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Intercultural Communication: Towards etter Understanding and Learning
In humanity's pursuit for learning, it is inevitable that we will encounter diversity, or differences in people in the way they think, act, and behave. Most often, people whom we perceive as different are no more different than us -- that is, we may perceive them as different, but they also presumably assume us as different from the people they have been familiarized and acquainted with. This move towards crossing cultural boundaries in pursuit of learning is called intercultural communication, often defined as the "process that occurs when members of two or more cultures exchange messages in a manner that is influenced by their different cultural perceptions and symbol systems" (Adler, 1998:40).
How does intercultural communication relates to the development of understanding and learning? It is essential for any academic students to be acquainted with different cultures, within or outside the country, in…… [Read More]
Naturally, cheek kissing is practiced in the States just as handshakes take place in Latin America. Incidentally, the latter is largely a result of the Americanization of Hispanic cultures. Nevertheless, as a general rule, each custom is mainly witnessed in its respective culture.
Cross cultural misunderstanding can and does happen. For example, an American visiting a Latin country may, at first, feel intruded upon when natives begin kissing them at initial contact. The reverse is true when a Latin American, arriving to the States has a hand thrust at them during introductions. It is not uncommon for Latin Americans to declare Americans as reserved. However, the more time spent in a foreign culture allows one the ability to acclimate to the host country's customs. There may even come a time when one maneuvers easily between the two cultures.… [Read More]
A major goal of learning is facilitation of basic literacy and language skills of difference students, the importance of which stems from a persistent school failure in the United States of students with Hispanic, African-American and American Indian background (Gay, 1994). Multicultural education can ease the tensions by teaching skills in a cross-cultural communication style that emphasizes interpersonal relations, perspective taking, contextual analysis and understanding differing points-of-view and frames of reference (Gay, 1994). Students must learn how their cultural condition may affect values, attitudes and beliefs, as well as preferences, expectations and behaviors (Gay, 1994).
As an experienced administrator working within the U.S. school system, I learned that within U.S. society there also still exists a strong ethnic prejudice as well as "ethnocentric values that are based and driven by cultural beliefs not based on fact; there is in fact a tendency in the U.S. To ascribe attributes and behaviors…… [Read More]
Intercultural and Multicultural Communication
Countries are no longer confined by borders. Today's society is a global society, and intercultural issues and intercultural communication ave become a part of daily life, weter in business, education or personal. Type 'intercultural education' on Google's searc engine, and over two million Web sites become available. Four suc Web sites are Te Young Society for Intercultural Education, Training and Researc, Te American Council on International Intercultural Education, Te International Association for Intercultural Education, and te University Center for Intercultural Education.
Te University Center for Intercultural Education is designed to cultivate te social and umanity skills of students to enable tem to cope effectively wit te emerging era of globalization, and to become responsible international citizens.
Subjects include electronic communications and information processing, ealt sciences, and foreign languages, wic gives te student te ability to communicate internationally.
Universities around te globe are seeing a…… [Read More]
The important aspect to consider is the way that people perceive and accept these differing power distributions. The barrier and problem that Sally experiences in this particular case is that she comes from a society that favors a low power distance model of behavior as the accepted norm; whereas in the society in which she is now staying the cultural norms and accepted context is one of high power distance.
In theoretical terms this means that Sally wishes to reduce the distance between herself and the housemaid on the cultural and normative grounds that all people are equal regardless of their social position. However, this view runs counter to the norms adopted in the high power culture, which reflects the view that the maidservant should know her place in the societal and cultural structure and that it is not correct or acceptable for the maid to address Sally informally.
This…… [Read More]
The Ivey business case Collision Course -- Selling High Performance Motorcycles in Japan outlines the case of the Japanese importer and marketer of an Italian line of motorcycles, Tommasi. In this case, there are several issues raised. First, there are communication barriers between the different people involved in marketing the motorcycles -- Japanese dealers who speak little English and Western expats on the marketing side who speak little Japanese. Second, there are issues with the product, and the way that the product is being marketed. The protagonist in the case is the intermediary between the dealers and the Italian company, and therefore has to work with these conflicting marketing tactics daily. The dealers feel that their expertise in the Japanese market has not been reflected adequately in the company's strategy. Conversely, the company would prefer to see its strategy implemented as it desires. So there are intercultural communication…… [Read More]
A) Explain the difference between Norms and Values as they pertain to society.
Values and norms are essential components of all societies. Values denote ideas that aid individuals and groups in differentiating good from bad, and ascertaining what is proper or desirable. Each society has its own different set of values. And the values of an individual stem from the particular culture he/she belongs to. Meanwhile, norms are typically proper or correct forms of conduct. They refer to specific prescriptions regarding how one should conduct oneself for being consistent with modern societal values. Therefore, societal norms may be perceived as a reflection of societal values (Module 1: Sociology-Basic Concepts 84-5).
B) Clarify how Values might have an impact upon social Norms.
Values represent broad notions concerning what is good, desirable, and correct, shared by a majority of members of any given society. They stabilize group interactions by holding…… [Read More]
ntercultural Relations Studies as "analysis of intergroup behaviour within contexts of cultural diversity." To explore this issue, they studied Spanish students in an English course at a Spanish university. They found that positive contacts between two cultures was not enough to create positive views of the culture unfamiliar to the participant.
Data was gathered by using a questionnaire that measured ethnic attitudes and intercultural assumptions. t covered contacts with foreign people and the quality of those contacts. t also looked at attitudes, intercultural problems and conflicts, stereotypes, prejudices, and assumptions/expectations. t was used by analyzing the variables defined in the questionnaire. The subjects were 74 Spanish university students who had contact with foreign students. Participation was voluntary and anonymous.
The major finding was that for these students, contact with people from other cultures was not enough to foster positive opinions. The international students and Spanish students did not…… [Read More]
This can help increase the tolerance and cultural awareness of future generations, which is always a positive benefit for a more progressive society.
Different types of conflict styles can also impact how individuals fair within the context of an intercultural or interracial relationship. The way many cultures handle how they deal with conflict differ dramatically from other cultures. As a result, when two individuals from different cultures come together, they may often find that they have conflict because of how each party handles conflict. An indirect conflict style is one which tends to shy away from confrontation. Many cultures utilize such conflict management styles as a way to stay neutral and not dive into a conflict that would be emotionally exhausting. For example, many Asian cultures tend to exhibit very indirect conflict management styles. Yet, these can often be misinterpreted as being indifferent, where the individual is mistakenly thought to…… [Read More]
Identity and Intercultural Communication
This paper will briefly explore the concept of identity as it relates to intercultural communication. It is important for one to understand the many factors that influence the development of an identity. It is these factors that make each and every one of us an individual and unique in personality. These factors include such elements of character like age, gender, race, religion, class and culture that help decide one's point-of-view when communicating. For the purpose of this paper, it is safe to assume that individually each of us has acquired different methods of communicating due these factors. The paragraphs below will explore how these factors influence communication across cultures.
In order to better understand, intercultural communication, one must first understand the concept of identity. Only then will one begin to realize that much of how we see ourselves has a direct relationship with communication…… [Read More]
Q5. How will you deal with others in your workplace who feel they have no biases but you are aware that they do?
I think that sensitivity training and diversity education should be mandatory components of all workplaces. This type of training should include self-administered questionnaires like the HIAT to raise awareness about the commonness of prejudice and also role-playing and discussions about different assumptions and communication styles. I should note that I do not believe that explicitly 'calling someone out' on their prejudices and shaming them is particularly helpful; firmly presenting an alternative point-of-view or way of looking at the situation is much more effective. Organizations must also have strong and effective anti-discrimination policies to reduce bias. This can help all workers. "We have developed a "good person/bad person" paradigm of diversity. A more accurate depiction, however, is that we all have bias of one kind or another. It…… [Read More]
The slaughtering of cows is forbidden by law (Potpourri, 2009).
It is clear that when he made the "don't have a cow" comment, John Smith was not aware of the status of cows in Indian culture -- or he temporarily forgot about it. This situation is the perfect example as to how can different cultural values impede communication. Instead of focusing on the promotional campaign -- the core of the first dispute -- the two parties became engaged in a more intense dispute which prevented them from addressing the work related matter on the table. In a theoretical formulation, the conflict aroused as Smith failed to obey one of the most important rules of intercultural communication -- that of being aware of and respecting the cultural symbols and values of his culturally diverse colleagues (Hahn, 2009). Within the workplace, the effects were those of accentuated conflicts and tensions, as well…… [Read More]
However, gender expectations of different nations can impede free and open discussion in intercultural communications, if a particular culture has yet to accept that it is appropriate for women to confidently assume positions of authority.
Although cross-cultural communication presents a challenge, globalization has made understanding the difference between high-context and low-context cultures even more vital than ever before. Implied meanings in different cultures have different levels of signification, based upon relationships. "In relationship-oriented countries like Mexico, India and China, people tend to prioritize projects based on the hierarchy of the person who owns it" in contrast to the United States, where the project itself is viewed more important than the person in charge (Frase 2007).
Much like male-female communication tropes, social expectations rather than actual message or even delivery can affect the message conveyed and impede communication. An analysis of diverse work teams at international firms by Brett et al.…… [Read More]
In essence, cultural values across Argentina demand for observation, tolerance, and understanding. The tingo dance for example is one of the nonverbal communications. Argentines also like engaging in activities that give them a sense of belonging (Foster, et al., 18).
Part 3: Africa, Tanzania
Cultural norms are patterns of behavior that specifically are typical to a given group. They are shared, sanctioned, and integrated systems of beliefs and practices. These behaviors are passed from one generation to the next. In other words, cultural norms are the expectations and rules that are agreed upon through which a society guides the behavior of its members with regard to a given situation (Qingxue, 13). Cultural norms widely vary across cultural groups. In most cases cultural norms are not considered to be formal laws, however, they are helpful and vital in instilling social control within the society. Cultural norms are mainly enforced through non-verbal…… [Read More]
Conflict, according to Word Net, (2011) is "an open clash between two opposing groups (or individuals)" it also defines it further as "opposition between two simultaneous but incompatible feelings." This definition presupposes, and correctly so, that that two varying groups of people/individuals living, working or travelling together have the possibility, even if very remote, of conflicting.
Since man must co-exist, and in the process conflicts have to emerge, the purpose of this paper is to divulge the various ways through which individuals involved in conflict can attempt to solve the conflict as well as looking into the mediation process once the individual conflict resolution method has failed.
When exposing people to a cross cultural situation, there is a likelihood of conflict to occur, and having known this, it is significant to prepare both parties from the varying cultures for the eventualities that they face and how to handle…… [Read More]
Collectivism and individualism do exist concurrently in many countries throughout the world. The U.S. is a prime example of a society where they cohabitate. There are radical religious sects that strongly oppose morale issues such as abortion, gay marriage, or traditional beliefs that stand side-by-side with the very individuals that their beliefs are intended to suppress. However, despite their coexistence, the two sides are often subjects for heavy controversy and significant reasons for much of the political debate, and near rioting uproar throughout societies across the map. It is apparent that these two orientations are able to exist in one culture at the same time, but not without great consequence.
The history of the United States has had a great impact on the way that cultural values have been developed and kept. Citizens of the United States agree that each individual has the right to their own beliefs and the…… [Read More]
" (Ford and Kotze, date unknown) The work of Spencer-Rodgers and McGovern (2002) entitled: "Attitudes Toward the Culturally Different: The Role of Intercultural Communication arriers, Affective Responses, Consensual Stereotypes and Perceived Threat" report that testing was conducted for the purpose of examining the psychological impact of intercultural communication barriers on intergroup attitudes. It is reported that it was indicated by regression analyses indicated that "....intercultural communication emotions were strongly and uniquely related to prejudice toward a culturally diverse outgroup: foreign students." (Spencer-Rodgers and McGovern, 2002)
Spencer-Rodgers, Julie and McGovern, Timothy (2002) Attitudes Toward the Culturally Different: The Role of Intercultural Communication arriers, Affective Responses, Consensual Stereotypes, and Perceived Threat. International Journal of Intercultural Relations. Vol. 26, Issue 6. 1 Nov 2002.
Ford, Gabrielle and Kotze, Paula (date unknown) Designing Usable Interfaces with Cultural Dimensions. Online available at: http://hufee.meraka.org.za/Hufeesite/staff/the-hufee-group/paula-kotze-1/publications/ford-kotze-final-revised.pdf
Karasawa, Minoru and Sayaka, Suga (date unknown) Retention and Transmission of…… [Read More]
Intercultural Communication - Group
As the Manufacturing Procurement Lead for an American/Japanese automobile manufacturer, my main task is to coordinate several characteristics of production and delivery schedule of an Italian designed and manufactured electronic braking system for a new high performance sports car to be launched to the American market. An important aspect of achieving this goal is conducting a three-day meeting that incorporates various social activities, price, negotiations of delivery schedule, and creation of a preliminary contract. The social activities include cocktail reception on the first evening and a final dinner on the final day of the three-day meeting. The other vital component of success in this meeting is an understanding of group dynamics since it will affect discussions and negotiations.
The American/Japanese automotive manufacturer will be doing business with an Italian company, which implies that understanding cultural differences and business interactions with the Italian customer is essential for…… [Read More]
Communication plays a vital role in human interaction. Unfortunately, communication is not always as adept as it should be between people. This fact is usually exacerbated when people from disparate cultures are attempting to communicate with one another, particularly when they are not as well informed about one another's culture as they could be (Barna, 68). As a result, there are a number of negative occurrences that people may experience due to complications in intercultural communication. Laay Barna's essay, "Intercultural Communication Stumbling Blocks" addresses several points that may cause difficulty with communication between people of different cultures. Many of these issues are characterized by assumptions and a degree of ignorance on the part of one or both people that result in a decidedly narrow perspective on their parts.
One of the many valid points that Barna raises regarding obstructions between an easy facilitation of cultural communication is the presence and…… [Read More]
Popular culture differs from what was once referred to as "high" culture ("Popular Culture" 2000). High culture distinguished and continues to distinguish itself from popular culture by subordinating the latter. However, a tremendous shift in academia has led to the critique of both "high" and "low" culture and a subsequent merging of the two ("Popular Culture" 2000).
Also known as "mass" culture, popular culture can be considered crude even as it shapes politics and policy ("Popular Culture" 2000). According to Chito Childs & Laudone (2004), popular culture is uniquely responsible for the shaping of values, beliefs and norms surrounding interracial friendships, interracial relationships, and race relations in general. Films that depict interracial couples "tend to reinforce the existing racial hierarchy, rendering interracial relationships problematic," (Chito Childs & Laudone 2004, p. 1). Popular culture is part mirror for social realities and part shaper of those realities.
One exception to the generally…… [Read More]
Managing conflict in intercultural communication
Intercultural communication is considered as one of the most important communication level through which people from all cultures interact. Surpassing the complex nature of intrapersonal, interpersonal, group, and organizational communication, communication at the intercultural level is characterized as having the greatest complexity due to the presence of numerous differences among communicators. And because of these differences, conflict often arises among communicators. It is therefore imperative that understanding and knowledge of cultures be undertaken by the communicator so that conflict would be alleviated, if not altogether eliminated.
In understanding intercultural communication, one must first identify the nature of conflict that arises at this level (of communication). Conflict at the intercultural communication level is characterized as ambiguous and involves different styles of communicating (i.e., differences in languages and manner of communicating).
Intercultural communication conflict stems from ambiguity because communicators often make the mistake of communicating…… [Read More]
Electronic communication such as texting and emailing are not as effective as talking face-to-face with someone.
Premises/Data: Studies have showed that without face-to-face interaction, the lack of nonverbal cues, facial emotions prevents successful communication and hinders growth in a relationship. One study of preteens at a summer camp found that with just five days without electronics, the children showed improvement in there nonverbal communication skills (Uhls et al., 2014). We already know that non-verbal communication is a significant portion of communication, that when presented with a person face-to-face, as little as 7% of communication was verbal (Yaffe, 2011). Thus, these preteens were improving immediately their ability to comprehend what is in many cases the majority of communication messages.
Studies of virtual teams have found that people are even inclined to interpret email text for non-verbal messages. The problem with doing so is that we tend to use shorthand for…… [Read More]
The McDonald's Menu and Charles erger's Uncertainty Reduction Theory
In the field of communication, extant theories and models aim to provide explanations about the nature and dynamics of relating and interacting with other people. These theoretical frameworks also delve into various kinds of communication, such as verbal or non-verbal and intrapersonal, interpersonal, group, and organizational. One of the most important aspects among these kinds of communication concern theories about interpersonal relationships, which serve as the common ground wherein further studies on communication among people from one-on-one, group, and/or organizational.
Among these interpersonal theories, Charles erger's uncertainty reduction theory figures as one of the most descriptive and analytical theory in studying communication at the most basic level. The uncertainty reduction theory describes the 'self-monitoring' behavior of communicators when initially establishing a relationship or interacting with another communicator or an agent of communication. The theory involves two important concepts: the objective…… [Read More]
Intercultural Film Analysis on Up in the Air
Interpersonal attraction is one of the themes at the heart of Up in the Air. For the purposes of this analysis, interpersonal attraction is taken to mean the ways in which people are drawn toward one another. The main character, yan Bingham, is a challenging character to analyze in this regard because he has experienced significant success through resisting interpersonal attraction, and yet he eventually comes to realize that people cannot simply shelter themselves from interpersonal attractions, even if they desire to live in complete alienation from others. yan makes his living through flying to workplaces and firing employees so that the bosses do not have to perform the unpleasant task, and yet he also doubles as a motivational speaker. His character is unusual in that he effectively tells people they are not suitable for their jobs (in his job…… [Read More]
Additionally, the very peculiar relationship between modern information technologies and the business must somehow be conceptualized if a proper model of knowledge transfer is to be attained. So, while in some cases, technology may serve as an obvious way to optimize the transfer of knowledge and overcome the barriers of routines, these same technologies, in different settings or with different individuals, will create more barriers and less effective routines. The fundamental concern must be attaining an applicable model of knowledge transfer, and perhaps the willingness to employ the idea of replication wherever it can be straightforwardly implemented.
Traditionally, many careers have been subject to gender specific designations. Obviously, numerous broad fields of work like medicine and law have historically been dominated by men, while women have been relegated to secretarial, nursing, or other subordinate positions. In recent decades this trend has come under fire and gender is no-longer widely accepted…… [Read More]
Race is a more difficult topic to define because there are no clear definitions of race. In general, race implies neither nationality nor culture but skin color. Race is distinguished from culture in that white people come from various European cultures, and black people also come from various cultures around the world. However, race, culture, and nationality are linked in several ways, especially within the United States. Americans can identify as being a certain race, a certain culture, and a certain nationality. For example, a woman with dark skin who is born in Honduras and who lives in the United States could say that she is of the African race, Honduran culture, and American nationality. Therefore, co-culture can be used to describe this woman: she can say that she is a Latina-American because she identifies with both cultures.… [Read More]
Support for the second hypothesis, that male speakers would be perceived as less cooperative than female speakers, also varied across situations, and the effect was even smaller" (Edwards & Hamilton 2004). Support for the Tannen model only was found after additional research was done, and a new questionnaire was given that scored recipient's self-perception in terms of feminine and masculine characteristics and inculcation into traditional gender roles. Individuals with strong gender self-images were more likely to fall in line with the Tannen model of women perceiving nurturance and males perceiving conflict in relatively neutral scenarios and seeing men in general as less cooperative.
This study is provocative on several levels, not the least of which in its stress upon the individualized nature of gender norms and the lack of inherent biological tendencies towards perceiving nurturance and conflict. It suggests the need to more carefully screen subjects in terms of individualized…… [Read More]
Such a system has the obvious advantage that the worker is very loyal to his company and develops a certain practice working in the same place, but, on the other hand, we may question ourselves on the motivating issue: is this still functional?
The example of the Japanese society nowadays may show that it is not. Indeed, we find in Japanese companies that the motivating factors are actually restrictive factors that are used to control production capabilities. Promotion, for example, one of the motivating tools most used in the Western world, is almost non-existing in Japan, as promotion is performed according to age and you will never expect to reach a certain position within the company until a certain age. Additionally, the fact that you work in the same company and have long-term contracts may induce the fact that you will not be interested in delivering highest achievements, as the…… [Read More]
But to me, a young woman standing alone on a busy street in a still strange country, the word gaijin changed the tone of this encounter. For the group of teenagers waving and shouting at me, the word gaijin was merely a way of identifying their rare and exciting discovery. For me, a citizen of a country whose history has its share of prejudice and violence, the impersonal identification of me, based solely on my appearance, sounded like the racial and ethnic epithets hurled at Italian immigrants, African-Americans, Asians, Native Americans, Irish immigrants, Jews and millions of other people in the United States.
The word gaijin simply means "foreigner." It is not a derogatory term. But in Italy and the United States, two countries rich with immigrants from all over the world, the act of impersonally identifying a person's racial or ethnic background based solely on the person's appearance, is…… [Read More]
The Asian view takes longer and includes carefully considering all the long-term implications and nuances that Americans often ignore. This way of thinking may be confusing to American negotiators at first, plus the fact that nothing is ever completely settled. Instead of solving one thing at a time and moving on to the next item, Asian style allows the negotiators to come back again and again (circular fashion) to points already discussed. They may even discuss many issues concurrently and consider the whole situation all at the same time.
Use of time is a form of non-verbal communication. It sends a message about what one believes -- and in this case, what the culture values. To Americans who value their time and see it as something they don't have enough of, the Asian view can be frustrating. To Japanese and Chinese team members, time is never something to be saved;…… [Read More]
Intercultural Conflict Management
Today's society is a multicultural environment that holds both extreme promise and conflicts (Adler, 1998, pp. 225-245). Through rapid developments in technology, global communication has been revolutionized in the past few decades. By the end of the twentieth century, new technology made it simple for people in different cultures to communicate with each other at lightning speeds.
As a result, a greater number of people are exposed to cultures other than their own. Due to communication technology, people are no longer isolated by borders and other obstacles and have ample opportunities to experience different cultures.
However, this incredible occurrence has brought conflict amongst people from different cultures, due to differences in language, manners, opinions, lifestyles and other factors. As a result, intercultural conflict management has become necessary in helping people to understand one another.
Conflict occurs at all levels of human interactions, whether it is…… [Read More]
com, 2003). Fitting into the system of France is very important, and creating a good French citizen is one of the goals of the educational system. Students in France, for example, cannot wear religious clothing or other affiliations with national, non-French institutions of identity.
As in France and Japan, in the United Kingdom, education is free and compulsory until age sixteen, as an educated workforce is highly valued. There is also a great deal of respect and deference given to the role of the teacher. "Teachers in primary schools (4- to 11-year-olds) are always addressed by their surname by parents and pupils alike, always Mr., Mrs. Or Miss Smith
In secondary schools (11-16 years), teachers are always addressed as Miss or Sir" ("Introduction to School Life," oodlands Junior School, 2007). Students in the United Kingdom must wear a uniform, which enforces a certain sense of national and school cohesion, although…… [Read More]
Embracing the limits of my control will enable me to deal with stress appropriately.
Nonverbal and Cultural Barriers to Communication
It is only when the intended receiver of a message understands the information contained within the message that communication can be regarded effective. The world is today regarded a global village. This effectively means that intercultural communication will continue being even more common going forward. In so many ways, effective communication will enable me to successfully execute the mandate of my new position. Given the multicultural nature of our institution, there exists a significant need for me to explore ways of overcoming cultural barriers to communication. In seeking to overcome the said barriers, I will amongst other things ensure that I understand the receiver's perspective. This will help minimize instances of wrong interpretation. I will also ensure that the message is delivered in a format that can be understood by…… [Read More]
545). By allowing students to speak in the classroom, rather than lecturing students about how intercultural interactions should take place, students from other cultures can bring their own cultural understandings and conceptions to the forefront, rather than passively receive teaching from a professor, or accept a university party line that their university is diverse. "The discourse of multiculturalism is not the voice of ethnic and racial minorities speaking for themselves. It is, rather, the voice of white middle-class education professionals speaking about 'problem' groups," one academic alleges, but through more open-ended discussion and generating student feedback that allows them to infuse their personal cultural and intercultural experiences into the classroom, a more positive conception of intercultural communication can occur (Olneck, 1990, p. 163).
A university setting can be uniquely beneficial to establishing intercultural dialogue simply because it is designed to have structured listening experiences that are then reinforced by outside…… [Read More]
Furthermore it has become critically necessary to be equipped technologically in handling today's increased IT demands for business communication.
Video Conferencing (2006) GlobalMedia. Online available at: www.globalmedia.com.
Hart, Amy (2001) Global Communication Warming - The CEO Refresher. Online available at http://www.refresher.com/!warming.html.
Martin, Jeannet S. And Chaney, Lillian H. (2006) Global usiness Etiquette: A Guide to International Communication and Customs. Online available at http://doi.contentdirections.com/mr/greenwood.jsp?doi=10.1336/0275988155.
Global usiness Support: Creating the Infrastructure for International usiness Communication (2006) Nova's Communication-ased usiness Activities. Online available at http://www.nova.ne.jp/english/corporation/02jigyo/jigyou_business.html.
Jarvenpaa, Sirkka L. And Leidner, Dorothy E. (1998) Communication and Trust in Global Virtual Teams - JCMC 3 (4) June 1998. Online available at http://jcmc.indiana.edu/vol3/issue4/jarvenpaa.html
Global Alliance Joins the Organization of the World Congress on Communication for Development (2006) Global Alliance 5 July 2006 Online available at http://www.globalpr.org/news/industry_news_direct.asp?v1=86
usiness Communications Applications on Any Network (2005) Avaya White Paper May 2005.
Avaya White Paper, "New Era of Intelligent…… [Read More]
When instituting organizational change, emphasizing the need for that change is vital to increase the chance of acceptance of the new alterations in approach. It must be communicated that an organization cannot succeed in a global environment if it is not diverse. Multinational departments and a diversity of employees, with a wide range of skills and knowledge spheres make the organization more flexible and responsive. If employees are aware of this fact, they will be more accepting. Transmitting examples of intercultural success stories is particularly essential as an organization adjusts to its multinational status.
Conclusions: Improvements in the current environment
Diverse organizations are stronger, after the initial adjustment period, and also are able to more effectively communicate to a wide range of consumers, internationally. And common language of virtual communication may eventually be established, reducing the chances of offense in coming eras. The new global era of business has also…… [Read More]
Interviewing HR Manager
When interviewing the HR manager Ahmed Al-Salim, who works at a well-known bank in Kuwait, I addressed three specific questions to him regarding communication breakdowns. Because communication is really key to a strong HR department, I wanted to see how well he responded to breakdowns in communication among the topic areas of internal politics, decisions making and leadership. Specifically, I asked: How do communication breakdowns in these areas influence the manager's ability to function effectively in the job.
Regarding breakdowns in communication pertaining to internal politics, he responded: Internal politics is inevitable at any workplace, regardless of the culture. People will try to jockey for position, will try to curry favor, will be upset about some policy, or will want a co-worker or boss to be either rewarded or censored for various reasons. When two individuals cannot find a common ground or fail to see the other's…… [Read More]
Racial differences and prejudice: the role of intercultural communication competence in strengthening group cohesion in "Remember the Titans"
Popular media such as films are most effective ways to convey specific messages to the audience that are socially-relevant to them. Through audio-visual media, people are able to put into the right perspective or context issues that would otherwise have been discussed without clarity and understanding. ecause of the effectiveness of audio-visual media as communicator of socially-relevant messages, movies and films are often used to illustrate an individual or group's point-of-view or opinion about an important and controversial social issue.
The movie "Remember the Titans" exemplifies the preceding discussion: it is a film that discusses how racial prejudice and discrimination was a prevalent attitude and behavior during the 1970s in American society. Set in the state of Virginia, the "Titans" chronicles the true life of the football team of T.C. Williams…… [Read More]
High and Low Context Communication
In low and high context cultures, the style of communication is regulated by the proximity of bonding between societal members, powerful behavioral norms, and degree of social hierarchy structuring. In high context communication, the information is typically embedded with internal meaning; hence, everything is not articulated in speech or writing clearly. The recipient of information is supposed to look for implied meaning in the message communicated, and grasp the unsaid part of the message, using their background knowledge. Hall (1976, 91), emphasizes such percept stating that high-context messages/communication are characterized by a majority of information being internalized in whichever individual receives the message or being present in the physical form of the communication -- the coded, transmitted, or clearly-stated message components contain very little information.
This paper's aim is critically analyzing low/high context communication taking place between an individual whose native tongue is…… [Read More]
Ethnography of Communication in High School Film
The EOC (ethnography of communication) is the analysis of communication within a culture, and practices of speech of a number of community. The EOC refers to the discourse analysis in linguistic drawing the anthropological field investigating the use of speech, their meaning or interpretation as being found in human groups or particular communities. The normative and cultural are two important concepts in the ethnographic communication analysis, which are used to analyze language, cultural norms, and situation context that influence communication among people.
The objective of this paper is to demonstrate the concept ethnographic of communication using the film titled "High School" directed by Frederick Wiseman.
Part 1 of Project
The study uses the film titled "High School" to illustrate the concept ethnographic communication. High School is an American film directed by Frederick Wiseman in 1968. High School is an ethnographic film depicting Northeast…… [Read More]
Jonathan needs to focus on are communication and collaboration. As the fourth respondent points out, Jonathan has two main objectives: to fulfill his obligation to safety and also to understand the role of the executives. His position at a large bank as lead coordinator for the Global Wealth Management Business Continuity program places him in a unique position within which principles of cooperation and communication can be exhibited.
In situations like these, "compromise is not enough," (p. 4). A compromise is not a win-win situation but rather, a situation in which neither party comes out satisfied. Compromise is not successful in the long run and does not take into account the cultural differences that color communications in the organization. In the case of Jonathan's role, culture refers not as much to ethnicity as it does to role and organizational culture. As the fourth respondent puts it, Jonathan needs to get…… [Read More]
Bridging the Gap
(Between Communication Styles)
In Management in Two Cultures, author Eva S. Kras discusses many differences between Mexican and U.S. cultures and their effects on business dealings. She describes differences in cultural values, customs, and attitudes that lead to misunderstandings when the two countries meet in the workplace. Perhaps most significant are communication styles, which are learned by socialization in childhood and so habitual to both cultures that they almost go unnoticed. The work of Deborah Tannen (1995) on feminine and masculine communication styles is helpful as a way to look at differences in the communication styles of Mexicans and Americans.
Tannen argues that American girls and boys are socialized so differently, they almost grow up in two different cultures. Socialization begins at birth. For example, when we hold baby girls, we position them so that they can see directly into our faces as we talk to them.…… [Read More]
The success of any business enterprise depends on a multitude of crucial factors, one of them being the ability of its administrators to communicate in a clear and effective manner. The quality of business communications therefore, having a direct impact on the economic act, is hereby studied at four specific levels, as follows:
Interpersonal business communication
Conflict management, and last
Inter-cultural business communication
Interpersonal business communication
Melinda Knight starts her 2005 article at the premise that efficient business communications at the managerial level are quintessential for the overall success of the enterprise. Yet, despite this generally accepted notion, the managers have little actual training of interpersonal communications during their formation in universities or other non- U.S. MBA programs. While some programs have some unaligned courses of interpersonal communications in the business settings, other programs do not include the subject in their curricula at all. Knight asserts the…… [Read More]
For this reason, the Americans and Cubans probably did have to use some of the techniques proposed by Shannon and Weaver to simplify communication in order to communicate at all. Despite the fact that communication between these two groups may have been difficult, and that coming together in order to form one design project produced by such culturally diverse designers may have resulted in the portrayal of mixed messages, some theorists contend that this does not matter. Indeed, it is only the "reader's" impression upon interpreting the text that matters. In the case of O'Bryan's designers, the reader is the Toni O'Bryan, and the other founders of the project. Thus, because of this concept -- called "The Death of the Author" -- the mixed messages that the Cubans and Americans may have revealed would be overshadowed by the reader's interpretation. Thus, Bennett and Robert propose a variety of theories and…… [Read More]
Slang and Communication in CLUELESS
One way that human culture tends to be defined is both the way we are able to manipulate the environment and communicate cognitively with an idea of past, present and future. Communication allows for group behavior to occur, cooperation, problem solving, and the ability to think beyond one's self as an individual and more as a community that can express itself in subtle and artistic ways. Communication is thus the act of conveying information through thoughts and messages, but has a critical point -- to be effective it must be understood. This requires a sender, a message and a recipient in which information exists in the mind of the sender; is formulated in a way that has meaning, and then transmitted to the receiver in ways that they can understand (Chandler, 2010). Slang, in communications is the use of more informal words and expressions that…… [Read More]
During these times, politeness and sensitivity become necessary as this subject may be extremely emotional or explosive as many Israelis have lost family or friends in wars or bomb attacks. As Israelis are notably brusque, however, an Israeli might construe something an American deems cautious politesse as evasiveness or uncertainty. Since directness is prized, it is best to get straight answers when an Israeli questions, and/or ask straight questions. Before "getting down to business," an American business man/woman may be surprised that little small talk or "chit-chat" is exchanged. if/when an individual meets Palestinian Israelis, it is good to remember they value courtesy, dress and good form more. (Business Etiquette) the following reflect a number of points a businessperson needs to keep in mind when conducting business in Israel.
There may not be a correlation between a contacts' politics and his/her religious or ethnic background.
Initially, an individual should keep…… [Read More]
communications in business. Specifically it will discuss communication in business in Japan, including intercultural interactions and successful communications. Often we don't think about the culture and etiquette of doing business in another country, and that's a giant mistake. For example, communication with Japanese clients can be very different that communication with clients here in America. Here are some tips on how to communicate effectively while you're working with Japanese clients.
When we do business in Japan, we must be aware of differing cultural values, language, etiquette, and business customs that can be very different from our own. To ensure that we don't offend or anger our Japanese business partners, we need to ensure that we act and communicate according to their customs, to ensure our success. We also want our staff to feel comfortable while they're working in Japan, and suffer from as little culture shock as possible, so business…… [Read More]
As a result, American public schools require policies and curriculum practices that specifically address these increasingly important issues. In this regard, there must be a comprehensive curriculum developed that provides the level of education concerning other peoples and their cultures for America's public school students. Time is of the essence and half-measures will not be sufficient to meet these important needs. Policymakers must take action today to address these pressing issues before even more violence and multicultural strife wrack the nation's schools. In this regard, the WebQuest approach to encouraging students to learn more about other cultures has been proven to be an effective adjunct to the public school teacher's repertoire of tools, and this method should be applied to the issue of fostering intercultural harmony in the nation's public schools.
Brawarsky, S. (1997). Carnegie Corporation's Youth Intergroup elations Initiative. eport of a meeting convened by Carnegie Corporation of…… [Read More]
My attitude has changed resulting from the information I learned about business communications quite dramatically. Business communication in my opinion was always something that was important to people working as managers or administrators, but I never fully understood how critical business communication is to all people regardless of the field they work in. The components of business communication most important to my field include learning how to translate one's thoughts into oral and written communication in multiple forms.
Nurses have to document all interactions, whether with patients or with other healthcare professional (Riley, 2000). hile many are provided with charts they can use to fill in information, it is also important for nurses to know how to create strong narratives and oral presentations when providing information to others. Multicultural communication is essential in nursing today because of the diversity present among the patients treated and the doctors, administrators and other…… [Read More]
It is an unfortunate circumstance that all too often people of different ethnicities, races, religions, or cultural backgrounds will have difficulty in associating with one another. Consequently, the groups are for more likely to fall into conflict than agreements. The best way to overcome these probable disagreements is to formulate ways in which to better communicate between groups. Communication is key in creating any kind of functional relationship, whether that be between two people or even on an international level.
Increase communication between the two groups, through mediation of another party if necessary
Try to find common ground on which both parties can agree. Begin by establishing a relationship based upon similar attitudes and goals rather than focused on differences between the two parties.
Put aside preconceptions based on religious differentiation or cultural separation. Try to understand the other side of the equation and that their perception may be…… [Read More]
Instead, it can provide an important springboard for future investigation in order to better understand the communication paradigms and expectations of cultures other than those in the United States. This, in turn, can lead to further nonverbal theorizing.
Furthermore, Burgoon's theory can also provide an important platform for more modern types of communication such as digital communication, for example (Littlejohn and Foss, 2009). Nonverbal cues are also inherent in this type of communication, although the assumption tends to be that this type of communication is primarily verbal. This is a very exciting development for communication studies. Currently, online communication has seen little in terms of formalizing theoretical findings. Because this communication medium is becoming increasingly important not only in personal interaction but also in the business world, it is becoming vitally important to provide theories of interaction by means of which such communications can most effectively be conducted. This can…… [Read More]
2002, 108)." By 1996 the teaching of English in Thailand was compulsory for all primary children from the first grade.
Teaching English as a Second Language in Thailand
Although the teaching of English as a second language has been present in Thailand for quite some time, there are still many issues that arise as it pertains to teaching English in Thailand. In some ways it may appear that English language pedagogy is still in its infancy. For instance many people in Thailand have low degrees of proficiency in English (Laopongharn & Sercombe, 2009). This is particularly true as it pertains to the speaking and writing of English. The problems present in Thailand as it pertains to Teaching English as a foreign language has many different causes (Laopongharn & Sercombe (2009). For the purposes of this discussion, Thai culture will be explored as an impediment to the teaching of English as…… [Read More]
Language defines identity, and creates boundaries between self and other. In Borderlands: The New Mestiza, Gloria Anzaldua refers to the "broken" and "forked" tongues that represented the boundaries and intersections of social, cultural, racial, ethnic, and gender identities. The roots of sociolinguistic hypotheses of language suggest that at the very least, language impacts the social construction of reality, as well as psychic self-perception. According to Noam Chomsky, language use is a type of "organized behavior" that is both a cause and effect of reality (2). The study of language structure and function "can contribute to an understanding of human intelligence," (Chomsky xiv). Chomsky goes so far as to suggest that language precedes cognition in some cases, by stating that, "the study of language structure reveals properties of mind that underlie the exercise of human mental capacities in normal activities," including the use of language as a creative mechanism, form, and…… [Read More]
The Intercultural Conflict Style (ICS) inventory seeks to explain intercultural communication style along two dimensions. One is direct/indirect and the other is emotional expressiveness/emotional restraint. The theory is that the items in the questionnaire are mutually exclusive, such that one can evenly distribute the points. That was not my experience, but that is the working theory. The results of my quiz showed a score of 16 along the indirect/direct line, which is said to indicate a tendency towards indirectness. That's an interesting finding. Along the emotional expressiveness/restraint axis, I scored a 30, indicating a tendency towards emotional expressiveness. That makes more sense. This puts me in the dynamic style of conflict resolution.
Hammer (2005) notes that the dynamic style is oriented towards indirect strategies. Traits include hyperbole, associative arguments, ambiguity, repetition and use of third party intermediaries. These are not good traits for debate, quite frankly, but again…… [Read More]
Interviews can certainly be shaped by culture-specific nuances, but, at the same time misunderstandings may accrue due to other factors in other words, cultural differences may not be the only or accurate attribution to communicative difficulties in interview situations. There are too many other complexities that may be responsible for initiating miscommunication. Gomperz and Cook-Gomperz (2008) distinguish between socio-linguistics and linguistic anthropology but arangi concludes that: "A selective characterization of a communicative situation on the basis of different cultural attributes of the-participants can only serve to reify cultural differences in an essentialist way." (424). Rather what is needed is the application of discourse analysis to speech since discourse analysis functions as a two-pronged approach: on the one hand it traces individual communication to cultural background, and, on the other hand, it sources that same communication to societal and institutional role-relationships. 'Culture' may be a concept that has become exaggerated in…… [Read More]
American newspaper in relation to some aspects of public and group communication. The three aspects to be discussed are focused on the formation of public group identities. Also, the essay will discuss the influence of the mass media on conceptions of public, group, and interpersonal communication. Mainly, it will examine the way that the mass media allows for feedback in public and group communication.
The chosen article describes the recent controversy around the comments of Senator Trent Lott. Last week at Strom Thurmond's 100th birthday party, Senator Lott praised Sen. Thurmond's 1948 run for president. The author of the article explains that Sen. Strom Thurmond is a controversial figure because of his views on civil rights. His platform while running for president in 1948 supported racial segregation, and, later in 1957, as Senator for South Carolina, he vehemently argued against a civil rights bill. Lott's exact words from the birthday…… [Read More]
The confidence of non-native speaker teachers is expected to be strengthened by better, more direct, access to the way native speakers use the language. ut an option not on offer so far (and, of course, a task impossible for a corpus called the ritish National Corpus) is to give these non-native speaker teachers access to a corpus capturing the successful use of English among non-native speakers, as a lingua franca, thus offering supremely relevant models for many learners wishing to use the language for similar purposes. So when Aston and urnard refer to ?the political implications of changing the basis on which assessments of correctness or appropriateness of usage are made? what has changed about the "basis" is how it can be accessed, not how it is defined. There is also another problem that operates at a deeper and unrecognized level: the language attitudes of those who, paradoxically, are themselves…… [Read More]
Cultural Schemata Theory:
Together with formal schemata and linguistic schemata, cultural schemata are some of the main types of schema theory, which is a hypothesis on how knowledge is gained and processed. Actually, schema is a technical word used by cognitive supporters to explain how people arrange, process, and store information in their brain. Notably, schemata focus on how people arrange information to long-term memory in relation to experiences, attitudes, values, strategies, skills, and conceptual understanding. The schema theory is founded on the belief that every act of an individual's understanding includes his/her knowledge of the world. The received knowledge is in turn organized into units that contain stores information.
Understanding Cultural Schemata Theory:
Cultural schemata is also known as abstract, story, or linguistic schema and is developed on the basis of people's basic experiences ("Schemata Theory in Learning," n.d.). Cultural schemata theory is described as the pre-existing knowledge about…… [Read More]
hile some of the products of this time orientation, like their emphasis on traditional forms of hospitality and the slow pace of the culture in respect to the dynamic rhythms of nature, are valuable and perhaps superior to our own cold, rushed, and removed values, other aspects of the Balti's past-oriented culture are not. There is great religious intolerance by some members of the society, such as the Taliban and a constant hashing-over of tribal and religious grievances produced very negative results. At one point, Mortenson was kidnapped, beaten and threatened by Islamic extremists for his efforts, simply because he was an outsider and American. Mortenson's founding of schools enabled him to share the future-orientation of American culture in a positive way, just as the Balti's hospitality brought positive aspects of their culture into his life.
These forms of fruitful cultural dialogue show the benefits of cultural interaction, and show…… [Read More]
PERSPECTIVE FROM AN INTERCULTURAL COMMUNICATIONS Business
GOOGLE IN CHINA
In the early 21st century, a highly successful corporation called Google, Inc. decided to expand its business into China. The company first tried to circumvent China's heavy censorship, laws and regulations but China's ability to control the internet flow into and out of China all but defeated Google's attempts. After being thwarted by China, Google adjusted, began to comply with China and is now a successful business in China. However, Google's success in China may have cost the company its claim to the motto "Don't be evil."
Google was founded in 1998 by two Stanford University students. Larry Page and Sergey Brin met the University in 1995, built a search engine by 1996 that discerned the importance of different webpages and incorporated in 1998 as Google, Inc. with the mantra of "Don't be evil" (Google, Inc.). Though…… [Read More]