2006). The neurological degeneration caused by this disease has also been found to reduce cognitive abilities pretty much across the board, and the inclusion of emotional recognition in its list of reduced functions suggests a stronger neurological basis for the phenomenon (Winblad et al. 2006). This also suggests a definite relationship between the neurological functions recognized in conscious cognition and the processing of emotional inputs (Winblad et al. 2006). J.; Chen, L.; Hunge, D.; Tzenga, O. & Lin, C. (2009). Sex differences in the neuroanatomy of human mirror-neuron system: A voxel-based morphometric investigation. Neuroscience, 158(2), pp. 713-20
Much of the information regarding the psychological mechanisms that allow for the phenomenon of emotional recognition via facial features also comes from the study of unhealthy or abnormal cases. Interestingly, in one study involving "average" college students, the existence of primary psychopathic traits was positively correlated with recognition of fearful faces, but seemed to show no effect on the ability to recognize other emotions (Del Gaizo & Falkenbach 2008). This suggests a psychological predisposition to the recognition of certain emotions even when all anatomical and neurological mechanisms are functioning properly. Somewhat paradoxically, another study found that sex offenders were less able to identify frightened, disgusted, or surprised faces when compared to control groups, again without significant impact on their ability to recognize other emotions (Gery et al. 2009). These studies and other similar findings show a clear possibility of the psychological alteration of a phenomenon that has its foundation in the anatomy of the brain and the neurological system.
Facial expression is only one of the myriad ways in which humans are able to recognize the emotions of others. Besides the psychological factors mentioned above, self-monitoring and the level of internal control felt by an individual can also hugely impact their ability to correctly identify emotions expressed facially (Lufson & Nowicki 1991). Furthermore, such basic and normative internal adjustments to the human body such as in the balance of hormone levels can have adverse affects on both the facial recognition of emotions and empathy (Rubinow et al. 2007). For this reason, this study will examine the efficiency of other methods of emotional recognition as compared to that provided by facial features. Specifically, it is hypothesized that respondents will recognize written expressions of ...
Del Gaizo, a. & Falkenbach, D. (2008). "Primary and secondary psychopathic-traits and their relationship to perception and experience of emotion." Personality and Individual Differences, 45(3) pp. 206-12
Elkman, P. (1994). "Strong evidence for universals in facial expressions: A reply to Russell's mistaken critique." Psychological bulletin 115(2), pp. 268-87.
Focquaert, F.; Braeckman, J. & Platek, S. (2008). "An evolutionary cognitive neuroscience perspective on human self-awareness and theory of mind. Philosophical Psychology, 21(1), pp. 47-68.
Frank, M.; Elkman, P. & Friesen, W.V. (1993). "Behavioral markers and recognizability of the smile of enjoyment." Journal of personality and social psychology, 64(1), pp. 83-93.
Fujie, S.; Namiki, C.; Nishi, H.; Yamada, M.; Miyata, J.; Sakata, D.; Sawamoto, N.; Fukuyama, H.; Hayashi, Y.; Murai, T. (2008). "The role of the uncinate fasciculus in memory and emotional recognition in amnestic mild cognitive impairment." Dementia and geriatric cognitive disorders, 28(5), pp. 432-9.
Gery, I.; Milijkovitch, R.; Bethoz, S. & Soussignan, R. (2009). "Empathy and recognition of facial expressions of emotion in sex offenders, non-sex offenders and normal controls." Psychiatry research, 165(3), pp. 252-62.
Kano, F.; Tanaka, M. & Tomonaga, M. (2008). "Enhanced recognition of emotional stimuli in the chimpanzee." Animal cognition, 11(3), pp. 517-24.
Lufson, S. & Nowicki, S. (1991). "Factors affecting the accuracy of facial affect recognition." Journal of social psychology, 131(6), pp. 815-22.
Rubinow, D.; Smith, M.; Schenkel, L.; Schmidt, P. & Dancer, K. (2007). "Facial emotion discrimination across the menstrual cycle in women with Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder…
J.; Chen, L.; Hunge, D.; Tzenga, O. & Lin, C. (2009). Sex differences in the neuroanatomy of human mirror-neuron system: A voxel-based morphometric investigation. Neuroscience, 158(2), pp. 713-20
G. Ota et al. 2009; Wang and Ching 2009). No other similar comparative studies exist on the difference between facial and word recognition of emotion, making comparison difficult. Yet the findings of the present study correlate with the increased accuracy given clear intent as found by Wang and Ching (2009). The fact that the speeds of both word recognition and facial expression recognition matched those of earlier studies is also
In other words Emotional Intelligence means that the individual is capable of: (1) Accurately perceiving emotions in oneself and others; (2) Uses emotions to facilitate thinking; (3) Understands emotional meanings; and (4) Manages emotions well. This model is referred to as the 'ability' model of emotional intelligence. (Mayer & Salovey, 1997) DANIEL GOLEMAN-PERSONAL & SOCIAL COMPETENCE Daniel Goleman proposed the model of emotional intelligence based on the Personal and Social competencies
To empathize will not even require a person to understand the reason why some people feel that way, or feel different. Empathizing, as a component of emotional intelligence, is just mere knowing and/or being aware of how they feel and nothing more (Anderson, 1985). The fifth and last component of emotional intelligence deals with handling relationships. This component is parallel to the management of various emotions to others, socialization, and
The first point addressed by Clark's review determines that a fundamental change in medical perspective had begun to transpire with the assumption of varying clinical research investigations on the subject. This would contribute to what Clark identifies as a major shift in the way that physicians had begun to perceive and treat terminal illness. As opposed to a cut and dry preparation of the patient for the certainty of death,
The results of this failure to distinguish can be extremely problematic to the effectiveness with which emotional disturbance is addressed and can have broad sociological consequences. Rush reports some stunning figures, particularly that among emotionally disturbed students, "Fifty-five percent leave school before graduating. Of those students with severe emotional disturbance who drop out of school, 73% are arrested within five years of leaving school." (Rush, 1) In spite of these
FACIAL EXPRESSION & EMOTION Psychology From the perspective of many psychologists, there is no set formal definition for emotion. We know that emotion is universal insofar as all humans experience and express emotion. There have been many studies, specifically over the past several decades that demonstrate that some emotions are expressed universally across time and culture. Just because there is not a universal definition for emotion, does not mean that there are