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Features of colonization
The present day global stratification is a result of the colonization and conquest by European nations of the indigenous nations most of which were in Africa. Direct colonization largely ended but the ideology that came with colonization still lingers on in people's identity within their cultural spheres as well as their political, social and economic practices. Colonization began with entry of the colonizers forcefully into the indigenous nations. This was followed by complete destruction of their culture and governing of the nations by the colonizers. Colonization was driven by the desire to acquire land as well as the natural resources found in the land. They also wanted labor which was readily available from the natives. They wanted raw materials from the land and labor so as to support their economies which were on the rise.
There are four main features of colonization; the legal and political…
Farley, M. & Lynne, J., (2008). Prostitution of Indigenous Women: Sex Inequality and the Colonization of Canada's First Nations Women. Retrieved April 15, 2013 from http://www.rapereliefshelter.bc.ca/learn/resources/prostitution-indigenous-women-sex-inequality-and-colonization-canadas-first-nations -
Gray R., (1982). Christianity, Colonialism, and Communication in Sub-Saharan Africa. Journal of Black Studies. Vol. 13. Sage Publication. Pp59. Retrieved April 19, 2013 from http://www.jstor.org/discover/10.2307/2783975?uid=3738336&uid=2129&uid=2&uid=70&uid=4&sid=21102065204291
Thira, D.(2008). BEYOND THE FOUR WAVES OF COLONIZATION.Retrieved April 15,2013 from http://www.swaraj.org/fourwaves.htm
Resist, (2013). History of Colonization of Indigenous Peoples in Canada.Retrieved April 16, 2013 from http://users.resist.ca/noii-van.resist.ca/indigenous_history.html
Imperialism and African Colonization:
Imperialism is empire building and occurs when one state is more powerful than the other state's obstacles (such as peoples, geographic obstacles, physical obstacles and technological obstacles) to expansion. Imperialism became a popular cause for the first time in estern countries in the 1890s due to a significant degree by propaganda that sought to make nationalism and imperialism popular (Pieterse par, 2). Towards the end of the nineteenth century, European civilization experienced a period of extraordinary rapid expansion around the world. European countries had become very influential due to industrialization and organizational efficiency. This process in global expansion begun in the fifteenth century but the process gathered speed in the nineteenth century.
Latin America, the seaports of Asia were the first to be colonized by Europeans with Africa being the last continent to be colonized by European colonialists. European rule murdered and thoroughly dominated Native Americans.…
African-American REGISTRY: A NON-PROFIT EDUCATION ORGANIZATION. The African-American Registry. Web. 15 Mar. 2010. .
"African Resistance, Nationalism and Independence: Explain." Exploring Africa. Africa Studies Center. Web. 15 Mar. 2010. .
Boddy-Evans, Alistair. "What Caused the Scramble for Africa?" About.com: African History. About.com. Web. 15 Mar. 2010. .
Carter, April, Howard Clark, and Michael Randle. "B. Elements of Nonviolent Resistance to Colonialism After 1945." Civilresistance.info. Civilresistance.info, Mar. 2007. Web. 15 Mar. 2010. .
Colonization: A Necessary Evil?
Harold Larrabee in his essay "The Enemies of Empire" poses many difficult, thought provoking questions regarding colonization. After reading the discussion of American colonization presented in the book "The American People: Creating a Nation and Society" the ambiguities of the situation become more apparent.
Diverse rationale for the colonization of a nation have been around since the inception of the concept. Some viewed colonization as a moral duty, while others saw it from an economic vantage point, and still others gazed upon the potential political horizons of effective assimilation. hatever the reasoning, the issue of colonization is not an easy one.
"To colonize or not to colonize," that was the question facing late 19th century leaders of America. America was at first reluctant to expand her interests abroad. She was content to "pursue her 'manifest destiny' by expanding across the North American continent." (p 677), "but…
Gary Nash & Others, The American People, Vol 2, 2nd ed., Harper Collins, 1990
Of course, while technology and military strategy helped assist the Spaniards in their conquest of Mexico, one cannot overlook how important European diseases were in the conquest of the New World. Diseases such as the bubonic plague, measles, smallpox, chickenpox, typhus, and influenza had been circulating in Europe for approximately 2000 years. These diseases are referred to as virgin soil epidemics, because the populations at risk had no previous contact with the disease and were, therefore, immunologically almost defenseless (Crosby). When the Spaniards brought the diseases to the New World, these diseases spread in approximately 50 years, helping decimate a population that had no time to develop any immunity to the diseases the disease cycle furthered colonization by killing large numbers of indigenous people, freeing up their land for use by the colonists. For example, the smallpox epidemic of 1520 had a mortality rate of up to 50% for the…
While the early colonists' risks were great, however, so were their rewards. An immediate reward for their decision was distance and limited freedom from the Tyrannical George III, a place to worship freely, and an atmosphere ripe for virgin success. Long-term rewards include eventual freedom, democracy, and the founding of one of the world's most powerful nations. Unlike the risks, most of which were rather obvious for travelers during the era, most of the rewards were completely unanticipated. Few knew that the founding of such a nation could so dramatically change world history.
In the example of the colonists' founding of the New World, travelers were well aware of the risks that could take their livelihoods and lives at any moment during travel or settlement. The rewards of becoming colonists in America, however, were far greater than the risks, although all of these rewards could not be immediately observed. Thus,…
Nelson, Melissa. (2007). Divers Explore Wrecks of Doomed Early Colonists. Retrieved October 4, 2008, the Ledger.
Web Site: http://www.theledger.com/article/20071126/NEWS/711260372/1374
While there were some advantages, in British India, Indians were seen as second-class citizens, and they lived in a Third World country with few modern conveniences. In 1947, the country gained their independence from Great Britain, but the agreement also created Pakistan, and created divisions between Indians that have never mended, as a result.
India has evolved into a democracy that is becoming more industrialized and modern by the day. Much of the outsourcing of American jobs is taking place in India, helping its economy grow and prosper. India has capitalized on technology and it has helped the entire country. However, the road to this success was hard fought. Early political administrations suffered from accusations of corruption and scandal, and Indira Gandhi, the prime minister for several decades, was shot by her own bodyguards in 1984. Her son was also assassinated, and governments came and went during the 1990s. There…
Bose, Sugata, and Ayesha Jalal. Modern South Asia: History, Culture, Political Economy. New York: Routledge, 2003.
Lal, Vinay. "British India." University of California Los Angeles. 2005. 15 Feb. 2008. http://www.sscnet.ucla.edu/southasia/History/British/BrIndia.html
Colonization Movement of the Antebellum Period
The Success of Colonization Movement in the Antebellum Period in Attaining its Goals
The American "colonization" movement was a socio-political process, which advocated for the release of slaves by their masters, and the slaves' consequent shipment back to their places of origin in Africa. Another important element of the process was to "enlighten" the "uncivilized" African continent by sending missionaries along with the slaves, who would spread the Christian gospel. The supporters of the movement believed that the inherent differences between whites and blacks ran so deep that the prospects of their peaceful coexistence were extremely dim. Therefore, to ensure that conflicts would not arise in the future, they believed it was integral to expel all black people from the American land. However, as statistics show, their success was limited. They managed to return around 15 thousand slaves to their countries of origin, in…
Beiser, Zoe. "A Solution to Slavery or Racist Expulsion?." U.S. History Scene. N.p., 10 Apr. 2015. Web. 2nd Oct. 2015. http://ushistoryscene.com/article/american-colonization-society/
Ham, Debra. Newman. "The African-American Mosaic: Colonization." The Library of Congress, June. 1997. Web. 2nd Oct. 2015. http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/african/afam002.html
Shmoop Editorial Team. "Society in Abolitionists." Shmoop.com. Shmoop University, Inc., 11 Nov. 2008. Web. 2nd Oct. 2015. http://www.shmoop.com/abolition/society.html
colonization of France in North America
Colonization of France in South and Central America begin under the kingship of King Francis I, when he heard of Spain and Portugal finding wealth in the lands of Central and South America. He ordered a French navigator, Jacques Cartier, to explore a land where French people can get better trading opportunities. He made three journeys. The purpose of these journeys were to explore North America, of the legendary lands, famous for their gold mines and other valuable minerals. His first attempt to find gold and other minerals was a failure along with his efforts of colonization. Quebec city, one of the provinces of Canada was at that time a village called Stadacona. There, Cartier happenstance to meet a group of hunters known as Iroquoians. These were tribe of five nations; Cayugu, Mohawk, Oneida, Onondaga and Seneca and therefore are commonly known as Five…
colonization, much of the African continent consisted of prosperous cities, states, and kingdoms. In estern Africa, for instance, raw materials, precious metals, foodstuffs, and animal products flowed along Saharan trade routes, especially after Arabian traders introduced the camel. Powerful states like Ghana and Mali were incredibly wealthy and many Sudanese kingdoms benefited from increased trade and intellectual interaction with Islam.
All this changed during the Middle Ages. About a hundred years before they discovered the New orld, Europeans (at first the Portuguese and the Spanish) began their systematic conquest of Africa. The enslavement of African men and women initiated a brutal slave trade that eventually helped the European powers control and dominate the New orld.
Slavery drastically changed the way in which people lived and worked on the African, North American, and South American continents. First, the conquest of the Americas obliterated whole tribes, forever altering the ethnic and cultural…
African Slave System." Encyclopedia of Slavery. 28 Jul 2003. http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/USAslavery.htm.
Bancroft, Hubert H. "Anti-Slavery History." Excerpt from The Great Republic by the Master Historians. 28 Jul 2003. http://www.publicbookshelf.com/public_html/The_Great_Republic_By_the_Master_Historians_Vol_III/antislave_bf.html .
European history prior and during the age of discovery has had a strong influence on the colonization of the New World and on attitudes adopted on the American continent during the era. Christopher Columbus' arrival in the New World in 1492 marked the beginning of a period of cultural exchanges between the two continents. European cultural values slowly but surely pervaded American communities both because some were appealing and because European colonists took on aggressive attitudes in order to have natives acknowledge their power.
The Crusades and the spread of Christianity influenced many European colonists to believe that it had been their mission to promote Christian values in the New World. Some even saw parallels between natives on the American continent and individuals that Crusaders interacted to as they attempted to convert them to Christianity. Roman Catholics in particular took on the mission to promote Christianity on the American continent…
Persram, Nalini, "Postcolonialism and Political Theory," (Lexington Books, 1 Jan 2007)
Pointer, Richard W. "Encounters of the Spirit: Native Americans and European Colonial Religion," (Indiana University Press, 28 Sep 2007)
Colonization vs. Anti-Slavery
The question asked for this brief report is whether the wants and demands of the pro-colonial folks and the anti-slavery folks that existed during the early days of the United States both had their demands and preferences met as far as end outcomes and such. The answer is "yes" but it did not really start until the Civil War, went a lot further in the 1960's and in some way continues to this very day. However, both parties should be at least fairly happy with the end outcome as slavery is gone and America is completely developed and "colonized" for all intents and purposes.
Slavery certainly didn't start with the United States as many European colonies and countries around the world used the practice and Great Britain in pre-United States history was certainly on exception. This continued even after the creation of the United States in the…
Father Bartolome de Las Casas
Father Bartolome de Las Casas is one of the most prominent advocates of the Cuban indigenous people. He actually owned slaves himself at one point, yet he set his own slaves free and renounced the practice. He also joined the Dominican order of Christianity and protested against the cruel and unusual punishment that the indigent people had suffered. He was especially against the practice of encomienda which is to trade a life for other material possessions. He wrote:
"The Indies were discovered in 1492. In the following year a great many Spaniards went there with the intention of settling the land. Thus, forty-nine years have passed since the first settlers penetrated the land, the first so claimed being the large and most happy isle called Hispaniola, which is six hundred leagues in circumference…And all the land so far discovered is a beehive…
Greek colonization, much like the colonization of Africa and Asia by European powers in the early twentieth century, was an act of achieving land, recourses, and influence, and thus, power. The eventual expansion of the Greek Empire was unique, however, in that it was one of the first major exercises of colonization ever noted in the history of civilization. A number of things, but most notably, the shortages in the existing territories (both land and recourses), the desire for new trade routes, and the re-emergence of the written language facilitated the Greek expansion.
Prior to the widespread colonization by the Greeks, existing cities were growing by population and exhausting the land around them. Traditional plots of land reserved for Greek citizens were becoming smaller, and in some cases, non-existent. It was clear to those in leadership positions that overcrowding was becoming a rampant problem for the Greek cities, and in…
Boardman, John. The Greeks Overseas. New York: Thames and Hudson. 1982.
Murray, Oswyn. Early Greece. Cambridge: Harvard UP. 1993.
Osborne, Robin. Greece in the Making. New York: Routledge. 1996.
With localized colonial governments, world leaders demonstrated that empires could be founded on mastery of regional trade routes. At the beginning of the 20th century nations like Japan were at the forefront of the new model of imperialism.
Q3.Explain WWI? World War 1.
World War One was a natural outcome of the fall of the Ottoman Empire and the Austro-Hungarian Empire, and the subsequent imbalance of power those downfalls entailed. Moreover, the First World War was a direct consequence of the ages of imperialism, colonialism, and industrialization. The war paved the way for emerging states to create a free market economy based on capitalism or on the other hand, a closed-market system based on state-controlled resources.
Q4.The Paris Exhibition had two famous sculptures: one of Paris in an evening gown and the other of Rodin's the Thinker. Elaborate upon the meaning of both and its lesson for us in the…
In addition the Europeans that colonized Australia believed that their culture was superior and the aboriginal culture would somehow disappear in a short period of time. hen this did not occur drastic steps were taken to assimilate indigenous people. These steps included taking aboriginal children away from their families to be raised in white society.
Certainly this type of violent and reckless interaction led to great fear and panic because a way of life that had existed for thousands of years began to vanish. Such stressors were passed down from generation to generation. Stress is a dangerous emotion because it can cripple to immune system and also cause people not to have the will to properly take care of their health.
Government policy and exclusion
According to McCalman et al. (2005) the types of government policies adapted as a result o colonialism has also contributed to poor health amongst indigenous…
Aboriginal health issues. http://www.betterhealth.vic.gov.au/bhcv2/bhcarticles.nsf/pages/aboriginal_health_issues-open
Anderson, I.,&Whyte, D. (2006). Australian Federalism and Aboriginal Health. Australian Aboriginal Studies, 2, 5-16.
McCalman, J., Morley, R., & Mishra, G. (2008). A health transition: Birth weights, households and survival in an Australian working class population sample born 1857 -- 1900. Social Science & Medicine, 66, 1070-1083.
McCalman J., Smith L., Anderson I., Morley R., Mishra G. (2009) Colonialism and the health transition: Aboriginal Australians and poor whites compared, Victoria, 1850 -- 1985. History of the Family 14-253 -- 265
Isuues Pertaining to Colonization
Issues Pertaining to the Colonization of America
Identify the three cultural regions of North America directly preceding colonization. Note one group for each area and describe its culture and the distinctive traits that defined the communities it created.
Three cultural regions of North America in place before the colonization of Europeans were established by the Iroquois, the Algonquian, and the Narragansett nations. The Iroquois were mainly settled in what is now upstate New York between the Adirondack Mountains and Niagara Falls. They lived in pole villages and the men hunted deer while the woman raised corn, squash, tobacco, and beans. Women held high status in Iroquois society and decent was matrilineal. Families lived in bark covered rectangular structures called long houses (Dill, 1996).
The Algonquian tribes inhabited what is now Quebec and Ontario Canada. They were patriarchal and semi-nomadic. They mainly relied on hunting for…
"Canadian Algonquin: First nations." (NDI). Hudsonrivervalley.org. Retrieved May 16, 2013, from http://www.hudsonrivervalley.org/library/pdfs/articles_books_essays/canadian_algonquin.pdf
Dill, J.S. (ed). (1996). Iroquois history. First Nations/First People's Issues. May 16, 2013, from http://www.tolatsga.org/iro.html
"English, French, and Spanish colonies: A comparision." (NDI). Colonization and Settlement (1585-1763). History of North America. Retrieved May 16, 2012, from http://www.granburyisd.org/cms/lib/TX01000552/Centricity/Domain/287/Fact_Sheet_U1_Comparison_of_Eng_Fr_Sp_Col.pdf
"Historical perspectives of the Narragansett Indian tribe: Early history." (2009) Narragansett Indian Tribe. Retrieved May 16, 2012, from http://www.narragansett-tribe.org/history.html
The argument surrounding the recent conflict in Iraq was two sided: one favored ridding Iraq of Saddam Hussein; the other did not. Arguments of the anti-war sides bordered on accusing the United States of being an imperialist and colonialist power. That America had become an occupying force that sought to impose its will on a weaker nation found favor among most of the Middle Eastern Islamic countries. Though this argument might prove philosophically and intellectually disingenuous; there is historical precedence to colonialist ambitions. The Dutch, Spaniards, French and ritish and to a lesser extend the Danish colonized most of the world for more than five hundred years. The legacy that we see today in the world's lingua franca, the English language, is testament to that fact that the ritish were largely victors in the intra-imperialist wars. "ritannica" ruled the world for several centuries. Over the last century, most…
Chatterjee, Partha. The Nation and Its Fragments: Colonial and Postcolonial Histories. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1993.
Ferguson, Niall. Empire: The Rise and Demise of the British World Order and the Lessons for Global Power. New York: Basic Books, 2003.
Hiatt, L.R. Arguments About Aborigines: Australia and the Evolution of Social Anthropology. Cambridge; New York: Cambridge University Press, 1996.
Kearney, Milo. The Indian Ocean in World History. Themes in World History. New York, NY: Routledge, 2003.
Tea was the third most important commercial product, and was also sold to the mainland. Research indicates that the Japanese, as well as other foreign powers, deeply coveted in Taiwan's wealth (Government Information Office in Taiwan, at (http://www.taiwan.com.au/polieco/history/report04.html).
In 1886 Taiwan's defenses against foreign aggression were modernized, the government implemented tax reforms to make Taiwan financially independent, and educated its indigenous peoples. A general trade office was established to encourage foreign trade, and Western-style schools were set up (Government Information Office in Taiwan, at (http://www.taiwan.com.au/polieco/history/report04.html).When Taiwan was ceded to Japan in 1895 under the terms of the Treaty of Shimonoseki, the locals declared independence on May 25, 1895, and formed the Democratic Taiwan Nation to resist the Japanese take-over. A total of 7,000 Chinese soldiers were killed in the conflict and civilian casualties numbered in the thousands (Government Information Office in Taiwan, at (http://www.taiwan.com.au/polieco/history/report04.html).These events also assisted in the creation…
Ballantine, Joseph. Formosa: A Problem for United States Foreign Policy. Washington DC: Brookings Institution, 1952.
Chih-ming, Ka. Japanese Colonialism in Taiwan: Land Tenure, Development, and Dependency, 1845-1945. Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press, Inc., 1995.
Government Information Office in Taiwan. "History of Taiwan." Taiwan.com. 2005.
Taiwan.com. 10 June 2005 http://www.taiwan.com.au/polieco/history/report04.html.
You drove him to kill himself; and now he will be buried like a dog...
" This statement shows that the once great leader is nothing in the eyes of the white colonists. This has a trickle-down affect on those around him. When Okonkwo gave in to the struggle, those around him lost their final hope of every overcoming the colonialists.
Through an examination of two African historical novels, one can see many similarities in the psychology of change between colonialism and change management in corporate take-overs. Change begins slowly and there are always some that will readily accept the new regime and others that will put up a resistance. The reasons for resistance to change are similar to corporate change.
One can find examples of the same psychological reactions in both novels. The resistance becomes more violent as it loses ground and the total change and loss of familiar…
Achebe, C. Things Fall Apart. New York, NY: Anchor Books.
Ngugi, wa Thiong'o. Petals of Blood. New York, NY: Penguin Books.
Sdiffgy-krenke, I. Coping Styles: Does intervention change anything? Eurpoean Journal of Developmental Psychology. 1 (4): 367-382.
Winn, G.A Change in employee attitude IS possible! Change Management, Retrieved April 11,
Before the Scramble for Africa of the late 19th century, Africa was hierarchical, authoritarian, and paternalistic, just like the European countries invading them. Insubordination and disobedience to the deference pyramids were punished by violence. Some tribes carried this violence out against their neighbors, from whom they stole cattle and other property. The strength of white settlers in Africa came from their technology. Before the nineteenth century, some African prophets and seers foretold of great human suffering at the hands of white invaders. There were many in tribes who resisted white settlement from the beginning, while other tribes studied the ways of the white man and tried to form alliances with the Europeans against their enemies. Many tribes were neutral, although their chiefs might accept gifts in return for cooperation. The presence of white man changed the dynamics of power in Africa in many ways.
New forms of power brought by…
With oligarchies in place, European countries still controlled considerable the resources of Africa. Large transnational institutions such as the IMF and World Bank, furthermore, funded by the western governments, have set up lending schemes for Africa under the guise of assistance, although these loans are permitted only if countries in Africa follow special IMF and World Bank restructuring programs that oftentimes result in austerity measures for the people. These restructuring programs have been criticized by many as forms of neocolonialism. They typically entail the cutting of public services and devaluation of the currency. The turmoil after these measures tends to thrust a country's society into chaos, ending in dictatorship. (Burns)
1. Ranger, Terrence. (1995) the Invention of Tradition in Colonial Africa. New York: Wiley Publishing
2. Burns, Marshall. Disillusion and Hope on the Dark Continent. Kenya Report
Colonization on Indigenous Communities
Indigenous communities survive a long history of significant influence of the colonial rulers. In the contemporary space, some think that the indigenous communities to have undergone significant resistant and struggle in the hands of the colonialists. hile most communities consider colonialism to have brought considerable losses that are central to healing in the current world, some see it as a source of opportunities that opened the indigenous communities to the outside world. The variability in the view of the influence of colonialism to the indigenous communities translates to realm also referred to as de-colonization that can be achieved through negotiation between the colonizer and the colonized (Suzack, Cheryl 87). Therefore, the following essay that forms the final part of the study focuses on the ways in which colonization influenced the indigenous or aboriginal communities across the world. The study adopts different perspectives to create significance of…
Gann, Lewis H., and Peter Duignan. Colonialism in Africa, 1870-1960 [in 4 vols].. London: Cambridge U.P, 1969. Print.
Happle, Robert William. Globalization and the effects of colonialism and modern tourism on the West Indies. New York: Cengage, 2008. Print.
Hogan, Patrick Colm. Colonialism and cultural identity: crises of tradition in the anglophone literatures of India, Africa, and the Caribbean. New York: State University of New York Press, 2000. Print.
Kelm, Mary. Colonizing bodies aboriginal health and healing in British Columbia, 1900-1950. Vancouver: UBC Press, 1998. Print.
1415 Euopeans began a long pocess of expansion though impeial conquest and colonization. This ealy moden fom of impeialism continued up to the late eighteenth o ealy nineteenth centuy. Explain how and why the vaious Euopean powes expanded beyond thei oiginal bodes and in many instances beyond the continent. Be sue to distinguish between at least thee of the pincipal Euopean impeial powes, among which wee the Potuguese, Spanish, Bitish, Fench, Dutch, and Russians.
Thee wee many factos that caused Euopean powes to expand beyond thei oiginal bodes and, in many instances, beyond the continent.
One of these was simply colonization whee one county battled anothe and claimed its teitoy as its own. Anothe facto was tade whee the tade dealings of specific counties bought them into contact with anothe and, theeby impoted thei influence into foeign soil. The slave tade too was a contibutoy facto whee people fom one…
Jiu-Hwa Upshur (2012) World History Wadsworth; comprehensive, compact 5th edition)
John M. Cohen (1969) The Four Voyages, Penguin: UK
More importantly, the puritans had considered essential for the future of economic success the access to education and therefore established elementary schools throughout the state (Wright, 1947). Therefore, the degree of literacy was greater than in other parts of the country because there was a comprehensive access to education.
By comparison, the South was different in this area. The southern society had a particular system of private tutoring which allowed children to have access to education. However, for ordinary people, this was not an option and they most often appealed to the assistance of the minister. Still, the quality of education received in this way was limited and in many situations the young generation remained illiterate. It can be said therefore that the poor level of education was in part due to the lack of financial support and in part to the economic practices existing in the South which did…
Jenkins, P. A history of the United States. New York: Palgrave, 1997.
McAllister, J. "Colonial America, 1607-1776." The Economic History Review, New Series, Vol. 42, No. 2. (May, 1989), pp. 245-259.
Weinberg, Meyer. A Short History of American Capitalism. Gloucester: New History Press, 2002.
Wright, Louis B. The Atlantic Frontier: Colonial American Civilization, 1607-1763. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1947.
Conference Berlin consequences b)
The History of Contemporary frica
Ever since parts of its region became colonized by Europeans (which began happening fairly regularly since the early part of the nno Domini timeline), frica has suffered an abundance of problems relating to its political, social, and economic spheres of existence. fter its introduction to what is best termed a fledgling globalization through colonization in several of its countries by a number of European nations, frica has understandably endured a number of issues relating to its primary systems of government, economics, and socialization. lthough events related to the conclusion of World War II were largely responsible for decolonization in this part of the world, many nation states on the continent would struggle for several years -- and are still struggling -- to overcome the effects of colonization and the inherent instability it provided to many of the key infrastructures within today's…
A large degree of political turmoil took place in Uganda following its liberation from colonization midway through the 20th century. A number of political factions vied for power in the ensuing years; many of these were associated with religious groups set up by the European colonialists, such as Catholic and Protestant supporters. Economically, the country had a strong Indian population that was in control of much of the commerce nad industry there, which is why dictator Idi Amin expelled them in the early 1970's. Deforestation issues have affected Uganda quite significantly. Urbanization and expanding farmlands are responsible for much of Uganda's deforestation problem, while like most regions in Africa, the population housed within this country has seen an explosion in the number of victims of AIDS and HIV. Civil wars and internal fighting, however, would regularly plague Uganda into the new millennium. In more recent times, efforts have been made to reduce barriers to women owning property and being an economic influence within this country. The traditional gender equality within Uganda has certainly circumscribed its growth.
One of the most insidious instances of neo-colonization in Africa, however, was evinced in South Africa. The system of apartheid, which was essentially a legalized subjugation of people of African descent that highly favored Europeans and those of European descent, was responsible for political instability for several years as black South Africans strove to overturn such a repressive regime. Apartheid was eventually overturned in 1994 with the presidency of Nelson Mandela, but economically, unemployment was largely rampant in the country as it struggled to transition to true independence. Other contemporary issues plaguing this country are a nationwide rapid deforestation process, as well as rampant AIDS infection (South Africa may have the most people with AIDS in the world today). Women have played a significant role in the true liberation of this country from first its colonial history and then its repressive reign of Apartheid, as is evinced within the perseverance and political inclinations of Winnie Mandela.
There were several things about Africa that I learned while taking this course. One was that there was a highly planned, systematic implementation of repression that is responsible for keeping Africa socially, economically, and politically years behind many other parts of the world. This repression truly took hold during colonialism, but the bouts of neocolonialism that many countries endured even after formal colonialism was dispelled certainly contributed to this cause. I was also unaware of the contemporary problems that Africa has regarding issues of deforestation. I had no idea that the cutting down of trees and the reduction of forests could take hold of this area as quickly as it had, and continue to affect the environments there today.
The idea of dressing in civilized and well clothed are well deserving of freedom because t this group that is highly valued despite the fact that the Malay peasants who struggled for the independence have been devalued in the official history of nation -- building and their mark and contribution has been ignored. 'This shown that apart from the influences from the other cultures social classes have been instrumental in shaping the clothing style of the Philippine.' (Grace, 2008) Due to this many would want to dress in a particular recognized and accepted way to be recognized in the class of the rich. This is just part of the culture that has been impacted to the Filipinos which ahs influenced their manner of dressing.
Despite the different Muslim groups in he south and the mountain tribes have their own distinctive garments and seem to have influenced less. The Maranao Muslims…
Alfredo R. (2008) Philippines Culture Shock; California, Wiley Publisher
Grace R. (2008) Culture Shock! Philippines: A Survival Guide to Customs and Etiquette California, Wiley Publisher
Helena M. (2007) Introduction to Philippines Culture; New York, Sage Publications,
Renato. P. (2006) An Introduction to Philippines way of dressing; New York, Periplus
narrative analysis of historical content, themes, patterns, and events related to "race and empire in U.S. History. For this reason, six books have been considered. The paper will cover the narrative analysis of historical content related to race and empire in U.S. History, summary of the chronological themes, and the strengths and weaknesses for each book.
Manifest destinies: the making of the Mexican-American race
The key to the approach of Gomez is the thought that Mexican-Americans do not from ethnicity, in fact a race. The difference lies in societal construction. Rather than having inborn worth, race is history reliant and given meaning by social processes, institutions, and persons. In the view of Gomez, the identity of Mexican-American is a result of social attitudes and legal definitions during the era, after the war between U.S. And Mexico. In fact, for Mexicans, there was no proper racial model[footnoteRef:1]. [1: Gomez,…
8. Hardy, T.J.. Race as an Aspect of the U.S.-Australian Alliance in World War II. (Diplomatic History, 2013)
9. Mora, A.P.. Jose Angel Hernandez. Mexican-American Colonization during the Nineteenth Century: A History of the U.S.-Mexico Borderlands. (The American Historical Review, 118(3), 818-819., 2013)
10. Guyotte, R.L., & Posadas, B.M.. Filipinos and Filipino Americans, 1870 -- 1940. Immigrants in American History: Arrival, Adaptation, and Integration, 347, 2013
CANADA'S ABOIGINAL PEOPLE
Suicide amongst Canada's Aboriginal People
Suicide amongst Canada's Aboriginal People
The aboriginal people of Canada have faced injustices perpetrated through colonization, cultural prejudice, and forced assimilation among many other social injustices. The perpetrators, who include the Canadian dominant population, did this without considering the aboriginal people's well-being. Therefore, in an attempt to reduce the social problems they faced, the aboriginal people taken part in habits such as alcoholism, violence, and suicide. The aboriginal youth remain the most affected, mainly because of the development of suicidal thoughts, which have driven them to commit suicide (Kirmayer, & Valaskakis, 2009). To make it worse, the aboriginal people are denied access to healthcare services, which has contributed to lack of identification of suicidal youths.
The social problems they face result to depression, and some of the people opt to take part in some life-threatening habits, for example, suicide (Lavelle & Poole,…
Baskin, C. (2011). Strong Helpers' Teachings: The Value of Indigenous Knowledge in the Helping Professions. Toronto, ON: Canadian Scholar's Press.
Blackstock, C. (2009). The Occasional Evil of Angels: Learning from the Experiences of Aboriginal Peoples and Social Work. First Peoples Child and Family Review, 4(1), 28-37.
Hart, M., Sinclair, R., & Bruyere, G. (2009). Wi-cihitowin: Aboriginal social work in Canada.
Halifax: Fernwood Pub.
elder Thomas King's Green Grass, Running Water world "bent" "fix." This task explore ways American Indian literature helps imagine ways fix bent things world explain findings matters world.
Most people are likely to acknowledge that society has severe problems and that urgent action needs to be taken in order for it to be able to recover from a moral point-of-view. Powerful bodies have always had the tendency to persecute minorities and groups that have generally been unable to stand up for themselves. Thomas King's 1993 novel "Green Grass, Running Water" discusses in regard to how the world is bent and describes particular characters as they vainly try to fix it. It is very probable that the writer wants his readers to accept the impossibility related to changing human nature and uses satire with the purpose of having them considering accept that society is broken. Similarly, Joseph oyden's manuscript "Three Day…
Buzo, Adrian, The Making of Modern Korea (New York: Routledge, 2002)
Cox, James H., "All This Water Imagery Must Mean Something": Thomas King's Revisions of Narratives of Domination and Conquest in "Green Grass, Running Water,"
American Indian Quarterly, Vol. 24, No. 2 (Spring, 2000)
Scott, Jamie S., "Colonial, Neo-colonial, Post-colonial: Images of Christian Missions in Hiram M. Cody's the Frontiersman, Rudy Wiebe's First and Vital Candle and Basil Johnston's Indian School Days," Journal of Canadian Studies 32.3 (1997)
Ceremonies of Possession/Differences in How America as Settled
Patricia Seed in her book, Ceremonies of Possession, assumes a novel position in regard to the settlement of the New orld by the various European powers. Seed's theory is that each of the five main nations involved in the settlement of the New orld: England, France, Spain, Portugal, and the Netherlands, did so in their own unique way and that these unique ways were more closely related to the individual country's rituals and practices as opposed to their inherited traditions. Reducing Seed's theory to its least common denominator: "Englishman held that they acquired rights to the New orld by physical objects, Frenchmen by gestures, Spaniards by speech, Portuguese by numbers, Dutch by description
The demonstration of the English dependence on physical objects can be seen in their heavy reliance on building, erecting, and planting as part of their cultural development when they…
Seed, Patricia, Ceremonies of Possession: Europe's Conquest of the New World, 1492-1640. (Cambridge University Press: 1995).
Ceremonies of Possessions
Seed, Patricia, Ceremonies of Possession: Europe's Conquest of the New World, 1492-1640. (Cambridge University Press: 1995). p. 179.
colonial transplantation that occurred in Virginia, Maryland, and Massachusetts Bay. What were the major sources of friction between the Indians and the English in Virginia and Massachusetts Bay? Also explain the impact of the Glorious evolution on British rule and describe the policy of 'salutary neglect' and what it did for the government within the colonies. Be specific in your essay.
Colonial transplantation in Virginia, Maryland and the Massachusetts Bay
The colonization of Virginia, Maryland and the Massachusetts Bay represent crucial points on the history of the modern day United States. In the three regions, colonial transplantation processes were developed and these were characterized by distinctive elements. In both three regions, the colonization process was marked by a shortage of financial resources and the need to receive more money from London.
In Virginia for instance, the colonial transplantation effort had a grim start. Striving to protect themselves against the aboriginals,…
Chapter 2: Transplantations and borderlands
Chapter 3: Society and culture in provincial America
In the 20th century, both of these tactics were utilized to successfully gain independence for a number of countries. (Conrad 83 -- 149) (Hochschild 101 -- 164) (Gainty)
However, Africans also helped European efforts. This was accomplished by many individuals becoming actively involved in: the political, economic and military structure. Over the course of time, these activities divided entire nations against one another. Once this took place, is when the European powers were able to exercise greater amounts of control over its colonies. (Conrad 83 -- 149) (Hochschild 101 -- 164) (Gainty)
hat was the impact of European colonialism (overseas acquisition up to approximately the mid-1700s) and imperialism (overseas acquisition from the mid-1700s) in Africa?
The impact European colonialism was to exercise direct control over entire regions. This was a part of an effort to increase their access to natural resources. Moreover, many of these colonies were established based upon…
Conrad, Joseph. Heart of Darkness. Hamondsworth: Penguine, 1975. Print.
Duiker, William. The Essential World History. Boston: Wadsworth Learning, 2011. Print.
Engels, Frederic. The Condition of the Working Class in England. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2010. Print.
Gainty, Denis. Sources of World Societies. Boston: St. Martins, 2009. Print.
The case of the Hispanic race was no different from the black Americans'. One of the rapidly increasing minority groups in the country, even surpassing the African-American minority group, Hispanics had experienced similar conditions that made them a colonized minority group. Hispanics demonstrate the characteristics that Blauner argued as illustrative of the African-American experience: firstly, they (Hispanics) belong to the economic periphery and secondly, they become susceptible to greater racial discrimination.
Hispanics are a colonized minority group because they are not given sufficient economic support in the society. Most members of this minority group engage in labor with lower-than-the-minimum wages; this is a result of Hispanics being illegal migrants in the country. As a result of these low incomes, Hispanics move further towards the economic periphery due to lack of opportunities, such as availing proper health services and attaining higher educational attainment.
Apart from becoming part of the socio-economically…
Blauner, B. (2001). Still the Big News: Racial Oppression in America. NY: Temple University Press.
al. 11). In the same way that European colonialism itself depended on a limited view of the world that placed colonial subjects under the rule of their masters, European theory was based on a view of literature and identity that had no place for the identities and literature of colonized people. Postcolonial theory is the ideal basis for this study, because in many ways the process of developing a new, hybrid identity born out of the conflicting experiences of first and second-generation immigrants is analogous to the process of developing postcolonial theory in the first place.
In particular, this paper draws most heavily on the notion of hybrid identity, a complicated subject that has arisen within postcolonial studies. The term is difficult to define precisely due to the fact that hybridity itself suggests something complicated and heterogeneous, and at the same time, "if hybrid identity is seen as formed at…
Ashcroft, Bill, Gareth Griffiths, and Helen Tiffin. The Empire Writes Back: Theory and Practice
in Post-Colonial Literatures. New York: Routledge, 2002.
Ball, John. Satire and the Postcolonial Novel. New York: Routledge, 2003.
Bhabha, Homi. Nation and Narration. London: Routledge, 1990.
retched of the Earth
hen nations of Europe set out on boats, they determined to find lands and claim them for the empirical country, regardless of any objections coming from the people actually living on those lands. In the colonized land, the native population were marginalized, oppressed, and limited in their civil rights. Many were turned into slaves on large farms run by the emissaries from the motherland. The natives were sometimes outnumbered but the number of the enemy seldom mattered because the colonial soldiers usually were in possession of more sophisticated weaponry with which they could subjugate the aboriginal peoples. Sometimes these colonies existed for centuries and lines of ethnically determined social status kept the descendants of colonists in the upper echelons of society while those descended from the natives were kept subservient to their European oppressors. Understandably this did not go well with the natives or their descendents…
Fanon, F. (2004). The Wretched of the Earth. Grove: New York, NY.
Approaching the complexities of the colonial or post-colonial situation has been a major theme in drama for as long as colonialism has existed: Shakespeare wrote his Tempest on the heels of the very first English efforts to establish overseas colonies in the Americas and in Ireland. If we expand our definition of the colonial situation to comprise any ideologically-tinged cross-cultural encounter, we can even trace the roots of the theme all the way back to the earliest extant "estern" drama, the Persae of Aeschylus. To a certain extent, these well-established canonical examples may only represent a desire to place "otherness" onstage for the sake of spectacle -- the elements of masque and pageantry in each of those examples are most likely what spoke to their initial audiences, rather than any kind of analytical or critical stance regarding the colonial situation itself. But contemporary writers cannot approach the issue…
MacLeod, Joan. Amigo's Blue Guitar. Winnipeg: Blizzard, 1992.
Wertenbaker, Timberlake. Our Country's Good. London: Methuen, 1991.
eadings on Discourse on Colonialism and Lost Names
Discourse on Colonialism
When, in the process of rebuking colonialism's "howling savagery" (p. 15), author / poet / social critic Aime Cesaire invokes a hot-button name like Hitler, the ultimate savage, slaughterer of millions of innocents, it is no surprise. Cesaire does not limit her justifiable vitriolic passion to Hitler's carnage and brutality; she also rages against "pseudo-humanism" and against racist attitudes which do not originate with Hitler. But when Cesaire attacks clergy, such as "ev. Barde," and Barde's "fellow Christian, the ev. Muller," it is indeed worthwhile to learn about her indignation towards men of the cloth.
Because, this is perhaps her way of showing that the Bardes and Mullers of the world are contributing to the "colonization of the spirit" of oppressed peoples.
Cesaire is outraged at those who are not outraged at Barde; Barde, according to Cesaire,…
Cesaire, Aime. Discourse on Colonialism. New York: Monthly Review Press, 1972.
Kim, Richard E. Lost Names: Scenes from a Korean Boyhood. New York: Praeger
Vietnam in the 20th Century
In the year 2012, the country of Vietnam is a united nation which has a Communist government and a people who are predominantly poor. Before this time, Vietnam went through centuries of turmoil up until the war between Vietnam and the United States wherein North and South Vietnam became a single country. hat began the process of dividing Vietnam and isolating its people was the colonization of Vietnam by the French government. According to historian Peter Stearns (2008): "History must serve, however imperfectly, as our laboratory, and data from the past must serve as our most vital evidence in the unavoidable quest to figure out why our complex species behaves as it does in societal settings." In a study of the country of Vietnam, it is important to understand the nation's history and events which may have impacted that country's current psychological and sociological makeup.…
Meyers, William P. (2011). "Vietnam and the West Until 1954." The U.S. War Against Asia. III
Stearns, Peter N. (2008). "Why Study History?" American Historical Association.
indigenous people were conquered and colonized. The writer will focus on the Incas and discuss their many evidences of colonization and being conquered. The evidence the writer will present will be in religious, economic and social discussion to illustrate the writer's belief that they were indeed conquered against their will and then later colonized. There were three sources used to complete this paper.
The Spanish were interested in development and growth in the 16th and 17th century and to that end they examined areas of the world that they believed would provide them with natural resources and power and they took the land over (Schwartz PG). Often times there were already indigenous people living there and the Spanish would forcefully conquer and colonize those people (SPANISH DEVELOPMENT (http://www.econ.org/octlessons/ushistory3,2-3.htm).One of the most interesting cases of the Spanish conquering and taking over an indigenous people was the Incas conquer. It was most…
Victors and Vanquished: Spanish and Nahua Views of the Conquest of Mexico by Stuart B. Schwartz Hardcover: 272 pages; Dimensions (in inches): 0.77 x 8.58 x 5.77
Publisher: Palgrave Macmillan; (March 2000)
War in Africa
Due to European colonization and then decolonization, Africa was left in a similar state of the other former colonies. What state were the other colonies left in and what are the similarities?
Concomitant colonization and decolonization of Africa left most of the countries in a state of utter economic dependence on their colonial masters. This state is more or less similar to what happened to former colonies in the Americas and Asia. While there are other socio-political impacts that also resulted, this brief paper focuses only on the state economic dependence that African colonies found themselves in soon after colonial masters went back to their countries.
Prior to the "Scramble and Partition of Africa," African economies were on an upward trend in most areas, but more so in terms of trade. Africans had already established trade patterns with some long distance traders walking covering miles just to…
Bojicic, Savo. America…. America…. Or Is It? New York, NY: AuthorHouse, 2010.
Clayton, Anthony. Frontiersmen; warfare in Africa since 1950. Philadelphia: UCL press, 1999
Shipway, Martin. Decolonization and Its Impact: A Comparative Approach to the End of the Colonial Empires. Malden, MA: Blackwell Pub, 2008.
Shipway, Martin. Decolonization and Its Impact: A Comparative Approach to the End of the Colonial Empires. Malden, MA: Blackwell Pub, 2008.
The personal letter writing is a way to further validate the attitudes of each perspective that played such a major role in the shaping of Australian history while also making the complexities of the conflicts faced during this formative period quite clear.
The safety concerns for all of these lesson plans are minimal, with no greater risks than would be found for the tamest of activities in the classroom or on the excursion itself. There are definite safety concerns on the excursion, including maintaining an awareness of all students at all times and ensuring that buildings and structures are not climbed on, etc., but the lesson described above does not exacerbate these concerns. Instead, each of these lessons provides a clear and detailed way to involve students directly in the experience of Australian history, gaining an awareness and an appreciation for the diversity of cultural and social positions in…
AsiaRooms. (2010). "Hyde Park Barracks Museum Sydney." Accessed 18 September 2010. http://www.asiarooms.com/en/travel-guide/australia/sydney/sydney-museums/hyde-park-barracks-museum-sydney.html
AVC. (2010). "Hye Park Barracks." A View on Cities. Accessed 18 September 2010. http://www.aviewoncities.com/sydney/hydeparkbarracks.htm
HHT. (2010). "Hyde Park Barracks." Historic Houses Trust. Accessed 18 September 2010. http://www.hht.net.au/museums/hyde_park_barracks_museum
HSIE. (2006). Human Society and its Environment K-6: Syllabus. Sydney: Board of Studies NSW.
I am very happy that everywhere there are rich woods with good timber I will use for the construction of houses for our people. but, we are a long way from being able to build a solid foundation for a colony of her Majesty here. Our people are either suffering from illnesses or they are starving. There are innumerable riches here offered by nature beneath and above the ground, but it is hard to harvest them or to exploit them with a handful of people from who half are ill or starving. I hope that her Majesty's subjects and our compatriots will soon find out about what lies here as I was able to find out and join us in our efforts to spread the holly beliefs of our Mother Church of England among these savages oversees and bring the glory of conquering new territories and acquiring all the commodities…
The French colonial government actively sought means to control land and land use in Algeria, notes Sartre. Control over land and natural resources equals ownership of the means of production. Economic oppression also creates class conflict: the subjugated peoples become a clear and identifiable underclass. Even within the underclass, class conflict prevents political cohesion. The French and the Americans would have been far less successful in their colonial campaigns had the Algerians and the Native Americans been able to organize en masse in rebellion. Poverty pits neighbor against neighbor in the competition for limited resources.
Furthermore, race and social class become linked together and offered up as false proof that the oppressed groups are inherently inferior. Economic oppression also serves another key goal that helps perpetuate colonial rule: ignorance. Stripping the underclass of access to capital or to the means of production, the ruling class ensures lack of access to…
Churchill, Ward. A Little Matter of Genocide. City Lights Books, 1997.
Sartre, Jean-Paul. Colonialism and Neo-Colonialism. Translated by Azzedine Haddour, Steve Brewer. Routledge, 2001.
Oral Hygiene Methodology
There is a significant amount of research that shows statistical correlation between oropharyngeal bacterial colonization and the presence bacteria responsible for ventilator associated pneumonia (VAP). Several interventions have been shown as effective in reducing the incidence of VAP, but many have not gained widespread clinical use in a majority of hospitals. esearch does show that the amount of oropharyngeal bacteria present in the mouth and oral cavity has a relationship to the propensity of developing VAP. This is likely due to the lack of appropriate levels of oral hygiene combined with the bacterial colonization of ventilator equipment. We expect that oral and mouth washes regularly administrated that include chlorohexedine will kill bacteria and reduce incidence of VAP infections on ICU patients. The aim of this study will be to survey the efficacy of chlorohexdedine mouth washes in a randomized group of patients who were placed in an…
Chlebicki, P., & Safdar, N. (2007). Topical chlorhexidine for prevention of ventilator-associated peneumonia: A Meta-analysis. Critical Care Medicine, 35(2), 595-602.
Collard, H., & Saint, S. (2005, June). Prevention of Ventilator Associated Pneumonia. Retrieved from ahrq.gov: http://archive.ahrq.gov/clinic/ptsafety/pdf/chap17.pdf
Dodek, P., et al. (2004). Evidence-Based Clinical Practice Guidelines for Prevention of Ventilator-Associated Pneumomia. Annals of Internal Medicine, 141(4), 305-13.
Lansford, T., et al. (2007). Efficacy of a Pneumonia Prevention Protocol in the Reduction of Ventilatory-Associated Pneumonia in Trauma Patients. Liebert Open Access- Surgical Infections. 8 (5): 5505-10.
Promised Land/Black Girl
Ousmane Sembene's short story "The Promised Land," which was later adapted into a film called Black Girl, asks its audience to step into the life and subjectivity of a young Senegalese woman working in France, and attempts to demonstrate the isolation and persecution she experiences. The story opens with police arriving at the villa where the main character, Diouana, has killed herself, and immediately the story reveals the distinct divide between the French and Diouana, as nearly everyone calls her "the black woman" (Sembene 85). From this introduction, Sembene returns to Diouana's origins and traces how she went from an excited young woman to a disillusioned and ultimately suicidal servant, and the result is a tragic, though ultimately enlightening look at the ramifications of colonialism and the implicit racism it leaves as a legacy. Even though it was first published in 1974, the story is still relevant…
Sembene, Ousmane. Tribal scars, and other stories. New York: Inscape, 1974.
post-revolutionary French art, and are titled; Nudity a La Grecque in 1799 and Colonization Gross's Plague-Stricken Jaffa share some fundamental commonalities. The similarities that these two articles share are their methodology, formal artistic analysis and their account and implicit description of the relationship between art and social history. Both of these articles also provide historical accounts of artistic criticism of post-Revolutionary history painting. Most significantly Grisby's articles provide a view of post-Revolutionary France where art, history and politics all combine to allow readers to more fully understand cultural and social issues of great importance of the time.
Darcy Grimaldo Grisby sets out to dispel commonly held notions and opinions regarding Gross's Plague-Stricken Jaffa. The most significant theory he seeks to dispel is one that claims the painting is simply a government commissioned propaganda piece created to enlarge the image of the then, soon to be emperor of France Napoleon Bonaparte…
Grimaldo Grisby, Darcy . "Nudity A la Grecque in 1799." Art Bulletin 80.2 (1998): 311-335. Print.
Grimaldo Grisby, Garcy. "Rumor, Contagion, and Colonization in Gros's Plague-Stricken of Jaffa." references 51 (1995): 1046-1093. Print
Capitalism and Culture
The works of Smith, Marx, Freud and Wolf center around the history of capitalism and its meanings as it has emerged from the west: first from western Europe and subsequently from the United States of America. However, this is not the only light in which world economy might be seen. There are various economic systems that are viable in various cultures. These will be considered in terms of the above-mentioned authors, together with authors who write from a different perspective, including Sahlins and Appadurai.
The main characteristic of the capitalist system is that those who produce actual goods are employees. They do not own and cannot buy their own equipment and materials. Through this system, and especially through the advent of the machine, workers have been separated form the production process. Such displacement has occurred through coercion, especially during the early stages of the system,…
Kilcullen, R.J. "Marx on Capitalism." 1996. http://www.humanities.mq.edu.au/Ockham/y64l06.html
Sahlins, M. "The Original Affluent Society," 1998. http://www.hrc.wmin.ac.uk/campaigns/ef/dt/affluent.html.
Szeman, I. Review: Modernity at Large: Cultural Dimensions of Globalization by Arjun Appadurai. Public Worlds Volume 1. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1996.
Wolf, Eric R. Europe and the People Without History. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1982.
This entertainment is the ceremonial or festive taking of alcoholic drinks at events called "beer parties." Researchers noted the significance of the festive element of work among the laborers but showed beer as an essential aspect of work. The rule in these beer work parties are adjusted to the particular workers involved. It invokes the overall value and morality of helpfulness and reciprocity, which are part of beer-drinking events. It is an expression of a general interdependence between homesteads. Ordinary beer parties emphasize the general principle of mutual helpfulness and mutual relationships in homesteads. ut beer parties for harvest give thanks to ancestors for the homestead's harvest. These parties give recognition to those who plow the homestead's garden (McAllister).
A recent analyzed the relation between cooperative work and beer drinking. It found that beer drinks served as a contact point of everyday activity and ideas in the Xhosa society in…
CESA. The Xhosa. People Profile. Central Eastern Southern Africa, 2008. Retrieved on May 8, 2008 at http://cesa.imb.org/peoplegroups/xhosa.htm
Christian Action. The National Suicide of the Xhosa. Vol 2. The Christian Action
Cornwell, Jane. Sweet Sounds of Freedom. The (London) Independent: Independent
William Penn, a Quaker whose father had been an Admiral in the King's oyal Navy, was given a large piece of land as payment for a debt owed by the Crown to his father. Penn had suggested naming the new territory Sylvania, meaning wood, but the King added his surname, Penn, as a tribute to William's father (Uden). Penn considered his venture a "Holy Experiment" and sought to establish a society based on religious freedom and separation between religious and governmental authorities,
Under Penn's governorship, Pennsylvania became a safe haven for all persecuted religious groups like the Quakers. He instituted a ballot system that intended to allow all members of Pennsylvania to have an equal say in their own governance. Some of the provisions of equality and religious tolerance in the charter that he drafted for Pennsylvania would eventually be incorporated into other charters, including the U.S.
Constitution (Uden). Perhaps…
Bower, J. (1997) the Oxford Dictionary of World Religions
Fenton, E. (1969) a New History of the United States. Holt: New York.
Furlong, P., Margaret, S., Sharkey, D. (1966) America Yesterday: A New Nation (Revised). Sadlier: New York.
Nevins, a., Commager, H.S. (1992) a Pocket History of the United States 9th Ed.
control over one's own destiny is an illusion of misconstructed ideals and metaphysical analysis. Beginning with Sigmund Freud's fascination with the power of the unconscious which he explicitly details through his work Dora (1963), the influence that the unconscious has on an individual is explicated and determined to practically guide everything that one does, but without really giving the illusion that one is in control. The unconscious controls the self, but does it define who one is? When there is no sense of control or free will, things fall apart. One wants to know that one can influence the way that one's life turns out, but in reality, a very small number of things are actually under one's control. By attributing all sense of control and destiny to the unconscious, one either loses the definition of who one is as a person, or gives up any sort of power in…
Cunningham, Michael. The Hours. New York, NY: Picador Publishing, 1998. Print.
Freud, Sigmund. Dora: An Analysis of a Case of Hysteria. New York, NY: Simon & Schuster. 1963. Print.
Camus, Albert. The Guest (Creative Short Stories). Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Publishing. 1957. Print.
Kafka, Franz. The Metamorphosis. USA: Tribeca Books. 1915. Print.
Language and Identity
A large part of culture has to do with the language that people speak. It is a unifying concept that allows a group of people to identify one another as belonging to the same group. It does matter how the group is bounded, usually more by geographical bounds than ethnic of racial, it matters more how the person related to the world through the spoken word. This paper looks at the culture of the Caribbean, especially those people who were brought to the region as slaves from the African continent, and how they have maintained their identity through the commonality of language.
Many examples exist in literature that solidify the notion that language and identity are very closely intertwined. As a matter of fact, one author states "Language and identity are inseparable. The quest for identity is another prevalent concern in Caribbean literature" (Dance 5). hy…
Bennett-Coverly, Louise. "Colonization in Reverse." 1966. Web.
Dance, Daryl Cumber. Fifty Caribbean Writers: A Bio-Bibliographic-Critical Sourcebook. Westport, CT: Greenwood Publishing Group, Inc., 1986. Print.
Morris, Mervyn. "On Reading Miss Lou Seriously." Caribbean Quarterly 28.1/2 (1982): 44-56.
Narain, Denise DeCaires. Contemporary Caribbean women's Poetry: Making Style. London: Routledge, 2002. Print.
A Discussion of how the Boer ar helped to Shape Modern Day Canada
The Boer ar was not a Canadian war. Rather, it was a war started and perpetuated British influence and Canada's participation was mandated by British dominion. As a result of their colonization, Canada had little influence over strategies or direction of the war. At the time Canada was a self-governing colony which had no control over its foreign policy. Canada's military contribution to this war was very important but it was still Britain who had control over Canada's military. However, Canada's participation in the war was as a turning point in the country's history in which its fostering of its own command over its military eventually led it on an eventual path to independence. This essay will provide a brief overview of how Canada increased its sovereignty over its forces and its importance to the…
CBC. (2001). The Boer War. Retrieved from Canada - A People History: http://www.cbc.ca/history/EPISCONTENTSE1EP11CH2PA3LE.html
Morton, D. (N.d.). Epilogue. Retrieved from Images of a Forgotten War: http://www3.nfb.ca/ww1/independence.php
The Canadian Encyclopedia. (2012). Canadian Expeditionary Force. Retrieved from The Canadian Encyclopedia: http://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.com/articles/canadian-expeditionary-force
The Loyal Edmonton Regiment Museum. (2010). Boer War. Retrieved from Canadian Military HIstory: http://www.lermuseum.org/en/canadas-military-history/boer-war/
Frederick Jackson Turner is perhaps most well-known for his famous essay, "The Significance of the Frontier on American History." In this essay, Turner defines and supports his thesis that the history of the American West is the history of America. This theory directly correlates to the concept of Manifest Destiny put forth by Monroe in which the push westward and the subsequent development, it was believed, was man's God-given right.
One of the key components to Turner's work is the theory that this development does not take place along a single line, but rather, takes place in a series of "rebirths." Turner says
Thus American development has exhibited not merely advance along a single line, but a return to primitive conditions on a continually advancing frontier line, and a new development for that area. American social development has been continually beginning over again on the frontier. This perennial…
Fehrenbacher, Don F. And Norman E. Tutorow. California: An Illustrated History. London: D. Van Nostrand Company, Inc., 1968.
Lavender, David. California: A Bicentennial History. New York: W.W. Norton & Company, Inc., 1976.
Quiett, Glenn Chesney. "The Fight for a Free Port" from Los Angeles: Biography of a City by John and LaRee Caughey. Berkley, CA: University of California Press, 1976.
Turner, Frederick Jackson. "The Significance of the Frontier in American History" from The Frontier in American History. New York: Henry Holt and Company, 1920.
Cesaire's Discourse On Colonialism And Wild Thorns
The novel describes living conditions under foreign or colonial occupation. It also describes nationalist sentiment among colonized peoples. Using material from the novel, as well as Cesaire's Discourse on Colonialism, discuss the proposition that nationalism is a solution to the colonial problem. Using specific examples from the texts, discuss how the authors present the relationship between colonialism, capitalism, and nationalism. How are the authors' positions on these issues similar or different? Do the authors provide hopeful representations of nationalism and capitalism? Why, or why not?
An easy, pure, and smug sense of African or Palestinian nationalism offers no solution to the overall problem of how to construct a national identity and a decolonialized mindset in one's people. Recent historical events have illustrated that an unquestioning assertion of national identity leads to horror and bloodshed -- but if one cannot accept the oppressor's vision…
Your Highnesses have an Other World here, by which our holy faith can be so greatly advanced and from which such great wealth can be drawn," wrote Christopher Columbus to the king and queen of Spain following his third voyage to the Americas in 1498 (rinkley 1). ut even after visiting the New World three times he still had no idea what he had truly started, and he certainly saw no sign that he had began a new era in history. Yet, the history of European involvement in America had begun. Over the next several decades Spanish conquistadores made more and more voyages to the New World, and the royal treasuries grew. Settlements were established and the other European powers, seeing their opportunity, soon made efforts to establish colonies of their own.
In the midst of all of this, the native inhabitants were removed from their lands and…
Brinkley, Douglas. American Heritage: History of the United States. New York: Viking, 1998.
Davis, Kenneth. American History. New York: Harper Collins, 2003.
Gutman, Bill and Anne Wertheim. The Look-It-Up Book of the 50 States. New York: Random House, 2002.
Turner, Frederick. The Frontier in American History. New York: Dover Publications, 1996.
history of the native American Indians is a long and colorful one. The first Indians arrived on the North American continent subsequent to the end of the Ice Age approximately 15,000 years ago. These early Indians arrived from Siberia as they passed through Alaska and gradually settled throughout what is now the United States. These early arriving Indians were hunter-gatherers and, as a result, they traveled freely across the vast North American continent and by 8,000 years ago had spread as far east as the eastern seaboard.
As indicated, the early Indians were hunter-gatherers and many of the tribes remained such until the early 1900's but a select few tribes began farming. The Indian tribes electing such life style were centered in present day Mexico City and by the time that this area began to be explored and settled by Europeans the farming life-style of these Indian tribes had been…
One possible explanation for the differences observed in the studies could be that the strengths of the chlorhexidine solution were different. It could also be that over time more effective techniques have been developed in the application of the solution, as the results do appear to improve over time.
There are limitations to the methodology of the study which are centered on the use of secondary data for analysis. The use of secondary data allows a wider range of data to be gathered from across the U.S. than would be practical from primary data collection which is the reason for the choice in this study. However this puts the control of several variables beyond the researcher. The results of the techniques may have been affected by the application of different individuals, departments and hospitals, all of whom may vary techniques and other factors influencing the success of these techniques. The…
Adams, D., Quavum, M., Worthington, T., Lambert, P., & Elliott, T. (2005). Evaluation of a 2% chlorhexidine gluconate in 70% isopropyl alcohol skin disinfectant. Journal of Hospital Infections, 61 (4), 287-290.
Brungs, S., & Render, M. (2006). Using Evidence-Based Practice to Reduce Central line Infections. Clinical Journal of Oncology Nursing, 10 (6), 723-725.
CDC. (2002). Guidelines for Prevention of Intravascular Catheter-Related Infections. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report; Recommendations and Reports, 51 (RR-10), 1-34.
CDC Mission. (n.d.). Retrieved February 6, 2006, from CDC Web site: http://www.cdc.gov/about/mission.htm
Thousand Seasons and Scribbling the Cat
Both Ayi Kwei Armah's novel Two Thousand Seasons and Alexandra Fuller's Scribbling the Cat: Travels ith and African Soldier deal with the complex formulation of racial and ethnic identities in Africa as a result of the slave trade and colonization. hile at first glance the two stories could not be more different, as Two Thousand Seasons is a fictional tale that literally spans the titular amount of time and is narrated by a collective of voices and Scribbling the Cat is a first-person account of the singular author/narrator's travels with an African soldier, the seemingly disparate narratives actually offer two complementary perspectives on the same issues of identity, with Two Thousand Seasons purporting to represent the indigenous voices of Africa's history, attempting to reestablish and reclaim their past, while Scribbling the Cat engages with the narrator's complex Anglo-African identity in the midst of drought…
Armah, Ayi Kwei. Two Thousand Seasons. Per Ankh, the African Pub. Cooperative, 2000. Print.
Fuller, Alexandra. Scribbling the Cat: Travels with An African Soldier. New York, NY: Penguin
Press, 2004. Print.
Lorentzon, Leif. "Ayi Kwei Armah's epic we-narrator."Critique. 38.3 (1997): 221-235. Print.
Things Fall Apart
Chinua Achebe is one of the most influential and powerful writers of today, and he is also one of the most widely published writers today. Chinua Achebe has in fact written more than twenty-one novels, and short stories, and books of poetry as well, and his very first landmark work was "Things Fall apart," which was published in the year 1958, when the author was just twenty-eight years old. This work has proved to be popular not only in Nigeria, but also in the whole of Africa, as well as in the rest of the world. Chinua Achebe was born in the year 1930 in Nigeria, as the son of a Christian Churchman and his wife. He attended the Government College in Umuahia, and then went on to University College in Ibadan, after which he went on to the London University, where he received his BA. Chinua…
Chinua Achebe. New York State Writer's Institute. Retrieved From
http://www.albany.edu/writers-inst/achebe.html Accessed 10 August, 2005
Chinua Achebe, Things Fall Apart, Study guide. Retrieved From
Race for Colonies in the Late 19th Century
Although European imperialism had started in the 15th century when a number of European powers such as Spain, Portugal and Great Britain began to look for new settlements around the world, another great race for colonies occurred in the late 19th century. This time around, other countries such as the United States and Japan also joined Europe in the race. Some of the major reasons for the establishment of colonies in the late 19th century and specific examples of such colonies are outlined below.
The industrial revolution in Europe and the United States had greatly increased their technological and military power by the second half of the 19th century. Japan, too, had embarked on a path of rapid modernization in the mid-nineteenth century. As a result, several countries in Europe (including England, France, Germany and Italy), the U.S. And Japan…
In the 21st century, American, European, and Asian trans-national corporations (e.g., General Motors; Toyota; Coca Cola; IBM; Nestle, etc., build plants in Mexico and Latin America, where indigenous labor is cheaper than American labor. Meanwhile, tens of thousands of poor Mexican citizens living in poverty struggle to sneak across the borders of the United States, into California, Arizona, Texas, or New Mexico, in hope of finding better lives by working for American dollars, instead of Mexican pesos.
All in all, European colonialism, an outgrowth and direct result of acquisitive worldwide European exploration and expansion, from the time of the Spanish conquistadores through the Enlightenment Period; through the Industrial Revolution and beyond, has done more harm than good within both Latin America and Sub-Saharan Africa. For the most part, within these regions, colonialism (and/or its long-lasting after-effects) brought disease; poverty, and much cultural coercion to those areas. Natural resources were stolen;…
Bradshaw, Michael et al. Contemporary World Regional Geography: Global
Connections, Local Voices. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2003.
Diamond, Jared. Guns, Germs, and Steel: The Fates of Human Societies. New York: Norton, 1999.