Extant Literature Has Been Dedicated 'Literature Review' chapter

Excerpt from 'Literature Review' chapter :

The authors pointed out the fact that the integration of semantic Web with the existing remote sensing processes can help in solving the problem. The ability of the remote sensing of information to provide certain functions in an online environment is superb. This results in dynamic transfer of information across the web. The authors further points out the fact that semantic information processing gives rise to semantic-based service reasoning and descriptions. This leads to an automatic web. The building of an environment fuelled by the semantic web leads to the combining of various advantages of various aspects and respects while conducting a service-oriented study. This result in a deeper appreciation of semantic services in providing richer and improved services for various users. Li et al. (2008) provide a discussion of the various classifications of remote sensing and information processing services as well as an ontology-based service that makes use of semantic description. They then proceed to give the actual process of developing and then implementing the service. Their article put extreme emphasis on the various classifications of remote sensing and information processing services. The semantic description aspect is also adequately covered. Their study however showed that it is possible to integrate web services into the domain of remote sensing and information processing. They also point out the fact that the application of semantic web services in the development of various remote-sensing and information processing are still in their infancy.

Paul and Holohan (2009) studies the application of semantic web technology in the support of learning content development.They point out the fact the semantic web is based on an ontology technology.This is because it uses a knowledge representation framework at its center in order to make a valuable meaning and a more accessible processing that is automatic. The authors discusses the potential use of web ontology technology in the development of various content to be used for the purpose of making learning technology systems. They present a total of seven different applications types in order to demonstrate different forms of applications of the ontologies as well as Semantic Web.

Applications of ontologies

The researchers point out that the ontologies can be used in order to: Assist various developers, instructors and learners in:

Organizing

Personalizing

Publishing of contents in order to help them in discovering, generating and composing of various learning content.

The researchers point out the fact that the process of developing the content as well as deploying the architecture allows the developers to distinguish and locate the various applications so as to make the content in question explicitly available. The authors point out the fact that ontology technologies can facilitate the making of the inherent knowledge structure of the available content to be explicit. They point out two important knowledge types that are crucial for describing the ontologies.These are:

Instructional knowledge- which is necessary when developing a structure for the educational documents.There is need to make use of education specific languages such as EML as pointed out by Koper (2001) as well as its predecessor, IMS Learning Design LD as illustrated by IMIS (2003)

It is worth noting that Paul and Holohan (2009) considered an antology to be acting as some form of taxonomy.

Subject specific knowledge-This can be utilized in the supporting the educational process structuring. This elements presents an additional dimension in the process of accessing of the document in a form that is a query which is subject related.

Paul and Holohan (2009) talks of the introduction of a vocabulary with the intention of classification.The various domain ontologies are evaluated and utilized. An important fact comes out of their work. This is related to the limitation which is associated with the use of markup as an integral restructuring tool. They also point the fact that the existing standards such as LOM are never enough as they do not have adequate coverage of all the important factors that are necessary to maintain and effectively support operations of automation.The study by Paul and Holohan (2009) yielded a number of aspects regarding applications build on the semantic web concept.These are;

It brought out the fact that the relationship between knowledge as well as content is made or rather rendered explicit whenever ontologies are utilized in the process of creating, organizing and describing various contents (educational) The acquired knowledge which is explicit is used in the provision of an easy and yet flexible access to various content as well as the description of various learning content. The merits of which include flexibility in the access to the various content and also the creation of structures that are important to the general presentation. Web ontology can therefore be used in the creation of efficient knowledge management systems.

The use of ontologies allows for the ease of reuse and sharing.This theme become svey evident as the ontologies are the perfect enablers and creation of perfect environment for reusing various resources in various context. Ontologies can therefore result in the making of various resources available by means of using certain standardized and yet accessible representation of the necessary knowledge.

The use of ontology as well as semantic Web is integral in the creation of a vision as well as technologies that are important in the solution of various problems in our society. One of the main causes of problems in common research and developments in this field was noted to be the use of various standards as well as tools.The use of OWL is also made popular as a result of its ability and design of providing solutions by means of certain standardized tools. It is also supported by various editors.

Research areas

Kumar and Kumar (2009) presented observations on the Semantic Web Service process as well as the tools and applications. They point out the fact that semantic web is poised to be the next generation of our current web. They also point out the fact that this domain is marked with several current research works. According to them semantic web can be considered to be a content-aware and intelligent web. The various research domains in semantic web are:

Reasoning

Languages

Discovery of processes

Matching, selecting and monitoring activities

The authors point out that semantic web's composition marks one of the most demanding and important domains that can be used in the composing of multiple services aimed at fulfilling the needs of various users. They point about that this topic is one that demands a lot of research and that there is a need to effectively explore the various uses of web technology. According to Kumar and Kumar (2009),there are various tools that have been developed in order to ensure that the semantic web and ontologies principles are made practical. There are also numerous potential areas of research in the field of semantic web that can be carried out. There are usually a lot of research problems that affect the actualization of application using the web semantics and ontologies that have been identified. They cover areas such as reasoning, selection of various processes as well as composition. It has been revealed in their literature that various different approaches, technology and tools can be utilized in a beneficial manner in order to come up or rather treat the semantic web as an open and yet demanding area of research.

Several problems exist in the domain of semantic web reasoning as well as the services, the languages used and processes as well as infrastructure. There is therefore a general need to conduct further research that is aimed at materializing of the semantic web while providing several useful notions that can aid future and further research domain.

Yea and Su (2005) developed a web information extraction system to be used in the active creation of metadata in a scenario of Semantic web. They created an automatic system that used a Semantic web information extraction technique. The part that carried out the information extraction was made up of a preparation part whose role is to take portions of written text as the main input and then gives out the POS tags from a group of words that are in the sentences. Their work employed finite state machine technology in order to extract the various units that were contained in the various sequence of tags. The system worked on complex words, domain events as well as basic phrases.The software system utilized components of GATE, architecture of an NPL software which actually acted as the main processing engine used in the supporting of all the required resources of language. For the purpose of the experiment, their research involved an experiment with the Chinese financial news.

Mika (2005) presented a paper that used a system referred to as Flink. The system that used Semantic web technology in the process of extracting and analyzing information of social networks. The system…

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