Kadembo supports the efforts of Transparency International (2006) in its internationals efforts against corruption. He supports there recommends the following instruments in fighting corruption, including:
2) Codes of conduct
3) Civil society participation and oversight
4) Whistleblower protection
5) Reducing incentives for corruption
6) Conflict of interest rules
7) Integrity pacts and debarment
8) Rigorous prosecution
In Kadembo's research, he has found that countries in Africa in which these suggestions have been implemented (at least where the intention and authority has been serious), they are effective. The tools mentioned above have a track record of starving off corruption in African countries where the implementation efforts have been genuine and thorough going. The international focus is needed to fight off efforts by the big powers who benefit from corruption to thwart such efforts (ibid, 66-67).
Given the corruption that is rife in the U.S., we really do not have much room to talk. However, cooperation and accountability have brought results not just in the area of environmental sustainability not just in the U.S., but even in areas like deepest Africa where corruption has been worst. To recap, this author feels that environmental sustainability needs to be a group effort. The problem with past efforts to deal with environmental sustainability is that the efforts have been much too compartmentalized. In recent experience, cooperation on the part of business, government and international organizations in cooperation has shown very real progress to mitigating the environmental sustainability problems that add so much to global environmental change.
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S. interests can flourish in developed and developing countries worldwide" (U.S. Department of State). The offices inside the Bureau of OES are developing the policies of the U.S. addressing the air pollution, hazardous wastes and pollutants of all sorts based on the agreements made at "the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants, the Basel Convention on Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes, the Rotterdam Convention on Prior Informed Consent, and the UN
Literature Review, Analysis and Discussion 7,500 words This section presents a review of the recent relevant peer-reviewed and scholarly literature concerning environmental sustainability in general and how environmental sustainability initiatives can help multinational corporations of different sizes and types achieve a competitive advantage in particular. Literature Review. According to Michalisin and Stinchfield (2010), "There is widespread consensus that human activity has had a significant impact on global climatic patterns which will have
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