¶ … conceptualize the networking process is with the open systems interconnection reference model (OSI). The OSI model proposes that networking will occur on seven layers, sometimes referred to as a stack. Those seven layers include the physical layer, the data link layer, the network layer, the transport layer, the session layer, the presentation layer, and finally, the application layer. Systems designers and operators both benefit from conceptualizing networks in this way.
The physical layer of the OSI is exactly that, the hardware components. Usually this refers to things like fiber optic network cables or Ethernet. Layer two includes the encoding of data into bits. Usually this layer can be divided into sub-layers like Media Access Control (MAC), which controls access issues and Logical Link Control (LLC), which handles synchronization issues. The third layer of the network is the layer at which IP and other routing protocols are handled. Addressing like IP addresses exist at this level. The transport level works at the host or end-user level to ensure complete data transfer. Whereas the transport level deals with host to host data transfers, the fifth level, session manages application communications. Layer six is the point at which data is converted into recognizable file formats that are encrypted and sent across the...
The files we deal with regularly like JPGs can be visualized here. Finally, the application layer is the seventh layer. These applications should not be confused with those the session layer deals with. Instead, the application layer is where the Web browser and other clients reside, for those final data transfers. Most consumers only experience this level of the network, although many will eventually have to explore other layers when troubleshooting their home or office networks.
The primary difference between a wide area network (WAN) and a local area network (LAN) is that the latter is truly localized because it is constrained by geographic connectivity -- dependent on actual physical connections between systems. However, virtual LANs are possible. A virtual LAN is not a WAN, though. A WAN can actually connect multiple LANs. The most well-known and widely used WAN is the Internet itself. Many corporations have their own LANs, wherein applications can be hosted and used by users within the organization but not outside of it. The connectivity and architecture for WANs and LANs differs significantly, with LANs enjoying much faster data transfer speeds due to their…
These aspects should be considered while designing and implementing a network to gain maximum efficiency. (Trulove, 19-20) The standard that defines the application of a WLAN is IEEE 802.11 WLAN standard. Though this is the basic standard amended ones define the additional prescriptions added to it like 802.11a or 802.11b. The capacity of a WLAN is defined by its basic compatibility. WLAN of the latest version comes with an 11
Cisco Network Topologies and LAN Design Cisco network topologies and LAN network designs are vital internet platform for business activities as well as communication. In line with this, these network infrastructures makes the relaying of information from one source to another via the Internet easier for millions of individuals located in different parts of the universe. In analyzing these network infrastructures, the paper conducts a case study on growth and usage
features of telecommunications networks, including key networking technologies. Cover the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) model, including each logical layer. The OSI layer covers the different layers and types of communication that occurs within a network. The layers, in order of complexity from greatest to lowest are application, presentation, session, transport, network, data link and physical. The physical layer is the actual transport medium like network cable and such while routers
computer virus is among the greatest enemy of computer technology's globalization. In just a few split of seconds, it can turn our endeavor of automating our diverse activities into a nightmare. This is especially a catastrophe to businesses whose operation at a large percentage depends on computerized data access and retrieval. Globally, computerization is the trend among businesses. Thus, the damage that computer viruses can cause is a global
New Payroll Application Architecture One of the most commonly automated business processes and operations in the recent past is payroll, which is also the most often used human resource solution. The increased use and automation of payroll is attributable to the need to ease and reduce the time spent in payroll processes, which is one of the first applications in the working environment. Despite the increased automation of payroll, there are
The difference in country's economic condition makes Coca Cola to fix difference prices for the same product across different countries. 3.2: Integrating Pricing strategy with branding strategy ATC will use a unique brand position to ensure that customer accept prices fixed for its product and services, and the company will use differentiation strategy to make customer accept the prices fixed for its product. By creating a strong brand position, ATC will