Conflict on Various Levels Is Assessment

Excerpt from Assessment :

The same might be said for those who committed torture in the Nazi camps.

Importantly, Austin et al. (2004, p. 161) note that both violence and non-violence are cumulative in nature. It is therefore important to recognize that the existence of violence perpetuates further violence, while the same is true for non-violence. This is also an important recognition in the international sphere.

Schelling (1960, p. 53) notes that international violence an also be manifest in terms of the concept of "limited war." This means that short conflicts could result when agreements cannot be reached within a certain amount of time. On the other hand, the limited war also requires some degree of mutual recognition or acquiescence. Once war begins, negotiation and communication among adversaries become difficult. The recent situation and Egypt and the current situation in Libya appear to be cases in point for this assertion.

Finally, in international relations, the main role players are no longer those with the strongest economy or the most assets, although these do still play a significant role (Baldwin, 2002, p. 180). Instead, the increase of knowledge and international relations is providing less developed countries with an increasing sense of power in the global arena. Although violence is generally used as power by many of these countries, there is global trend towards negotiation as the preferred method of interaction.

References

Baldwin, D.A. (2002). Power and International Relations. Handbook of International Relations, editors Carlsnaes, W., Risse, T. And Simmons, B.A. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE

Schelling, T. (1960). The Strategy of Conflict. Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press.

Barak, G. (2003). Violence and Nonviolence: Pathways to Understanding, Sage Publications.

Azar, E. (1990) the Management of Protracted Social Conflict: Theory and Cases. Bookfield, VT: Gower Pub. Co.

Austin, M. Fischer and N. Ropers (eds.) (2004), Transforming Ethnopolitical Conflict:the Berghof Handbook. Berlin: VS Verlag fur Sozialwissenschaften.

Bartos, (2002), Using Conflict Theory, Cambridge University Press.

Crocker et al. (eds.) (2001) Turbulent Peace: The Challenges of Managing International Conflict, U.S. Institute of Peace.

Darby J. And R. Mac Ginty (eds.) (2003) Contemporary peacemaking: conflict, violence and peace processes, Basingstoke: Palgrave

The Stanford Prison experiment: http://www.prisonexp.org/

Van der Dennen, J.M.G. (2005), "Aggression as Learned Behaviour," University of Groningen Faculty of Law Working Papers. Available online:

http://rechten.eldoc.ub.rug.nl/FILES/root/Algemeen/overigepublicaties/2005enouder/a-LEARN/a-LEARN.pdf (accessed 23 February 2011).

Sources Used in Document:

References

Baldwin, D.A. (2002). Power and International Relations. Handbook of International Relations, editors Carlsnaes, W., Risse, T. And Simmons, B.A. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE

Schelling, T. (1960). The Strategy of Conflict. Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press.

Barak, G. (2003). Violence and Nonviolence: Pathways to Understanding, Sage Publications.

Azar, E. (1990) the Management of Protracted Social Conflict: Theory and Cases. Bookfield, VT: Gower Pub. Co.

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