Kadembo supports the efforts of Transparency International (2006) in its internationals efforts against corruption. He supports there recommends the following instruments in fighting corruption, including:
2) Codes of conduct
3) Civil society participation and oversight
4) Whistleblower protection
5) Reducing incentives for corruption
6) Conflict of interest rules
7) Integrity pacts and debarment
8) Rigorous prosecution
In Kadembo's research, he has found that countries in Africa in which these suggestions have been implemented (at least where the intention and authority has been serious), they are effective. The tools mentioned above have a track record of starving off corruption in African countries where the implementation efforts have been genuine and thorough going. The international focus is needed to fight off efforts by the big powers who benefit from corruption to thwart such efforts (ibid, 66-67).
Given the corruption that is rife in the U.S., we really do not have much room to talk. However, cooperation and accountability have brought results not just in the area of environmental sustainability not just in the U.S., but even in areas like deepest Africa where corruption has been worst. To recap, this author feels that environmental sustainability needs to be a group effort. The problem with past efforts to deal with environmental sustainability is that the efforts have been much too compartmentalized. In recent experience, cooperation on the part of business, government and international organizations in cooperation has shown very real progress to mitigating the environmental sustainability problems that add so much to global environmental change.
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