religious freedom for…… [Read More]

Raboteau, Albert. (1989). Afro-Americans, Exodus, and the American Israel, 81. New York: Oxford University

Press.

Walker, David. 1993. David Walker's Appeal, 15. University Park: Black Classic Press.
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History Vietnam and 20th Century

Words: 650 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77060523

Vietnam in the 20th Century

In the year 2012, the country of Vietnam is a united nation which has a Communist government and a people who are predominantly poor. Before this time, Vietnam went through centuries of turmoil up until the war between Vietnam and the United States wherein North and South Vietnam became a single country. hat began the process of dividing Vietnam and isolating its people was the colonization of Vietnam by the French government. According to historian Peter Stearns (2008): "History must serve, however imperfectly, as our laboratory, and data from the past must serve as our most vital evidence in the unavoidable quest to figure out why our complex species behaves as it does in societal settings." In a study of the country of Vietnam, it is important to understand the nation's history and events which may have impacted that country's current psychological and sociological makeup.…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Meyers, William P. (2011). "Vietnam and the West Until 1954." The U.S. War Against Asia. III

Publishing.

Stearns, Peter N. (2008). "Why Study History?" American Historical Association.

   http://www.historians.org/pubs/free/WhyStudyHistory.htm
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Latin America History

Words: 1173 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 32221883

indigenous people were conquered and colonized. The writer will focus on the Incas and discuss their many evidences of colonization and being conquered. The evidence the writer will present will be in religious, economic and social discussion to illustrate the writer's belief that they were indeed conquered against their will and then later colonized. There were three sources used to complete this paper.

The Spanish were interested in development and growth in the 16th and 17th century and to that end they examined areas of the world that they believed would provide them with natural resources and power and they took the land over (Schwartz PG). Often times there were already indigenous people living there and the Spanish would forcefully conquer and colonize those people (SPANISH DEVELOPMENT (http://www.econ.org/octlessons/ushistory3,2-3.htm).One of the most interesting cases of the Spanish conquering and taking over an indigenous people was the Incas conquer. It was most…… [Read More]

References

Victors and Vanquished: Spanish and Nahua Views of the Conquest of Mexico by Stuart B. Schwartz Hardcover: 272 pages; Dimensions (in inches): 0.77 x 8.58 x 5.77

Publisher: Palgrave Macmillan; (March 2000)

ISBN: 0312228171

INCAS http://www.wsu.edu/~dee/CIVAMRCA/INCAS.htm
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War in Africa

Words: 810 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89232833

War in Africa

Due to European colonization and then decolonization, Africa was left in a similar state of the other former colonies. What state were the other colonies left in and what are the similarities?

Concomitant colonization and decolonization of Africa left most of the countries in a state of utter economic dependence on their colonial masters. This state is more or less similar to what happened to former colonies in the Americas and Asia. While there are other socio-political impacts that also resulted, this brief paper focuses only on the state economic dependence that African colonies found themselves in soon after colonial masters went back to their countries.

Prior to the "Scramble and Partition of Africa," African economies were on an upward trend in most areas, but more so in terms of trade. Africans had already established trade patterns with some long distance traders walking covering miles just to…… [Read More]

References

Bojicic, Savo. America…. America…. Or Is It? New York, NY: AuthorHouse, 2010.

Clayton, Anthony. Frontiersmen; warfare in Africa since 1950. Philadelphia: UCL press, 1999

Shipway, Martin. Decolonization and Its Impact: A Comparative Approach to the End of the Colonial Empires. Malden, MA: Blackwell Pub, 2008.

Shipway, Martin. Decolonization and Its Impact: A Comparative Approach to the End of the Colonial Empires. Malden, MA: Blackwell Pub, 2008.
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Barracks Ed a Visit to

Words: 1531 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 21433607

The personal letter writing is a way to further validate the attitudes of each perspective that played such a major role in the shaping of Australian history while also making the complexities of the conflicts faced during this formative period quite clear.

Conclusion

The safety concerns for all of these lesson plans are minimal, with no greater risks than would be found for the tamest of activities in the classroom or on the excursion itself. There are definite safety concerns on the excursion, including maintaining an awareness of all students at all times and ensuring that buildings and structures are not climbed on, etc., but the lesson described above does not exacerbate these concerns. Instead, each of these lessons provides a clear and detailed way to involve students directly in the experience of Australian history, gaining an awareness and an appreciation for the diversity of cultural and social positions in…… [Read More]

References

AsiaRooms. (2010). "Hyde Park Barracks Museum Sydney." Accessed 18 September 2010.   http://www.asiarooms.com/en/travel-guide/australia/sydney/sydney-museums/hyde-park-barracks-museum-sydney.html  

AVC. (2010). "Hye Park Barracks." A View on Cities. Accessed 18 September 2010.   http://www.aviewoncities.com/sydney/hydeparkbarracks.htm  

HHT. (2010). "Hyde Park Barracks." Historic Houses Trust. Accessed 18 September 2010. http://www.hht.net.au/museums/hyde_park_barracks_museum

HSIE. (2006). Human Society and its Environment K-6: Syllabus. Sydney: Board of Studies NSW.
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Envisioning America & What Caused

Words: 1381 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 28823133



I am very happy that everywhere there are rich woods with good timber I will use for the construction of houses for our people. but, we are a long way from being able to build a solid foundation for a colony of her Majesty here. Our people are either suffering from illnesses or they are starving. There are innumerable riches here offered by nature beneath and above the ground, but it is hard to harvest them or to exploit them with a handful of people from who half are ill or starving. I hope that her Majesty's subjects and our compatriots will soon find out about what lies here as I was able to find out and join us in our efforts to spread the holly beliefs of our Mother Church of England among these savages oversees and bring the glory of conquering new territories and acquiring all the commodities…… [Read More]

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Race Both Ward Churchill and

Words: 1171 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71976082

The French colonial government actively sought means to control land and land use in Algeria, notes Sartre. Control over land and natural resources equals ownership of the means of production. Economic oppression also creates class conflict: the subjugated peoples become a clear and identifiable underclass. Even within the underclass, class conflict prevents political cohesion. The French and the Americans would have been far less successful in their colonial campaigns had the Algerians and the Native Americans been able to organize en masse in rebellion. Poverty pits neighbor against neighbor in the competition for limited resources.

Furthermore, race and social class become linked together and offered up as false proof that the oppressed groups are inherently inferior. Economic oppression also serves another key goal that helps perpetuate colonial rule: ignorance. Stripping the underclass of access to capital or to the means of production, the ruling class ensures lack of access to…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Churchill, Ward. A Little Matter of Genocide. City Lights Books, 1997.

Sartre, Jean-Paul. Colonialism and Neo-Colonialism. Translated by Azzedine Haddour, Steve Brewer. Routledge, 2001.
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Oral Hygiene Methodology There Is a Significant

Words: 1736 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 13409997

Oral Hygiene Methodology

There is a significant amount of research that shows statistical correlation between oropharyngeal bacterial colonization and the presence bacteria responsible for ventilator associated pneumonia (VAP). Several interventions have been shown as effective in reducing the incidence of VAP, but many have not gained widespread clinical use in a majority of hospitals. esearch does show that the amount of oropharyngeal bacteria present in the mouth and oral cavity has a relationship to the propensity of developing VAP. This is likely due to the lack of appropriate levels of oral hygiene combined with the bacterial colonization of ventilator equipment. We expect that oral and mouth washes regularly administrated that include chlorohexedine will kill bacteria and reduce incidence of VAP infections on ICU patients. The aim of this study will be to survey the efficacy of chlorohexdedine mouth washes in a randomized group of patients who were placed in an…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

Chlebicki, P., & Safdar, N. (2007). Topical chlorhexidine for prevention of ventilator-associated peneumonia: A Meta-analysis. Critical Care Medicine, 35(2), 595-602.

Collard, H., & Saint, S. (2005, June). Prevention of Ventilator Associated Pneumonia. Retrieved from ahrq.gov:  http://archive.ahrq.gov/clinic/ptsafety/pdf/chap17.pdf 

Dodek, P., et al. (2004). Evidence-Based Clinical Practice Guidelines for Prevention of Ventilator-Associated Pneumomia. Annals of Internal Medicine, 141(4), 305-13.

Lansford, T., et al. (2007). Efficacy of a Pneumonia Prevention Protocol in the Reduction of Ventilatory-Associated Pneumonia in Trauma Patients. Liebert Open Access- Surgical Infections. 8 (5): 5505-10.
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Promised Land Black Girl Ousmane Sembene's Short Story

Words: 1055 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 8703908

Promised Land/Black Girl

Ousmane Sembene's short story "The Promised Land," which was later adapted into a film called Black Girl, asks its audience to step into the life and subjectivity of a young Senegalese woman working in France, and attempts to demonstrate the isolation and persecution she experiences. The story opens with police arriving at the villa where the main character, Diouana, has killed herself, and immediately the story reveals the distinct divide between the French and Diouana, as nearly everyone calls her "the black woman" (Sembene 85). From this introduction, Sembene returns to Diouana's origins and traces how she went from an excited young woman to a disillusioned and ultimately suicidal servant, and the result is a tragic, though ultimately enlightening look at the ramifications of colonialism and the implicit racism it leaves as a legacy. Even though it was first published in 1974, the story is still relevant…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Sembene, Ousmane. Tribal scars, and other stories. New York: Inscape, 1974.
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Post-Revolutionary French Art and Are Titled Nudity

Words: 967 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66979381

post-revolutionary French art, and are titled; Nudity a La Grecque in 1799 and Colonization Gross's Plague-Stricken Jaffa share some fundamental commonalities. The similarities that these two articles share are their methodology, formal artistic analysis and their account and implicit description of the relationship between art and social history. Both of these articles also provide historical accounts of artistic criticism of post-Revolutionary history painting. Most significantly Grisby's articles provide a view of post-Revolutionary France where art, history and politics all combine to allow readers to more fully understand cultural and social issues of great importance of the time.

Darcy Grimaldo Grisby sets out to dispel commonly held notions and opinions regarding Gross's Plague-Stricken Jaffa. The most significant theory he seeks to dispel is one that claims the painting is simply a government commissioned propaganda piece created to enlarge the image of the then, soon to be emperor of France Napoleon Bonaparte…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Grimaldo Grisby, Darcy . "Nudity A la Grecque in 1799." Art Bulletin 80.2 (1998): 311-335. Print.

Grimaldo Grisby, Garcy. "Rumor, Contagion, and Colonization in Gros's Plague-Stricken of Jaffa." references 51 (1995): 1046-1093. Print
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Culture and Capitalism

Words: 1494 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90554407

Capitalism and Culture

The works of Smith, Marx, Freud and Wolf center around the history of capitalism and its meanings as it has emerged from the west: first from western Europe and subsequently from the United States of America. However, this is not the only light in which world economy might be seen. There are various economic systems that are viable in various cultures. These will be considered in terms of the above-mentioned authors, together with authors who write from a different perspective, including Sahlins and Appadurai.

Western Capitalism.

The main characteristic of the capitalist system is that those who produce actual goods are employees. They do not own and cannot buy their own equipment and materials. Through this system, and especially through the advent of the machine, workers have been separated form the production process. Such displacement has occurred through coercion, especially during the early stages of the system,…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Kilcullen, R.J. "Marx on Capitalism." 1996. http://www.humanities.mq.edu.au/Ockham/y64l06.html

Sahlins, M. "The Original Affluent Society," 1998. http://www.hrc.wmin.ac.uk/campaigns/ef/dt/affluent.html.

Szeman, I. Review: Modernity at Large: Cultural Dimensions of Globalization by Arjun Appadurai. Public Worlds Volume 1. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1996.

Wolf, Eric R. Europe and the People Without History. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1982.
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Xhosa People Are Black Africans

Words: 2830 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 16898998

This entertainment is the ceremonial or festive taking of alcoholic drinks at events called "beer parties." Researchers noted the significance of the festive element of work among the laborers but showed beer as an essential aspect of work. The rule in these beer work parties are adjusted to the particular workers involved. It invokes the overall value and morality of helpfulness and reciprocity, which are part of beer-drinking events. It is an expression of a general interdependence between homesteads. Ordinary beer parties emphasize the general principle of mutual helpfulness and mutual relationships in homesteads. ut beer parties for harvest give thanks to ancestors for the homestead's harvest. These parties give recognition to those who plow the homestead's garden (McAllister).

A recent analyzed the relation between cooperative work and beer drinking. It found that beer drinks served as a contact point of everyday activity and ideas in the Xhosa society in…… [Read More]

Bibliography

CESA. The Xhosa. People Profile. Central Eastern Southern Africa, 2008. Retrieved on May 8, 2008 at http://cesa.imb.org/peoplegroups/xhosa.htm

Christian Action. The National Suicide of the Xhosa. Vol 2. The Christian Action

Magazine, 2004.

Cornwell, Jane. Sweet Sounds of Freedom. The (London) Independent: Independent
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American Colonialism Opportunity in Colonial

Words: 1853 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54310205

William Penn, a Quaker whose father had been an Admiral in the King's oyal Navy, was given a large piece of land as payment for a debt owed by the Crown to his father. Penn had suggested naming the new territory Sylvania, meaning wood, but the King added his surname, Penn, as a tribute to William's father (Uden). Penn considered his venture a "Holy Experiment" and sought to establish a society based on religious freedom and separation between religious and governmental authorities,

Under Penn's governorship, Pennsylvania became a safe haven for all persecuted religious groups like the Quakers. He instituted a ballot system that intended to allow all members of Pennsylvania to have an equal say in their own governance. Some of the provisions of equality and religious tolerance in the charter that he drafted for Pennsylvania would eventually be incorporated into other charters, including the U.S.

Constitution (Uden). Perhaps…… [Read More]

References

Bower, J. (1997) the Oxford Dictionary of World Religions

Fenton, E. (1969) a New History of the United States. Holt: New York.

Furlong, P., Margaret, S., Sharkey, D. (1966) America Yesterday: A New Nation (Revised). Sadlier: New York.

Nevins, a., Commager, H.S. (1992) a Pocket History of the United States 9th Ed.
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Explanation of These Authors and Novels Including Their Literature Era

Words: 599 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 55981974

control over one's own destiny is an illusion of misconstructed ideals and metaphysical analysis. Beginning with Sigmund Freud's fascination with the power of the unconscious which he explicitly details through his work Dora (1963), the influence that the unconscious has on an individual is explicated and determined to practically guide everything that one does, but without really giving the illusion that one is in control. The unconscious controls the self, but does it define who one is? When there is no sense of control or free will, things fall apart. One wants to know that one can influence the way that one's life turns out, but in reality, a very small number of things are actually under one's control. By attributing all sense of control and destiny to the unconscious, one either loses the definition of who one is as a person, or gives up any sort of power in…… [Read More]

References:

Cunningham, Michael. The Hours. New York, NY: Picador Publishing, 1998. Print.

Freud, Sigmund. Dora: An Analysis of a Case of Hysteria. New York, NY: Simon & Schuster. 1963. Print.

Camus, Albert. The Guest (Creative Short Stories). Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Publishing. 1957. Print.

Kafka, Franz. The Metamorphosis. USA: Tribeca Books. 1915. Print.
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International Politics and Relations in the Current

Words: 3680 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 11224377

international politics and relations in the current era, which define how communities and geographical regions relate to each other, have evolved over a period after time. The human history has been a roller coaster ride, full of violence, bloodshed and genocides. The term genocide refers to a planned and organized destruction against a national, ethnic or religious group.

In every geographical area, there are people from different ethnic, religious and social backgrounds and from different mindsets and school of thoughts. In general, one of the groups remains in the majority while the others remain in the minority. Both the majority and the minority groups have their own respective points-of-view which they aspire to enforce; however, since the majority has the numerical strength, they consider it their natural right to be in the powerful position. In some cases, it had been observed that the minority manages to take over the powerful…… [Read More]

References

BBC News 2000, UN admits Rwanda Genocide failure, 15 April.

CovertAction Quarterly, n.d. U.S. fiddles while Rwanda burns, viewed 17 December 2010, .

Thompson, T 2007, The media and the Rwanda Genocide, Fountain Publishers, Uganda.

Fisanick, C 2004, The Rwanda Genocide, Greenhaven.
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Language and Identity

Words: 904 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99910380

Language/Identity

Language and Identity

A large part of culture has to do with the language that people speak. It is a unifying concept that allows a group of people to identify one another as belonging to the same group. It does matter how the group is bounded, usually more by geographical bounds than ethnic of racial, it matters more how the person related to the world through the spoken word. This paper looks at the culture of the Caribbean, especially those people who were brought to the region as slaves from the African continent, and how they have maintained their identity through the commonality of language.

Many examples exist in literature that solidify the notion that language and identity are very closely intertwined. As a matter of fact, one author states "Language and identity are inseparable. The quest for identity is another prevalent concern in Caribbean literature" (Dance 5). hy…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Bennett-Coverly, Louise. "Colonization in Reverse." 1966. Web.

Dance, Daryl Cumber. Fifty Caribbean Writers: A Bio-Bibliographic-Critical Sourcebook. Westport, CT: Greenwood Publishing Group, Inc., 1986. Print.

Morris, Mervyn. "On Reading Miss Lou Seriously." Caribbean Quarterly 28.1/2 (1982): 44-56.

Narain, Denise DeCaires. Contemporary Caribbean women's Poetry: Making Style. London: Routledge, 2002. Print.
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Evolution of Canada's Military

Words: 815 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 3364565

Boer ar

A Discussion of how the Boer ar helped to Shape Modern Day Canada

The Boer ar was not a Canadian war. Rather, it was a war started and perpetuated British influence and Canada's participation was mandated by British dominion. As a result of their colonization, Canada had little influence over strategies or direction of the war. At the time Canada was a self-governing colony which had no control over its foreign policy. Canada's military contribution to this war was very important but it was still Britain who had control over Canada's military. However, Canada's participation in the war was as a turning point in the country's history in which its fostering of its own command over its military eventually led it on an eventual path to independence. This essay will provide a brief overview of how Canada increased its sovereignty over its forces and its importance to the…… [Read More]

Works Cited

CBC. (2001). The Boer War. Retrieved from Canada - A People History:  http://www.cbc.ca/history/EPISCONTENTSE1EP11CH2PA3LE.html 

Morton, D. (N.d.). Epilogue. Retrieved from Images of a Forgotten War:  http://www3.nfb.ca/ww1/independence.php 

The Canadian Encyclopedia. (2012). Canadian Expeditionary Force. Retrieved from The Canadian Encyclopedia: http://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.com/articles/canadian-expeditionary-force

The Loyal Edmonton Regiment Museum. (2010). Boer War. Retrieved from Canadian Military HIstory: http://www.lermuseum.org/en/canadas-military-history/boer-war/
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Hong Kong Was Colonized by Quite a

Words: 598 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 47623030

Hong Kong was colonized by quite a few nations before it was returned to Chinese control. Among the colonizers were Japan in orld ar II and Great Britain. On July 1, 1997 sovereignty of Hong Kong was returned to China from England. Britain had gained control of China in the 1800s after the Opium ar. Their possession was interrupted in the Second orld ar. Hong Kong was a colony of the British Isles for more than a century. It was a place for economic development and great amounts of resources, which is one of the primary reasons for the continued fighting over the land.

Before Hong Kong was returned to China, there were many protests in the nation that the British government was unconcerned with the rights or cares of the people of Hong Kong. Starting in 1995, individual in Hong Kong began preparation for the return, believing that their…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

"The Decolonization of Hong Kong" (1997). Retrieved from http://www.hartford-

hwp.com/archives/55/index-k.html

Pomeroy, William (1997). "British colonialism exits Hong Kong." People's Weekly World.
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Development of Southern California

Words: 3595 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77099148

Southern California

Frederick Jackson Turner is perhaps most well-known for his famous essay, "The Significance of the Frontier on American History." In this essay, Turner defines and supports his thesis that the history of the American West is the history of America. This theory directly correlates to the concept of Manifest Destiny put forth by Monroe in which the push westward and the subsequent development, it was believed, was man's God-given right.

One of the key components to Turner's work is the theory that this development does not take place along a single line, but rather, takes place in a series of "rebirths." Turner says

Thus American development has exhibited not merely advance along a single line, but a return to primitive conditions on a continually advancing frontier line, and a new development for that area. American social development has been continually beginning over again on the frontier. This perennial…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Fehrenbacher, Don F. And Norman E. Tutorow. California: An Illustrated History. London: D. Van Nostrand Company, Inc., 1968.

Lavender, David. California: A Bicentennial History. New York: W.W. Norton & Company, Inc., 1976.

Quiett, Glenn Chesney. "The Fight for a Free Port" from Los Angeles: Biography of a City by John and LaRee Caughey. Berkley, CA: University of California Press, 1976.

Turner, Frederick Jackson. "The Significance of the Frontier in American History" from The Frontier in American History. New York: Henry Holt and Company, 1920.
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Cesaire and Wild Thorns

Words: 822 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 51249771

Cesaire's Discourse On Colonialism And Wild Thorns

The novel describes living conditions under foreign or colonial occupation. It also describes nationalist sentiment among colonized peoples. Using material from the novel, as well as Cesaire's Discourse on Colonialism, discuss the proposition that nationalism is a solution to the colonial problem. Using specific examples from the texts, discuss how the authors present the relationship between colonialism, capitalism, and nationalism. How are the authors' positions on these issues similar or different? Do the authors provide hopeful representations of nationalism and capitalism? Why, or why not?

An easy, pure, and smug sense of African or Palestinian nationalism offers no solution to the overall problem of how to construct a national identity and a decolonialized mindset in one's people. Recent historical events have illustrated that an unquestioning assertion of national identity leads to horror and bloodshed -- but if one cannot accept the oppressor's vision…… [Read More]

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Prior Learning US Historic Travel

Words: 1981 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 21087310

American History

Your Highnesses have an Other World here, by which our holy faith can be so greatly advanced and from which such great wealth can be drawn," wrote Christopher Columbus to the king and queen of Spain following his third voyage to the Americas in 1498 (rinkley 1). ut even after visiting the New World three times he still had no idea what he had truly started, and he certainly saw no sign that he had began a new era in history. Yet, the history of European involvement in America had begun. Over the next several decades Spanish conquistadores made more and more voyages to the New World, and the royal treasuries grew. Settlements were established and the other European powers, seeing their opportunity, soon made efforts to establish colonies of their own.

In the midst of all of this, the native inhabitants were removed from their lands and…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Brinkley, Douglas. American Heritage: History of the United States. New York: Viking, 1998.

Davis, Kenneth. American History. New York: Harper Collins, 2003.

Gutman, Bill and Anne Wertheim. The Look-It-Up Book of the 50 States. New York: Random House, 2002.

Turner, Frederick. The Frontier in American History. New York: Dover Publications, 1996.
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Race Personally I Define Race as the

Words: 849 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 1684873

Race

Personally, I define race as the different tribes of the earth. In my definition, race has a strong affiliation with color. In terms of color, there are a couple of different races such as Blacks, Whites, Asians (who are more or less yellow), Native Americans (red), and the various hybrids associated with the intermingling of these races. Race was defined in the movie "Race the Power of an Illusion" somewhat differentky. In the film it was defined as explicit distinctions between groups of people (such as those that were previously mentioned) that are not so immutable. It acknowledges the fact that there are differences between such people, but alludes to the fact that there are basic similarities between all people that render them essentially human.

A biological view of race contends that there are certain innate biological differences that accounts for race. There is also an inherent prejudice associated…… [Read More]

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History of the Native American Indians Is

Words: 4219 Length: 14 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 67047316

history of the native American Indians is a long and colorful one. The first Indians arrived on the North American continent subsequent to the end of the Ice Age approximately 15,000 years ago. These early Indians arrived from Siberia as they passed through Alaska and gradually settled throughout what is now the United States. These early arriving Indians were hunter-gatherers and, as a result, they traveled freely across the vast North American continent and by 8,000 years ago had spread as far east as the eastern seaboard.

As indicated, the early Indians were hunter-gatherers and many of the tribes remained such until the early 1900's but a select few tribes began farming. The Indian tribes electing such life style were centered in present day Mexico City and by the time that this area began to be explored and settled by Europeans the farming life-style of these Indian tribes had been…… [Read More]

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Prevention of Central Line Infections

Words: 3055 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 56007883

One possible explanation for the differences observed in the studies could be that the strengths of the chlorhexidine solution were different. It could also be that over time more effective techniques have been developed in the application of the solution, as the results do appear to improve over time.

There are limitations to the methodology of the study which are centered on the use of secondary data for analysis. The use of secondary data allows a wider range of data to be gathered from across the U.S. than would be practical from primary data collection which is the reason for the choice in this study. However this puts the control of several variables beyond the researcher. The results of the techniques may have been affected by the application of different individuals, departments and hospitals, all of whom may vary techniques and other factors influencing the success of these techniques. The…… [Read More]

References

Adams, D., Quavum, M., Worthington, T., Lambert, P., & Elliott, T. (2005). Evaluation of a 2% chlorhexidine gluconate in 70% isopropyl alcohol skin disinfectant. Journal of Hospital Infections, 61 (4), 287-290.

Brungs, S., & Render, M. (2006). Using Evidence-Based Practice to Reduce Central line Infections. Clinical Journal of Oncology Nursing, 10 (6), 723-725.

CDC. (2002). Guidelines for Prevention of Intravascular Catheter-Related Infections. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report; Recommendations and Reports, 51 (RR-10), 1-34.

CDC Mission. (n.d.). Retrieved February 6, 2006, from CDC Web site: http://www.cdc.gov/about/mission.htm
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United Nations Opreations in Congo-Onuc

Words: 3013 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 67359913

" More precisely, the role of the esolution was to establish the UN Operation in the Congo. This came as a result of the vivid request of the Government for the UN to intervene, given the troop movement from the Belgian side.

The action taken by the Belgian was clearly justifiable. Similar to the cases of Somalia and wanda, the nationals from the colonizing country are at great risk at the moment of a civil war outbreak. At the same time, the nationals of other countries as well represent a potential subject for revenge or blackmail. The United Nations' mandate however and its subsequent actions would not have been possible without the explicit request from the government of the country. Therefore, although the UN had a legitimate reason for entering the Congo in the condition of potential lives being at risk, the mandate of the UN is politically authorized solely…… [Read More]

References

BBC. "UN chief's Rwanda genocide regret" BBC News. 2004. Available at    http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/africa/3573229.stm   

Calvocoressi, Peter. World politics since 1945. New York: Longman, 1996

Encyclopedia online. Africa: Belgian Colonies - History of Belgian Colonization, the Administration of Congo by the Belgians (1908 -- 1960) n.d. Available at    http://encyclopedia.jrank.org/articles/pages/5918/Africa-Belgian-Colonies.html   

History World. The Democratic Republic of Congo. N.d. Available at   http://www.historyworld.net/wrldhis/PlainTextHistories.asp?historyid=ad34
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Thousand Seasons and Scribbling the Cat Both

Words: 2078 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 18581408

Thousand Seasons and Scribbling the Cat

Both Ayi Kwei Armah's novel Two Thousand Seasons and Alexandra Fuller's Scribbling the Cat: Travels ith and African Soldier deal with the complex formulation of racial and ethnic identities in Africa as a result of the slave trade and colonization. hile at first glance the two stories could not be more different, as Two Thousand Seasons is a fictional tale that literally spans the titular amount of time and is narrated by a collective of voices and Scribbling the Cat is a first-person account of the singular author/narrator's travels with an African soldier, the seemingly disparate narratives actually offer two complementary perspectives on the same issues of identity, with Two Thousand Seasons purporting to represent the indigenous voices of Africa's history, attempting to reestablish and reclaim their past, while Scribbling the Cat engages with the narrator's complex Anglo-African identity in the midst of drought…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Armah, Ayi Kwei. Two Thousand Seasons. Per Ankh, the African Pub. Cooperative, 2000. Print.

Fuller, Alexandra. Scribbling the Cat: Travels with An African Soldier. New York, NY: Penguin

Press, 2004. Print.

Lorentzon, Leif. "Ayi Kwei Armah's epic we-narrator."Critique. 38.3 (1997): 221-235. Print.
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Emergence of Colonial Resistance in Things Fall Apart

Words: 3014 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 5253239

Things Fall Apart

Chinua Achebe is one of the most influential and powerful writers of today, and he is also one of the most widely published writers today. Chinua Achebe has in fact written more than twenty-one novels, and short stories, and books of poetry as well, and his very first landmark work was "Things Fall apart," which was published in the year 1958, when the author was just twenty-eight years old. This work has proved to be popular not only in Nigeria, but also in the whole of Africa, as well as in the rest of the world. Chinua Achebe was born in the year 1930 in Nigeria, as the son of a Christian Churchman and his wife. He attended the Government College in Umuahia, and then went on to University College in Ibadan, after which he went on to the London University, where he received his BA. Chinua…… [Read More]

References

Chinua Achebe. New York State Writer's Institute. Retrieved From

http://www.albany.edu/writers-inst/achebe.html Accessed 10 August, 2005

Chinua Achebe, Things Fall Apart, Study guide. Retrieved From

http://www.wsu.edu:8000/~brians/anglophone/achebe.html
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Early Western Civilization

Words: 1369 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10885455

Race for Colonies in the Late 19th Century

Although European imperialism had started in the 15th century when a number of European powers such as Spain, Portugal and Great Britain began to look for new settlements around the world, another great race for colonies occurred in the late 19th century. This time around, other countries such as the United States and Japan also joined Europe in the race. Some of the major reasons for the establishment of colonies in the late 19th century and specific examples of such colonies are outlined below.

Industrial Revolution:

The industrial revolution in Europe and the United States had greatly increased their technological and military power by the second half of the 19th century. Japan, too, had embarked on a path of rapid modernization in the mid-nineteenth century. As a result, several countries in Europe (including England, France, Germany and Italy), the U.S. And Japan…… [Read More]

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Motivations for and Effects of

Words: 1802 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 1846399

In the 21st century, American, European, and Asian trans-national corporations (e.g., General Motors; Toyota; Coca Cola; IBM; Nestle, etc., build plants in Mexico and Latin America, where indigenous labor is cheaper than American labor. Meanwhile, tens of thousands of poor Mexican citizens living in poverty struggle to sneak across the borders of the United States, into California, Arizona, Texas, or New Mexico, in hope of finding better lives by working for American dollars, instead of Mexican pesos.

All in all, European colonialism, an outgrowth and direct result of acquisitive worldwide European exploration and expansion, from the time of the Spanish conquistadores through the Enlightenment Period; through the Industrial Revolution and beyond, has done more harm than good within both Latin America and Sub-Saharan Africa. For the most part, within these regions, colonialism (and/or its long-lasting after-effects) brought disease; poverty, and much cultural coercion to those areas. Natural resources were stolen;…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Bradshaw, Michael et al. Contemporary World Regional Geography: Global

Connections, Local Voices. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2003.

Diamond, Jared. Guns, Germs, and Steel: The Fates of Human Societies. New York: Norton, 1999.
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Congo and African Studies Those

Words: 2905 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99424663

This betrayal by a power figure indelibly remains in the hearts and minds of the Congolese when interacting with other nations, even African neighbors (like wanda, with whom the DOC has had long-term and bloody conflicts).

A more empirical measure of the lasting effects that Belgian colonization has had on the Democratic epublic of the Congo is in the damage that has been done to the latter's natural resources. Almost every individual who comes into contact with the natural resources of the DNO, either through study, travel to the area, or prospecting in the mines and locations of other resources themselves has responded with, at the least, shock at the manner in which the Congo's vast natural reserves of precious metal, stones, and everyday resources like rubber have been depleted. Human ights Watch has issued a report stating that not only are these resources being depleted in a manner that…… [Read More]

Resources Still Fuels War In Congo" in Global Policy Forum, 08/09/04, published online at http://www.globalpolicy.org/security/natres/minerals/2004/0809rush.htm

Slade, Ruth. King Leopold's Congo. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1962.

Discussion of the urban potential of the DROC and neighboring countries can be found in the introduction to Tarver, James, Urbanization in Africa. Westport: Greenwood Press, 1994, pp. xxi-xxxii.

Hochschild, Adam. "Leopold's Congo: A Holocaust we have yet to Comprehend," in Chronicle of Higher Education, 05/12/2000, 46(36), p. B4. Another scholar who has acknowledged the genocide in the Belgian Congo as a holocaust is Richard Hamilton, who did so in the article, "A Neglected Holocaust," in Human Rights Review, 1(3), p. 119.

Human Rights Watch, "DR Congo: Gold Fuels Massive Human Rights Atrocities," 06/02/05 online at Hochschild, 1998, p. 159-162.
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Dutch Invasion of Brazil in the 17th

Words: 3465 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 21080109

Dutch invasion of razil

In the 17th Century razil found itself the centre of contesting and warring European powers. The Portuguese colonization of razil was followed by the invasion from Holland as well as by French attempts to establish a presence in the country. Historians however describe the Dutch invasion of razil in the 17th century as one of the most damaging, imposing and far-reaching occupations of the country. This was mainly due to the well-organized and well-planned nature of the Dutch intrusion.

The Dutch invasion was an attempt not merely at establishing some fortuitous harbors for trade but was colonization in the true sense of the term. One of the obvious reasons was export of natural resources such as sugar.

The Dutch occupation of razil presents a number of pertinent and important questions that will form the fulcrum of the discussion in this paper. These are - the reasons…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Alden, Dauril, ed. Colonial Roots of Modern Brazil: Papers of the Newberry Library Conference. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1973.

Alden, Dauril and Warren Dean, eds. Essays concerning the Socioeconomic History of Brazil and Portuguese India. Gainesville, FL: University Presses of Florida, 1977.

Azevedo, Fernando de. Brazilian Culture: An Introduction to the Study of Culture in Brazil. Translated by Crawford, William Rex. New York: Macmillan, 1950.

Barbour, Violet. Capitalism in Amsterdam in the Seventeenth Century. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press, 1950.
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Indigenous Culture in Australia Has

Words: 2038 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 49992763

" [Parliament of Australia]

The Future

Australia's aboriginal population is currently estimated around 4,60,000 roughly constituting 2.3% of the national population. [Australian Government] However, the sad fact is that aborigines have higher rates of alcohol and drug abuse and unemployment. Prime minister Rudd declared a state of emergency in the northern territory following high reports of alcoholism and child sexual abuse among the aboriginal communities. Efforts were also taken to restrict the use of welfare money only in stipulated shops so as to ensure that money is not spent on alcohol. Such intervention measures have created controversies but the government persists with these emergency measures citing the acute needs of the aboriginal communities. Prime minister Rudd envisions a future "where this Parliament resolves that the injustices of the past must never, never happen again. A future where we harness the determination of all Australians, Indigenous and non-Indigenous, to close the…… [Read More]

Bibliography

1) Dr. Michael Halloran, 'Cultural Maintenance and Trauma in Indigenous Australia: Paper presented at the 23rd Annual Australia and New Zealand Law and History Society Conference, Perth, Western Australia (2-4th July, 2004), retrieved Aug 24th 2010, from, http://www.latrobe.edu.au/psy/aw/Halloran-Murdoch_law_journal.pdf

2) Reconcili Action Network, (Jul 2007) 'Stolen generations', retrieved Aug 24th 2010, from, http://reconciliaction.org.au/nsw/education-kit/stolen-generations/

3) UNPO, (2008), 'Aboriginals of Australia', retrieved Aug 24th 2010, from, http://www.unpo.org/members/7855

4) HREOC, (Apr 1997) 'Bringing Them Home: Human Rights and Equal Opportunity Commission Report', retrieved Aug 24th 2010, from, 'http://www.hreoc.gov.au/social_justice/bth_report/report/ch2_part2.html
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Positive and Negative Impacts Western Colonialism Peoples

Words: 929 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 11914229

positive and negative impacts Western colonialism peoples Africa. Give specific examples.

Imperialism in Africa

European colonization of Africa was one of the most important events in world history, providing Europeans with the raw materials and labor resources to conquer and control much of the rest of the world. Moreover, centuries of European colonial domination left an indelible imprint on Africa's societies, economies, and cultures that is still visible nearly half a century after the end of decolonization. Though imperialism clearly benefited Africa and some Africans, on balance, it is clear that imperialism was negative for Africa and Africans.

Europeans had colonized Africa as far back as the Greeks' establishment of a mercantile colony at Naucratis in the sixth-century B.C.E. Typically, however, when scholars discuss colonization of the African continent, they are referring to the period from the sixteenth-century C.E. through the mid-twentieth century, when European powers vied with one another…… [Read More]

Yet, for all of the structural benefits of colonization -- the Suez Canal, the Cape to Cairo Railway -- the reality is that European colonization of Africa was devastating for the continent, responsible for the corruption and poverty that characterizes many African nations. According to famed historian Walter Rodney, European countries deliberately retarded African development so that they could exploit the continent's mineral and labor resources.[footnoteRef:1] Of course, the most obvious form of European colonial exploitation of Africa and Africans was slavery, which Rodney called "the basic factor" in Africa's underdevelopment. Though slavery goes back to ancient times, the emergence of the Trans-Atlantic slave trade in the mid-fifteenth century created a racial hierarchy in Africa that legitimized the expropriation of Africans' labor by force.[footnoteRef:2] This racial hierarchy existed, in modified form, in South Africa as late as 1994; called "apartheid," it was a system of legal discrimination and enforced segregation that had its roots in slavery. Slavery tainted everything, even Europe's "gifts" to the Africans; for instance, the French forced Egyptian peasants to perform the hazardous and backbreaking word of actually digging the Suez Canal, a form of chattel slavery known as "corvee."[footnoteRef:3] [1: Walter Rodney, How Europe Underdeveloped Africa (Nairobi, Kenya: Sitima Printers and Stationers, Ltd., 2009), 8.] [2: Patrick Manning, Slavery and African Life: Occidental, Oriental, and African Slave Trades (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1995), 4. ] [3: Zachary Karabell, Parting the Desert: The Creation of the Suez Canal (New York:: Knopf Doubleday Publishing, 2004), 112.]

The negative effects of European colonization of Africa did not stop at enslavement and exploitation; as Rodney makes clear, European colonization left Africans with an enduring legacy of corruption and poverty. Despite the fact that Africa is Earth's second largest continent, and the planet's most populous, it remains the poorest. Moreover, as economist John Mukum Mbaku makes clear in his new book, Corruption in Africa: Causes, Consequences, and Cleanups, Africa "… is one of only a few regions that has failed to make any significant improvements in human development [since the end of the Cold War} & #8230; [and one] of the most important contributors to this state of affairs in Africa is corruption."[footnoteRef:4] [4: .John Mukum Mbaku, Corruption in Africa: Causes, Consequences, and Cleanups (Lanham, MD: Lexington Books, 2007), xi.]

It is undeniable that European colonization benefit Africa and Africans in a number of ways. As this paper had made clear, Europeans designed, financed, and built a number of important infrastructure projects during their time in control of the continent; these include the Suez Canal and the Cape to Cairo Railway, both of which are still in use and generating wealth for Africans today. On balance, however, it is clear that these technological marvels pale in comparison to the years of organized exploitation and slavery that characterized European domination of Africa. Moreover, the colonialism's legacy -- political corruption -- keeps Africa mired in poverty and despotism. Therefore, one is forced to conclude that western colonialism had a mostly negative effect on Africa and Africans.
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Luminous Bacterium Vibrio Fischeri Vibrio

Words: 2011 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 30709179

The chemical was found to turn on quorum sensing in V. fischeri, whereas it inhibited pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Also, the slow-release was shown to be far more effective than by applying the chemical directly as an aqueous solution. Since quorum sensing is also important for pathogen establishment this application could be important for inhibiting pathogenic bacteria from colonization of internal medical devices.

In summary, the V. fischeri and squid symbiotic relationship is an important model host-bacteria system. Aspects of colonization of host-symbiont and host-pathogen have been shown, using the V. fisheri and squid model, to be the same. Therefore, understanding the mechanism and complex transcriptional regulatory systems of V. fischeri could lead to potential new therapies and pharmaceutical applications. Likewise, understanding the environmental factors necessary for successful host-bacteria interactions could lead to novel drug targets. In addition to being important in understanding other harmful host-bacteria relationships the V. fischeri and…… [Read More]

References:

Breitbach, a.S., Broderick, a.H., Jewell, C.M., Gunasekaran, S., Lin, Q., Lynn, D.M., & Blackwell, H.E. 2010. Surface-mediated release of a synthetic small-molecule modulator of bacterial quorum sensing: Gradual release enhances activity. Chem Comm.

Chun, C.K, Troll, J.V., Koroleva, I., Brown, B., Manzella, L., Snir, E., Almabraz, H, Scheetz, T.E., Bonaldo, M.F., Casavant, T.L., Soares, M.B., Ruby, E.G., & McFall-Ngai, M.J. 2008. Effects of colonization, luminescence, and autoinducer on host transcription during development of the squid-vibrio association. PNAS 105(32): 11323-11328.

Lyell, N.L., Dunn, a.K., Bose, J.L., Stabb, E.V. 2010. Bright mutants of Vibrio fischeri ES114 reveal conditions and regulators that control bioluminescence and expression of the lux Operon. J. Bacteriol. 192(19): 5103-5114.

Murray, P.R., Rosenthal, K.S., Kobayashi, G.S., Pfaller, M.A. 1998. Vibrio, Aeromonas, and Plesiomonas. In M. Brown (Ed.), Medical Microbiology Third Edition (pp. 245-250). St. Louis, MO: Mosby.
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Colonial Settlement

Words: 1684 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31043661

Colonial Settlement

The lasting impact of colonial settlement

The colonialism is taken to be a political and economic experience which paved the way for the European to explore, conquer, settle and exploit large areas of the world. The era of modern colonialism started during 1400 A.D with the European discovery of sea route around Africa's southern coast during 1488 and that of America during 1492. They made provisions to transfer the sea power from that of the Mediterranean towards the Atlantic and to the emerging new nation-states at that time which were Portugal, Spain, Dutch epublic, France and that of England. The initiation for discovery, the desire to conquer and settlement led these nations to expand their territories and to colonize over the world, extending the European institutions and culture to other parts of the world. The competition continued among the European nations for colonization across the world. Such colonies…… [Read More]

References

Colonial Settlement, 1600s-1763. Retrieved from http://memory.loc.gov/learn/features/timeline/colonial/colonial.html

Accessed 21 September, 2005

Exploration. Retrieved from  http://regentsprep.org/Regents/global/themes/movement/exp.cfm 

Accessed 21 September, 2005
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European-Indian Contact New England Books

Words: 2359 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 58614257

His analysis is therefore a direct investigation of the contact between the two cultural identities and their specific characteristics.

As opposed to this, Cronon uses an indirect argumentation to demonstrate the differences between the two cultures. He starts his discussion from a critique of Thoreau's view on the origins of the American civilization. Thoreau first advocated that the American land was a virgin territory when it was in the hands of the Indian-Americans. He thus contrasts at the same time the ecosystems and the economic policies of the Natives and the Colonists, focusing his argumentation of the external aspects of the two cultures rather than on the inner, spiritual cores of these cultures, like Axtell. His main thesis is that the Western colonizers brought with them the concept of "property" which is the main culprit for the subsequent radical changes in the ecosystems of the country: "English property systems encouraged…… [Read More]

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Aborigines Society As Every Human Society Has

Words: 2082 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 6439936

Aborigines Society:

As every human society has ways of governing itself, Australian government started thousands of years ago following the settlement of the Aboriginal people in the continent. Unlike the other European settlers, Aboriginal people had very different ways of organizing and governing themselves. Despite of the various Aboriginal cultures in the throughout Australia, there are similar features shared among most Aboriginal cultures. Some of the common features of the Aboriginal societies revolve around family organization, trade, travel, home, art, and education. The Aboriginal people have occupied Australia for approximately 40,000 years even though very little is known regarding them for this duration of time. However, the Aboriginal people have experienced major changes in their culture, identity, and society since 1788 due to various factors.

History and Culture of the Aboriginal People:

Aboriginal people, identity, culture, and society has been characterized by two different aspects i.e. one showing great continuities…… [Read More]

References:

Albrecht, P.G.E. (2012, February 3). Who is An Aborigine? Retrieved August 3, 2012, from http://www.quadrant.org.au/blogs/bennelong-papers/2012/02/who-is-an-aborigine/page:printable

"Aboriginal Society." (n.d.). Skwirk.com.au -- Interactive Schooling. Retrieved August 3, 2012,

from  http://www.skwirk.com/p-c_s-1_u-97_t-236_c-792/aboriginal-society/nsw/aboriginal-society/australian-democracy/australia-before-1788 

"Aboriginal Societies: The Experience of Contact." (n.d.). Australian Law Reform Commission.
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Quality Evidence From Rickard C M Et Al

Words: 2080 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 62044587

Quality Evidence From ickard, C.M., et al. (2012)

The objective of this study is to critically appraise quality evidence in the work of ichard, et al. (2012) which focuses on routine vs. clinically indicated replacement of peripheral intravenous catheters: A andomized Controlled Equivalence Trial. The focus of the critique will be on the methodology, results, implications for clinical practice and further research.

Schultz et al. (2010) reports that randomized controlled trials "when they are appropriate designed, conducted, and reported, represent the gold standard in evaluating health care interventions." (p.1) However, the absence of methodological rigor results in biased results in randomized trials. In order for a trial to be accurately assessed, there must be clear and transparent information presented in the study's methodology and findings. Due to the absence of adequacy in the reporting of studies, the Consolidated Standards of eporting Trials (CONSOT) was developed in 1996 and revised in…… [Read More]

References

Rikard, CM, et al. (2012) Routine vs. clinically indicated replacement of peripheral intravenous catheters: a randomized controlled equivalence trial. The Lancet. Vol. 380. 22 Sept. 2012.

Schulz, KF et al. (2010) CONSORT 2010 Statement: Updated Guidelines For Reporting Parallel Group Randomized Trials. Open Medicine 2010;4(1);E60.