In essence, cultural values across Argentina demand for observation, tolerance, and understanding. The tingo dance for example is one of the nonverbal communications. Argentines also like engaging in activities that give them a sense of belonging (Foster, et al., 18).
Part 3: Africa, Tanzania
Cultural norms are patterns of behavior that specifically are typical to a given group. They are shared, sanctioned, and integrated systems of beliefs and practices. These behaviors are passed from one generation to the next. In other words, cultural norms are the expectations and rules that are agreed upon through which a society guides the behavior of its members with regard to a given situation (Qingxue, 13). Cultural norms widely vary across cultural groups. In most cases cultural norms are not considered to be formal laws, however, they are helpful and vital in instilling social control within the society. Cultural norms are mainly enforced through non-verbal communication cues.
Tanzania has a harmonious culture which is anchored on strong social code of respect and courtesy. Tanzanians are globally known for their polite and friendly nature. The cultural norms embraced within the Tanzanian culture are geared towards fostering politeness. Here are examples of cultural norms within Tanzanian culture: greetings, food, clothing, and respect for the elderly and public affection (Shivji & Kapinga, 15).
Greetings in Tanzania are done mainly through handshakes which are considered vital social etiquette. Tanzanians hold hands when conversing as a sign of respect. Tanzanians value and respect cooks. Smelling food is not allowed as it may imply that it is rotten or unpleasant. Consequently, when offered food or drink you are supposed to accept; refusing it is considered rude. Clothing...
Respect for the elderly is extremely important; older folks are regarded to be knowledgeable and experienced.
The above discussed norms have greatly influenced communication patterns and styles within Tanzania (Shivji & Kapinga., 16). Hierarchical form of communication is embraced where everybody accepts his status within the community. Decisions come from the top and transmitted to the lower ranks.
Part 4: Asia, China
Social practice is a design practice or an art that entails engagement with communities of interest. Social practices are usually based in broad social goals, networks and cultural practices (Qingxue, 10). They demand for democratization of relationships between creative practitioner's community that involves sharing of both expert and lay knowledge. Additionally, they also entail valuing of differences as well as the need for shared understanding and agreement. Social practices focus on skills, knowledge while also understanding that people have their own individual lives, family, community, and working (Qingxue, 14). Cultural practices in Asian countries encourage harmonious co-existence; high value is placed on interpersonal harmony.
The harmonious social practices within Asian and China in particular have influenced communication to take a high-context format. Social practices encourages individual to identify with one another like family. The communication is also hierarchical where every person is conscious of his status and behaves according to his status. These social practices recognize extended Chinese family. Consequently, kinship linkages are emphasized where every one is made aware of his obligations and responsibilities to the elderly as well as to the young. Decisions are also made from the top the communicated downwards. Collectivism is deeply rooted in Asian culture and individualistic social practices are discouraged. Chinese believe that the wisdom of many exceeds that of the wisest individual. In the same line argument, their social practices dictates that many people working together make work easier than an individual.
Cunningham, Lawrence, and Reich, John. Culture and Values: A Survey of the Humanities. London: Oxford University Press, 2009.
Foster, William, Lockhart, Melissa, and Lockhart Darrell. Culture and Customs of Argentina. New York: Prentice Hall, 1998.
Qingxue, Liu "Understanding Different Cultural Patterns or Orientations Between East and West," 2003. Web.10/06/2012, < http://www.staff.amu.edu.pl/~inveling/pdf/liu_quingxue_inve9.pdf
Shivji, Issa, & Kapinga,…
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