Devised; It Has To Be Thesis

Length: 15 pages Sources: 20 Subject: Sociology Type: Thesis Paper: #84896866 Related Topics: Homeless Youth, Australian Aboriginals, Theoretical Orientation, Ethnography
Excerpt from Thesis :

At times, even though the research may be complicated by varying definitions of homelessness, researchers are establishing methods for estimating the size of the homeless population, which includes people who have nowhere to go; at risk of losing housing through eviction or institutional discharge (Drury, 2008).

Case Study Methodology

In the case study methodology, a form of qualitative descriptive research, according to M. Dereshiwsky (1999) in "Electronic Textbook - Let Us Count the Ways: Strategies for Doing Qualitative Research," the researcher using the case study methodology does not focus on discovering a universal, generalizable truth, nor do the researcher generally search for cause-effect relationships. Instead, the researcher emphasizes the exploring and describing process. As the researcher examines one individual or small participant pool, he/she then draws conclusions only about that one particular participant or group; only in the designated, specific context Case Studies 2008).

In considering or defining the case study methodology, the researcher found that case studies may point to focus or approach a broad view of life. Case study, a method involves the researcher systematically gathering enough information about a particular person, social setting, event, or group to permit him/her to effectively understand how the subject operates or functions (Berg, 2007).

Observation/ethnographic research contrasts the case study methodology, as it involves the researcher entering the setting being investigated and observing participants and/or listening to discussions the participants engage in. As observing or hearing everything or hearing all of the participant's experiences or conversations proves virtually impossible, ethnographers observe and listen only to particular portions of the participants' experiences and discussions (Berg, 2007).

Focus group interviewing style also contrasts the case study methodology. The investigator forms and leads a group discussion on a particular pertinent topic(s) in focus group interviewing. This methodology, designed for small groups of unrelated individuals, formed by enables the researcher to learn through discussion about conscious, semiconscious, and unconscious psychological and sociocultural characteristics and processes among groups (Berg, 2007).

Psychologists have utilized the various kinds of case study methodology since the early stages of the development of the discipline. Notably, Freud and his followers, as well as Piaget and Inhelder, used case studies as venues to describe and explore psychological processes. In contemporary research, the researcher frequently incorporates ethnography or phenomenology in case study, with the primary purpose to obtain in-depth knowledge about an individual, a group of individuals, or other bounded fields of interest (Berg, 2007).

The term "case study," per se, refers both to methodological strategy and subject of study. Social scientists routinely implement the case-study approach as a methodological strategy when they aim to provide rich descriptions and analyses of a single case, or a small number of cases (Turner, 2006). A case study combines observations of behavior without observations of attitudes and perceptions of research case participants (Berg, 2007). This approach allows researchers to develop a detailed view of processes, interactions, and meaning systems in a way that would prove prohibitive if the researcher were examining dozens or hundreds of cases (Turner, 2006).

According to Creswell (2009), case studies depict a strategy of inquiry, utilizing data collection procedures over a period of time, which researchers implement to process collected detailed information. Case studies may prove particularly pertinent to explain cases that do not fit an existing theory; to explain why the case violates theoretical predictions and to refine or replace an existing hypothesis. The case study may also specify its scope conditions as it proffers rich, detailed data, difficult to obtain from more representative research designs. The case study, albeit, may include the cost of a lack of generalization.

Case studies, nevertheless, prove advantageous at times as they enable the researcher to achieve insights unavailable from quantitative methods. Case studies include a myriad of interesting and gratifying types of research, which in turn, enable the researcher conducting a case study to experience the satisfaction that encompasses being on the edge of knowledge building about a problem or question. A disadvantage of case study includes its limited capacity to generate definitive knowledge. Due to the minute number sampled in case studies, the case study reportedly cannot be considered representative, as few real conclusions emerge from them. In addition, the case study does not permit the researcher to generalize from the participants to others who were not part of the study. Consequently, the external validity of a case study's findings purportedly proves particularly diminutive (Creswell, 2009; Turner, 2006).

The primary benefit of case study research includes the depth of information the methodology provides, within context, about a single unit (person, organization, or issue). This detailed information, often referred to as thick descriptions, provides a real-world context in which the processes under investigation may be better understood. Case study research may also benefit theory building and result in more robust theories that reflect contextual influences (Creswell, 2009).

A number of case study qualitative researchers...


Due to the case study's narrow focus and sample, the most common argument against the use of the case study method as a technique for scientific inquiry includes the argument that this method lacks the generalizability of findings Creswell, 2009).

For a number of researchers, external validity only involves the use of sample data to approximate population parameters in order to identify a universal law of behavior and achieve statistical generalizability. Internal validity may also be an issue in case study research in that the researcher exerts little to no control over the factors influencing the behavior or individuals of interest. This lack of control may contribute to questions regarding the establishment of any patterns of behavior. Case study researchers argue, albeit, that the consistency of the case study process may be enhanced by thorough research protocols with careful documentation. Some researchers, who subscribe to case study methodology, also argue that a shift in thinking to an examination of dependability, or the stability and consistency of the process of collecting the in-depth data needs to occur, rather than continued focus on the outcome of the data-collection procedure (Creswell, 2009.

In the study, "Factors changing attitudes of graduate school students toward an introductory research methodology course," Simon A. Lei (2008) Department of Educational Psychology, University of Nevada, examines six factors that changed attitudes of graduate students regarding an introductory research methods course. Using the Student Research Assessment Survey, Lei (2008) found a semblance of similarity in the student's attitudes toward statistics courses and research methods courses. The six factors that significantly influenced student attitudes in regard to research during the course of a semester, which Lei investigated, include:

1. Students' research interest,

2. usefulness,

3. overall self-efficacy,

4. training environment,

5. students' levels of research anxiety, and

6. task difficulty (Lei, 2008).

Providing explicit research opportunities within the student's training environment, Lei, (2008) asserts, serves to help ensure the student's attitude toward research will be positive. In addition, providing the student with specific interventions such as instruction in research methodology, for example, may also increase the student's research self-efficacy, expand his/her perception of the research's utility, as well as, decrease his/her anxiety level task difficulty relating to the research effort.

Khairul Baharein Mohd Noor (2009), Universiti Industri Selangor, Malaysia, contends that the methodology the researcher chooses to employ directly relates to the nature of the research problem. In the report, "Case study: A strategic research methodology," Noor (2009) notes the existence of two basic methodological traditions of research in social science: positivism and post-positivism (phenomenology) (Noor, 2009, ¶ 1).

Positivism, according Noor (2009), approaches the development of knowledge through research stressing the natural science model, in which the scientist, who adopts the position of objective researcher, collects facts relating to the social world and then arranges such facts in a chain of causality to build an explanation of social life. Post-positivism, on the other hand, rather than objectively determining findings, relates to the socially constructed reality. Noor further explains that positivism, as its base evolves from the natural science model of dealing with facts, more closely links with the quantitative methodology. In contrast, as post-positivism relates to understanding the subjectivity of social phenomena, this research requires a qualitative methodology.

The case study, Noor (2009) acknowledges, does not aim to encompass the entire organization, but instead, intends to focus on a particular feature, issue, or unit of analysis. The case study method proves particularly practical to gain an enhanced understanding of a particular problem or situation.

Focus Group Study

The focus group study, a qualitative method involving a group discussion, typically supplements other methodologies, Gross (1996) explains. The roots for this particular methodology stem from market research; however, human geographers routinely utilize this methodology. Usually, six to twelve participants partake in this study scenario, which focuses around the questions a moderator presents. The focus group constitutes a form of research designed…

Sources Used in Documents:


Andrade, A.D. (2009). Interpretive research aiming at theory building: Adopting and adapting the case study design. The Qualitative Report. Nova Southeastern

Inc. Retrieved May 26, 2009 from HighBeam Research:

Arellano, M.A. (2005). Translation and ethnography: The anthropological challenge of intercultural understanding. Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute, 11(1), 165. Retrieved May 26, 2009, from Questia database:
2008, from
Clark, D.R. (1999). Learning domains or Bloom's taxonomy. Retrieved May 26, 2009 from
Ells, C., & Gutfreund, S. (2006). Myths about qualitative research and the tri-council policy statement. Canadian Journal of Sociology, 31(3), 361+. Retrieved May 26, 2009, from Questia database:
SAGE. Retrieved May 28, 2009, from
Lei, S.A. (2008). Factors changing attitudes of graduate school students toward an introductory research methodology course. Education, 128(4), 667+. Retrieved May 26, 2009, from Questia database:
Parker, R.I., Brossart, D.F., Vannest, K.J., Long, J.R., De-Alba, R.G., Baugh, F.G., et al. (2005). Effect sizes in single case research: How large is large?. School Psychology Review, 34(1), 116+. Retrieved May 26, 2009, from Questia database:
Walter, M. (2005). Using the 'power of the data' within indigenous research practice. Australian Aboriginal Studies, 2005(2), 27+. Retrieved May 26, 2009, from Questia database:

Cite this Document:

"Devised It Has To Be" (2009, May 29) Retrieved August 19, 2022, from

"Devised It Has To Be" 29 May 2009. Web.19 August. 2022. <>

"Devised It Has To Be", 29 May 2009, Accessed.19 August. 2022,

Related Documents
Credit Cards Were Devised in
Words: 461 Length: 1 Pages Topic: Economics Paper #: 44933744

In fifty years, the heavy spending that credit cards facilitate will be viewed negatively, but credit cards themselves will still exist and most likely without stigma. The use of credit cards will be even more widespread, as fewer purchases will be done on site. Credit cards may be scorned by individuals who have acquired too much debt, but on the whole their benefits to society will not be overlooked. The dramatic

PESTEL Analysis of the Medical Devises Industry in Australia
Words: 783 Length: 2 Pages Topic: Government Paper #: 85771189

PESTEL Analysis of the Medical Devices Industry in Australia Political The medical devices industry in Australia has become the focus of political leaders in recent months. For instance, the Australian Senate launched an investigation into regulation of the medical device regulation in response to growing concerns about Poly Implant Prostheses breast implants. According to Murphy (2012), "The inquiry, which is being conducted by the Senate's Community Affairs Committee, follows a senate committee

Airport Security Design and Implementation
Words: 4664 Length: 18 Pages Topic: Transportation Paper #: 15476796

Airport Security Design and Implementation The objective of this work in writing is to devise a plan for setting up a state-of-the-art airport security system. This work will discuss: (1) The security force: selection, organization and training; (2) Airport lay-out: suggest a design which maximizes security management efficiency and passenger flow while minimizing discomfort and delay to air travelers; (3) the screening system step-by-step detailing the process, the equipment used and

Professional Development Plan
Words: 1283 Length: 4 Pages Topic: Teaching Paper #: 89008883

Professional Development Plan The purpose of this project is to devise a plan, based on research, to provide a standards-based professional development for staff at a selected school. To this end, an analysis of the respective roles of administrators and teachers in implementing a standards-based curriculum and instruction will be followed by recommended strategies to ensure all students successfully meet the established standards. A recommended professional development plan that emphasizes standards-based

Strategic Position Strategic Choices and Strategy Implementation
Words: 3413 Length: 10 Pages Topic: Business - Management Paper #: 32967804

Strategic positioning is the positioning of an organization (unit) in the future, while taking into account the volatile environment, plus the systematic recognition of that positioning. The strategic positioning of an organization includes the planning of the desired future position of the organization. On the basis of present and foreseeable progress, and the making of plans to realize that positioning. The strategic positioning method is devised from the business world. The method

IKEA Case Study by Mapping the Facts
Words: 1267 Length: 4 Pages Topic: Business - Advertising Paper #: 69483176

IKEA case study by mapping the facts to the two famous concepts known in marketing, the Porter's generic strategies and the Strategy Clock. Difference in purpose and application of Porter's generic strategies and the Strategy Clock Michael Porter, generally known as the king of marketing developed a scheme in which he devised three strategies that companies usually undertake or should undertake in order to maintain or achieve their competitive advantage. The