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In essence, this is already an essential step towards doing everything and, even if it doesn't mean immediately doing everything, it certainly anticipates and makes doing everything plausible.
On the other hand, with doing nothing, you are also more ready to embrace everything, to the degree to which you will be doing everything at a particular point in time. The emptiness provides, in fact, a necessary advantage as the capacity of doing everything when that becomes a necessity. Emptiness can, in this sense, become creative, only that creativity will only be activated at some point, at which point it will generate everything.
3. I am not fish, but I know that heart-minds are completed along with our bodies and I know that this is the same for all human being. Look at the way the fish is swimming: this tells me that it is happy in body and it is…
Analytic Philosophy in the Western Tradition
Onto-Hermeneutical Vision and Analytic Discourse: Interpretation and Reconstruction on Chinese Philosophy by Chung-Ying Cheng
This is a paper on Chinese philosophy by Chung-Ying Cheng
The author though acknowledges that a sense of knowledge and the analytic use of language have often been the guiding principles for the Greeks for presenting arguments and conclusions; in spite of knowing the overall vision of the truth. Thus, thanks to the Greeks, it has become the foundation of future development of Western philosophy in an analytic and rational yet argumentative framework. It is also precisely what is missing in today's approach, as one wishes to compare Western and Eastern philosophy in general and Greek and Chinese philosophy in particular.
Thus, according to the author, whether it is the use of different styles of language, such as that in 'lagos', or 'lingua'; or various Greek schools of mysticism and…
Chinese philosophers differ greatly from those of the Western world in that the basis of their argument is usually based on Confucius. Later philosophers who attempt to dispel the strong influence of Confucius had to measure up to his philosophy. Lao Tzu and Chuang Tzu are two such followers who attempted to change the concept by explaining that all things in nature in this world are interdependent. The leader of the Taoist faction, Lao Tzu believes in the Great One as the fundamental pillar for all life activities and that all fundamentals are linked with each other. For example substance and function; humaneness and righteousness are as important and that loving the people is just as important as following the governing state. Chuang Tzu too offers similar explanation by saying that development of one's nature is linked with Nature. Man and nature therefore has to interact in order to achieve…
In spite of the fact that it never became as popular as Daoism, Confucianism was important because it was responsible for a series of reforms in the moral and political systems of China. It was only during the ruling of Dong Zhongshu that Confucianism became appreciated as China's main school of thought. The philosophy slowly but surely experienced progress and came to be one of the main systems guiding China's politics. In addition to assisting politics, society, and economics, Confucianism also provided the Chinese with the opportunity to adopt a new and improved way of life. ith the ru school being supported by the state, it became clear that Confucianism had become the principal philosophy in the territory.
Confucianism was particularly impressive because it brought together elements found in Legalism and in Daoism. The ideology emphasized the importance of morality and it also assisted the state in implementing its laws…
Guo, X. (2002). The Ideal Chinese Political Leader: A Historical and Cultural Perspective. Westport, CT: Praeger.
Ivanhoe, P.J. And Van Norden, B.W. eds. (2001). Readings in Classical Chinese Philosophy. New York: Seven Bridges Press.
Orts, E.W. "The Rule of Law in China," Vanderbilt Journal of Transnational Law 34.1 (2001): 43
Pohl, K. And Muller, A.W. eds. (2002). Chinese Ethics in a Global Context: Moral Bases of Contemporary Societies. Boston: Brill.
This idea was accepted by most of the philosophical schools of the time, including the Atomists.
Plato took quite a different approach and found that ideas, as noted, and saw idas as existing outside of human consciousness. Plato's doctrine of recollection holds that learning is the remembering of a wisdom that the soul enjoyed prior to its incarnation, another aspect of the idea that there are ideal forms "remembered" by the soul in this world, and this is actually a mythical statement of this view that neither reason nor the intelligible order that it reveals is alien to the human soul. The soul is seen as existing before life here on earth and as remembering the ideals it knew before birth. Protagoras would not have engaged in this sort of argument, jus as he avoided arguments about the existence of the gods as being outside of sensory experience.
The pogam pimaily suppots the local Chinese communities to maintain younge geneation's heitage backgound, and speading Chinese cultue in the U.S. The classes ae nomally held two to thee hous on weekends with Chinese language lessons and othe taditional cultual and at activities. Most students have high levels of oal poficiency in Chinese, but needed to enhance skills in liteacy. Chinese heitage schools ae mainly suppoted by two goups: the National Council of Associations of Chinese Language Schools (NCACLS) which is founded by Taiwan o Hong Kong immigant and heitage communities, and the Chinese School Association in the United States (CSAUS) that is connected with immigant and heitage communities fom mainland China. Accoding to Scott McGinnis's (2005) compiled statistics, the combined enollment of NCACLS and CSAUS was aound 150,000 in 2003. The numbe of students in the heitage schools is lage than in othe CFL pogams acoss the U.S.
references for the researchers and educators that may lead to some recommendations in developing a better learning environment in future foreign language education. The data collected from the surveys will be treated as confidential by me, and all the collected data will be anonymous. The data will be only applied directly to this study and not in other use, nor is it available for other parties. A letter of consent form will be sent to all participants to be aware to the purpose and the use of this study from the collected data. All collected data will be protected by the researcher during the study.
A survey developed by the researcher of this study includes two sections of questions which relate to the foreign language learning. The first part of the questions is based on the participants' background and their children's background relating to their cultural and language background. The second section includes questions about the reason of sending their child to CFL program; what level do they want their child to complete Chinese language learning, and what area do they want their child to apply the language. The participants choose from the options provided that applies to them the best. There are three open ended questions, allowing for free comments. (See appendix a).
The research is a qualitative research design that investigates the similarities and differences between parental motivations towards CFL learning between diverse ethnicities by using an online survey to explore the two essential questions in this research.
Chinese Jade Burial Suits
During all my travels throughout ancient China, one of the more peculiar beliefs I came across was the notion that jade holds mystical powers, capable of preventing the body from decaying. I am currently in Chang'an, the capital of the dynasty, which is known in the present day as Xi'an. The year is 192 CE. The people of the estern Han Dynasty universally agree that this supposedly magical material is the essence of mountains, and because it prevents the decomposition of the physical form, it may in fact ensure rebirth. Now, as of the present day, very few of these jade burial suits still actually exist, and it may seem ambiguous as to whether or not they were a passing fad or a momentary excess amongst emperors. However, upon my investigation of the long-forgotten past, I have found that this practice of burying the dead with…
Cultural China. (2007-2010). Jade burial suit. Retrieved December 9, 2010, from http://arts.cultural-china.com/en/32Arts415.html
China.org.cn. (2001). Handicraft industry and technological advances. Retrieved December 9,
2010, from http://www.china.org.cn/e-gudai/4.htm
H-ry?-ji. Horyuji: a brief history. Retrieved December 9, 2010, from http://www.horyuji.or.jp/horyuji_e.htm
In addition, the ceremony also contained firecrackers which were symbolic of purification and joy. The food that was served at a marriage ceremony was also symbolic. For example, fruit and longevity noodles were symbolic of harmony, happiness, and prosperity.
Indeed the marriage arrangement was detailed and extravagant (for the wealthy) during the Qing dynasty. Now that we understand the marital arrangement let us focus on the role of the ideal wife during Qing's Dynasty.
The role of the ideal wife (Qing Dynasty)
Once the transfer was complete, the wife was totally immersed in pleasing her husband and his family. All kinship ties to the wife's family were broken and when she visited her family, she was considered a guest not a relative. Smith (1994) asserts that this was a cause of distress for many new wives because they were usually amongst strangers and the mother in law had a great…
Atwill, D.G. (2003). Code, Custom, and Legal Practice in China: The Qing and the Republic Compared. China Review International, 10(2), 411+. http://www.questia.com /PM.qst?a=o&d=14304634' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
In addition, repeating ACSI can provide trend data (Hall, 2002, p. 23+), important to government agencies, but also to new industries. Hall notes that, "Besides the ability of the ACSI to maintain a pulse on customer satisfaction, the ACSI is an index, not just a survey. This means it groups all participants and provides an integrated score, or index" (2002, p. 23+).
Schay et al. reported that the United States federal Office of Personnel Management uses a similar instrument that measures nine core dimensions underlying customer satisfaction. "These dimensions were distilled from 139 dimensions identified in the management, marketing, and organizational psychology literature. The dimensions are empirically related to organizational effectiveness and relevant to all service sectors" (Schay et al., 2000, p. 30), and therefore would need to be developed specifically for each industry.
hile ACSI is the dominant measuring tool in much of U.S. consumer satisfaction research, the Kano…
Arnould E.J. And L.L. Price. River magic: extraordinary experience and the extended service encounter, J. Consum. Res. 20(1) (1993):24-45
Berry, Leonard L. And Thomas W. Thompson. Relationship Banking: The Art of Turning Customers into Clients," Journal of Retail Banking, (1982, June), 64-73.
Bettman, James R.An Information Processing Theory of Consumer Choice, Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley (1979).
Bowlby, John. Attachment and Loss: Vol. 1. Attachment, 2nd ed., New York: Basic Books (1982).
Sun Yat-sen commends the current commitment of the Empire to the education of Chinese individuals in estern languages and in technical crafts that have resulted in the improvement of the modern Chinese navy, but such education alone, with its still overly focused stress on the classics and Chinese inclusiveness is not enough to fully catapult China into the modern world.
Sun Yat-sen points to his unique ability to broach both estern and Chinese understanding, because of his education. His philosophy stresses the meshing the ideals of the modern estern sages with Chinese traditions to facilitate Chinese advancement. His advice seems reasonable to the modern ear. But all advice is reasonable in retrospect, of course, with the retrospective knowledge of Chinese history and the knowledge of the costs of Chinese intransigence and closure that eventually resulted in further conflicts with the est.
Spence, Jonathan and Michael Lestz. (Editors.) the…
Spence, Jonathan and Michael Lestz. (Editors.) the Search for Modern China: A Documentary Collection. New York: Norton 1999.
In contrast Mozi argued that people should always care for others equally.
Linking the thoughts of different philosophers
The ancient Chinese sacrificial practice was very common whereby the historical dynasties had carried out human sacrifices quite extensively. However there was the disappearance of this ritual during the periods of spring and autumn as well as the warring periods. Though it was practiced privately this ritual of sacrificing humans was replaced at the state level by clay puppets. The reason why this ritual was discontinued was not known. All these philosophers ignored the blood letting ritual but instead put emphasis on ritual morality to form the foundation of ritual state. Xunzi came up with a funeral ritual which was an ancestral right which required blood sacrifice in the ancient time. This according to him was to form the basis for good citizenship and morality when it came to rituals (Plutschow, 2002).…
Plutschow, H. (2002). Xunzi and the Ancient Chinese Philosophical Debate on Human Nature. Retrieved May 23, 2013 from http://www.anthropoetics.ucla.edu/ap0801/xunzi.htm
Cultural-china.com. (2010). Mohism (Philosophy of Mozi). Retrieved May 23, 2013 from http://history.cultural-china.com/en/49H6943H12322.html
Brindley, E. (2011). Individualism in Classical Chinese Thought. Retrieved May 23, 2013 from http://www.iep.utm.edu/ind-chin/
Piblius. (2007). Comparing Mohism and Confucianism. . Retrieved May 23, 2013 from http://www.chinahistoryforum.com/index.php?/topic/16546-comparing-mohism-and-confucianism/
All good things must come to an end, and at no time is this fact truer than in China in 1911, when the Xinhai Revolution resulted in the fall of the Qing Dynasty. This led to a period of unrest, as the world's powers engaged in orld ar I. Even though China had participated in the war on the side of the Allies, China was betrayed during the negotiations at the Treaty of Versailles. Instead of being given autonomy over a controlled sphere of interest in the Shandong district of China, the Treaty of Versailles instead gave this territory over to Japan. China's May 4th Movement ended up being an anti-est, anti-imperialist cultural shift that grew out of student demonstrations in 1919.
The weak response of the Chinese government to reclaim the Shandong province for itself in self-defense led to accusations of corruption. hether or not the government was…
Chen, Duxiu, "Our Final Awakening." (Essay, 1916). Retrieved from, http://afe.easia.columbia.edu/ps/china/chen_duxiu_final_awakening.pdf .
Chiang, Kai-shek, "Essentials of the New Life Movement." (Speech, 1934). Retrieved from, http://afe.easia.columbia.edu/ps/cup/chiang_kaishek_new_life.pdf .
Mao, Zedong, "Reform our Study." (Speech, 1941). Selected Works of Mao, Beijing Foreign Languages Press, 1971.
The Chinese people place high regard on tradition, honor, and the ongoing nature of personal relationships to both of these cultural imperatives in order to establish their own identity in the world. When San Francisco was settled by coolie laborers during the 1850's and 1960's, the discrimination which they received encouraged them to band together into a china town settlement. The Chinese were able to create a replica of their homeland in the Chinatown. They were able to maintain their own cultural diversity within the boundaries, and they were able to escape, at least for a short time, the discrimination and harassment which faced them daily in the larger community.
According to the "Letter to Jen An, the writer discusses Chinese personal ethics, and the source of the Chinese identity of a worthwhile personhood. He writes that the Chinese philosophy is built around these 5 tenants:
Art and Death: The Chinese
Portraying death to children
In the preschool age, educators seldom broach the topic of death. However, some picture books for kids directly address death and related issues. Their current approach is worth utilizing as reference. Book presentations follow the steps: comprehending death with preschoolers' internal experiences, slowly probing into what death means in the eyes of preschoolers, and expanding on the subject by seeking the continuance of love. The above three elements serve as references for Chinese picture books with death as the central theme. Such books depict a child's world using children's language and culture-specific images. The concept of death is taught to students in the form of interesting stories, which portray children's pure world, characterized by curiosity and innocence. Adults are also deeply affected by their simplicity, love and care (Chen, 2012).
Thesis: Death has been incorporated, as a theme, into Chinese books,…
Chen, Y. (2012). The Expression of Death in Children's Picture Story Books. International Journal of Humanities and Social Science, 210-213.
Danto, A. C. (1998). The End of Art: A Philosophy of Defense. Blackwell Publishing, 127-143.
Han, S. (2012, June 22). The invisible red line - maneuvering Chinese art censorship. Retrieved from All that is banned is desired: http://artsfreedom.org/
Sharf, R. H. (1992). The Idolization of Enlightenment: On the mummification of Ch'an masters in Medieval China. The University of Chicago Press, 1- 31.
In the course of the Cultural Revolution, the communist leader Mao Zedong proclaimed particular cultural requirements for both art and writings in China. This was a period that was filled with violence and harsh realisms for the people within the society. Authors such as Bei Dao, Gu Cheng and Yu Hua can be considered to be misty poets, whose works endeavored to shift from an inactive response to active formation. The aforementioned individuals are renowned authors, writers and poets celebrated for their influential literal works and their impact during the course of the Cultural Revolution in China. Through their short stories and poems, these authors strove to create a cultural force with the purpose of educating the public and offering them revolutionary principles and ideals. The art and literature that was delineated by these authors played a significant role in the sociopolitical realm and the demise of the Cultural Revolution…
Belt, One oad
Were I an external consultant for Lenovo, I would outline a number of opportunities and issues for this Chinese company operating in India. I would begin by detailing the various opportunities afforded by the One Belt, One oad plan initially revealed by China's president in 2013 (Kennedy and Parker, 2015). The most significant of those opportunities relates to the infrastructure ambitions of this initiative.
China is planning to unite the majority of the countries surrounding it with unified infrastructure. As such, this goal presents an opportunity for companies in countries close to China (such as Lenovo in London) to assist with the building of this physical infrastructure across roadways. Such building would include roads, highways and railways (Kennedy and Parker, 2013). Additionally, there is a maritime element of this plan. China is also attempting to connect its surrounding countries via ports and the means of sailing from…
Kennedy, S., Parker, D.A. (2015). Building China's "One Belt, One Road." http://csis.org / Retrieved from
It upheld, rather than tore down, the existing order. The search for salvation could be seen to be connected to performance of one's duty here in the material world. Confucianism was indeed an important philosophy in the Tokugawa Period, but Japanese forms of Buddhism, together with native Shinto practice always remained central to the Japanese religious experience. As in Korea, Confucian ideals found support because of their emphasis on order. The military classes of the samurai and daimyo, especially, saw a strong linkage between Confucian practice and military ideals, many even criticizing Buddhist doctrines of rebirth as irrational, especially in regard to the idea of the punishment in hell of supposedly incorporeal bodies.
Japanese Neo-Confucianists even criticized Buddhism as an antisocial religion.
Confucianism was seen as supremely rational, while Buddhist doctrines were often questioned by those in authority.
On yet other levels, Chinese ideas were adapted to fit Korean and…
Goodwin, Janet R. Alms and Vagabonds: Buddhist Temples and Popular Patronage in Medieval Japan. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1994.
Lancaster, Lewis R., Richard K. Payne, and Karen M. Andrews, eds. Religion and Society in Contemporary Korea. Berkeley, CA: Institute of East Asian Studies, University of California, 1997.
Leggett, Trevor. Samurai Zen: The Warrior Koans. New York: Routledge, 2003.
Nosco, Peter, ed. Confucianism and Tokugawa Culture. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1997.
Taoism, Confucianism, Judaism
Taoism, Confucianism, and Judaism
There are several major religions in the world and in different parts of the world the religions are quite diverse. In China, two major religions are Taoism and Confucianism, while in the West one of the oldest religions is Judaism. These religions are quite different, with historical, theological, and philosophical differences. But they also have certain aspects in common, such as honesty, integrity, and compassion. These religions espouse doctrines on how a person should to live their life, how they should behave in relationships, and how they should treat other people. This essay will explore these three religious traditions; their histories, differences, and similarities.
Sometime around 550 BCE, in the Chinese kingdom of Lu, there was born a man named Confucius, called "Kung Fu Tzu" in Chinese. After opening a school and serving as a minister for his ruler, Confucius was forced to…
"Catholic Encyclopedia: Confucianism." NEW ADVENT: Home. Web. 18 June 2011.
"Confucianism." Religious Tolerance.org. Web 17 June 2011. http://www.religioustolerance.org/confuciu.htm
Dosick, Wayne. "Living Judaism: the complete guide to Jewish belief, tradition, and practice." Google Books. Web 17 June 2011. http://books.google.com/books?id=bpXUYUO7cg8C
Neo-Confucianism is a philosophy which was born from the need to explain the existence of man and the universe in a manner which was just as complex as the Buddhist one. The philosophers which belong to this school of thought took the core of the Confucian philosophy and enriched it with contributions from other philosophies. It can also be stated that neo-Confucianism is a reaction to various provocations of philosophical character coming from Buddhism, neo-Daoism and the yin-yang tradition.
Its purpose was to come up not just with a comprehensive abstract explanation of the world, but also with the rightful principles and laws that would guide everyday behaviour. Naturally, there had to be a synergetic relation between the two categories. The revival of the Confucian thought began in the ninth century and reached important levels of creativity in the eleventh century during the northern Song dynasty.
It must be underlined…
Angurarohita, Pratoom (1989). Buddhist influence on the neo-Confucian concept of the sage. Retrieved from Sino-Platonic papers march 14, 2009 from http://www.sino-platonic.org/complete/spp010buddhistconfuciansage.html
Daoism, Retrieved from Encyclopaedia Britannica march 14, 2009 from http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/582972/Daoism/42165/Daoism-and-other-religions
Fung, YU-Lan (1952) . A history of Chinese philosophy. Trans. Derk Bodde. Princeton University Press.
Ivanhoe, P (2000). Confucian moral self cultivation. Indianapolis, Hackett Publishing Company.
Jiahua, Cheng, Buddhism and the Chinese culture. Retrieved march 14, 2009 from philosophy.cass.cn/facu/chengjianhua/09.do
Jensen, L. (1997). Manufacturing Confucianism: Chinese traditions and universal civilization. NYC, Duke University Press
Koller, John, M. (2006) Asian philosophies. Prentice Hall.
Neo-Confucian philosophy. Retrieved from The internet encyclopaedia of philosophy http://www.iep.utm.edu/n/neo-conf.htm
Honor Code of Chinese Warriors
The objective of this study is to discuss the honor code of warrior-heroes in Chinese history and to answer to what the honor code consists of and the origin of the honor code. As well, this study will examine how this honor code influenced the intentions, words, and actions of the warriors and how the honor code manifests itself in novels, how and when the codes apply and what competing visions existed in human conduct.
Wuxia is a term in Mandarin that means literally "martial arts chivalry" and is representative of a unique Chinese type of story that is dated back as far as the Tang Dynasty (681-907). Wuxia is defined by stories "that combine wushu (martial arts) tradition with deeds of heroic chivalry perfomed by men and women." (Pollard, 2011, p.1) Wuxia stories are rooted in "early youxia (?
) and cike (?
The Warrior Code (nd) China History Forum. Retrieved from: http://www.chinahistoryforum.com/index.php?/topic/31149-warrior-spirit-in-china-chinese-warrior-codes/
Hsia, C.T.C.T. Hsia on Chinese Literature. Columbia University Press, 2004 (ISBN 0231129904), pg. 149
Bordahl, Vibeke. Four Masters Of Chinese Storytelling: Full-length Repertoires Of Yangzhou Storytelling On Video. Nordic Institute of Asian Studies; Bilingual edition, 2004 (ISBN 8-7911-1464-0), pg. 166
Guth, Christine. Longfellow's Tattoos: Tourism, Collecting, and Japan. University of Washington Press (2004), p147
More recently two schools of military history have developed that attempt to consider its object from a more eclectic, objective perspective, dubbed the "New Military History" and "War and Society" history. New Military History "refers to a partial turning away from the great captains, and from weapons, tactics, and operations as the main concerns of the historical study of war," and instead focusing on "the interaction of war with society, economics, politics, and culture."
New Military History is a relatively broad category, and its perspective can be evinced both on the level of a particular methodology and ideology.
Along with the "War and Society" school of thought, New Military History seeks to uncover the multifarious factors driving and influencing military conflict, with a particular view towards the interaction between these factors and the actual practice of war. That is to say, these schools of thought do no entirely abandon any…
Alexander, Joseph G. "The Truth about the Opium War." The North American Review (1821-
1940) 163, (1896): 381-383.
Bello, David. "The Venomous Course of Southwestern Opuim: Qing Prohibtion in Yunnan,
Sichuan, and Guizhou in the Early Nineteenth Century." The Journal of Asian Studies.
Japanese History And Chinese Fixation
Japanese History & Chinese Fixation
If any single term can characterize early Japan, it may be called a period of "Chinese fixation"
Borrowing of culture by Japan from China started with the introduction or adoption of Buddhism in 552 A.D. And continued steadily until the end of the Nara period in 784. This is an expression of the impact of Chinese Civilization. If any single term can characterize these two & half centuries, they would be called the period of "Chinese fixation." This indicates the adoption and integration of the concept of Chinese relationship and culture into the development of the leadership style, language, religion, and other aspects in the context of the history of Japan. For instance, in curtailing power of the great clans and promotion of the prestige or status of the imperial institution, China was vital in the provision of inspiration to…
Karl F. Friday. (1997). Pushing beyond the Pale: the Yamato Conquest of the Emishi and Northern Japan. Journal of Japanese Studies, Vol. 23, No. 1, pp. 1-24
Theodore de Bary et al., (2000). Sources of Japanese Tradition. Volume One; from earliest to
Dorothy Ko et al. (2003). Women and Confucian Cultures in Pre-modern China, Korea, and Japan. University of California Press; London, England.
Leonard, J.N., & Time-Life Books. (1971). Early Japan. New York: Time-Life Books.
Confucius was a Chinese philosopher and his thought is referred as Analects of Confucius composing of his ideas and sayings. For over thousand years after his death, his thought was still relevant in the Chinese thought. Confucius was born in 551 a couple of centuries before Socrates taught ethics and logic. Confucius was being identified as the Chinese first teacher whose his ideas had been implemented in several countries in Eastern Asia that include Korea, Vietnam, Japan and Western civilization. The Analects is the selected sayings and ideas of Confucius, which he used to preach his philosophical thoughts. The Analects composed of more than 500 independent passages, which were divided into 20 books, and some of these books had separate bundles with the dominated themes.
There are a group of the key contexts in the books that consist of Ren, Junzi, and Li. The literary meaning of Ren is revered…
History Of Theory Behind Curriculum Development
The evolution of curriculum theory by and large reflects the current of thought found in the academic-political landscape. The essence of the ancient maxim cuius regio, eius religio applies here: who reigns, his religion. In this case, who reigns, his curriculum. This has been true throughout all the centuries where education was deemed important by a group of individuals or a State. For example, in the West, the ancient Greeks (most notably Plato and Aristotle) devised a curriculum with the purpose of attaining knowledge and/or achieving "soundness" in the mind. Curricula are ever-tied to an aim -- and the objective of a curriculum may be ascertained by a review of what it contains or what its teachers hope to achieve. Therefore, the evolution of curriculum theory is related to the evolution of individual and societal objectives. Historically speaking, these objectives are manifest in every…
Adrian, J. (1999). Mere or More?: Classical Rhetoric and Today's Classroom.
University of North Carolina SITES, 131: 11-21.
Aquinas, T. (1942). Summa Theologica. [Fathers of the English Dominican Province
Trans.]. Retrieved from http://www.ccel.org/a/aquinas/summa/FP/FP068.html
This became a reality with the killing of the tsar in 1918. The death of the tsar was the visible reaction to a series of underlining causes that would eventually encourage the raise to power of a political ideology that addressed these issues and offered political and propagandistic solutions.
The social situation of the populations was rather grim during the tsar's regime. ussia had been engaged in the First World War effort and the condition of the soldiers was disastrous. Similarly, the peasants often were subjected to oppressive taxes in order for the regime to be able to financially support the war effort.
Aside from the social causes of the revolution, there were also political aspects that determined the fall of the tsar and the subsequent establishment of the communist regime. Thus, the authoritarian imperial rule opposed the visions of politicians such as the Bolshevik leader Trotsky. He was seen…
Carroll, J., and George Herring. (1986) Modern American Diplomacy. Scholarly Resources Inc. Wilmington, Delaware.
Fairbank, J.K. (1986). The great Chinese Revolution: 1800- 1985. London: Pan Books.
Jenkins, P. (1997). A history of the United States. New York: Palgrave.
Rauch, Basil. (1963). The history of the New Deal. New York: Capricorn Books.
Traditional Chinese Beliefs that played a part if Taoism and Confucianism
Taoism and Confucianism both have their roots in the ancient beliefs of Chinese people. The core of Taoism and Confucianism is still based in the ancient Chinese beliefs. Taoism emphasizes the significance of being compatible with nature by balancing the forces of yin and yang. In reference to the traditional Taoist cosmology, matter and force are contemplated to be ruled by five movements. Earth exerts its presence strongly before the beginning of every season.
Taoism is in favour of a simple life. It is a strong follower of acquiring spiritual harmony by incorporating positive attitude, compliance, and serenity in our lives. The simplest way of life is the ideal one. A wise person always complies with to the rhythm of the world.
Taoism is about accepting life and everything associated with it in its natural form. Taoists…
Chow K., Ng O.C. & Henderson J.B. (1999) Imagining boundaries: changing Confucian doctrines, texts, and hermeneutics. New York. United States of America. University of New York Press.
Wiesner M.E. (2001) Gender in history. United Kingdom. Blackwell Publishers.
Wong. E (1997) The Shambhala guide to Taoism. United States of America. Shambhala Publishers.
Yang J-M. (1997) The Essence of Taiji Qigong: The Internal Foundation of Taijiquan. Canada. YMAA Publication Center In
Women throughout Chinese history have experienced the oppression their tradition and culture exert as well as the power only members of their sex can attain in their chosen domains. Although readers have been exposed to historical anecdotes relating foot binding and Man's superiority to women, there are also many stories relating their freedom and tenacity, whether they are wives, concubines, courtesans or prostitutes. The history of Chinese women is not necessarily limited to persecution and being dominated, it is also peppered with inspirational stories of women who have been able to find happiness, success and fulfillment within the parameters Chinese tradition and culture dictate.
In Chinese society, the positions women maintained were very indistinct (http://www.wm.edu/CAS/anthropology/faculty/hamada/Virtual_Classromm/wwwb.../208.htm,1)."In Chinese society, women as a category had a dependent status." (Watson, 1991, 232). efore a girl married, she was controlled completely by her father. After she married, this responsibility was transferred to her husband. If…
Bennett, Natalie. (2001) Women of Emperial China: A Re-Examination. http://www.journ.freeserve.co.uk/china/china4.html
Burns, Dennis. (2002) The View From the Dragon's Lair. http://www.crystal-bridge.com/dennis0402.html
Jaschok, Maria. (1988) Concubines and Bondservants: The Social History of a Chinese Custom. London: Zed Press.
Jaschok, Maria & Miers, Suzanne (eds.) (1994) Women and Chinese Patriarchy. New Jersey: Hong Kong U.
Heitage Assessment: Indian, Chinese and Ameican Cultues
In using the heitage assessment tool, thee (3) cultues wee consideed and compaed: Indian (autho's cultue), Chinese and Ameican.
The autho's cultue is highly influenced by ual Indian cultue, as s/he was aised in India until s/he was 25 yeas old. Because of this late influence of Ameican cultue, my Indian cultue has emained stonge within me. This is eflected in the autho's lifestyle, which stictly adheed to taditions and values held impotant by the Indians. Raised a Catholic, the autho is actively involved in the Chuch and paticipates in activities like Bible eading and celebating eligious holidays. The autho's stong Catholic Indian identity is also eflected in he social cicle, which pimaily consisted of Indians shaing the same cultual identity as he and pacticing Catholics.
Howeve, when talking about health maintenance, the autho mixes the influence of Indian cultue with the…
references to documents in history." ICCROM Working Group 'Heritage and Society.' Available at: http://cif.icomos.org/pdf_docs/Documents%20on%20line/Heritage%20definitions.pdf
Their children became the deities of the various Japanese clans. One of their daughters, Amaterasu Omikami or "Sun Goddess," became the ancestor of the Imperial Family the chief deity, and her descendants united the country (eligious Tolerance).
The Shintoism philosophy deeply reveres and worships ancestors. All humans are considered "Kami's child," and therefore all human life and nature is sacred. Followers seek the will of Kami to have sincerity and a true heart and act in a way that is best for the group. The most important aspects in life are tradition and family, nature, worship of Kami and peace (eligious Tolerance).
Shintoism is very different from Buddhism, because it is based on a philosophy of a nation, Japan. Other major related differences include ancestral worship, that centers around the Imperial Family, the philosophy's lack of discussion regarding death, and the emphasis on goodness and cleanliness instead of pain and…
Horizon Book of the Arts of China (1969). New York: American Heritage Publishing.
Religious Tolerance Org. Shinto. Website retrieved October 29, 2006. http://www.religioustolerance.org/shinto.htm .
WBGT Limits for Chinese Migrant Workforce
The effects of heat stress on workers has been well documented (1-4), especially in the construction industry (5-6), but widely compatible standards for determining safe limits for heat exposure have yet to arisen, which makes a difficult task of determining the compatibility of Wet Bulb Globe Temperature (WBGT) limits with a Chinese migrant workforce in the construction industry, working primarily in a tropical climate. Each population and climate requires specific considerations when determining the risk of heat stress, and these specific considerations ultimately demonstrate certain gaps in the WBGT heat index that makes it incompatible for deployment with the previously mentioned workforce. A number of regulations use the Wet Bulb Globe Temperature as a standard for determining heat thresholds (7), but recent research (8-9) has shown the WBGT to be overly conservative in certain situations, particularly in areas with high humidity levels such as…
1. Ben GS, Hashim Z, Hamzah R. Occupational heat stress of workers in a plastic industry,
Selangor. J of Occupational Health 2009; 1(2):56-63.
2. Chen M, Chen C, Yeh W, Huang J, Mao I. Heat stress evaluation and worker fatigue in a steel plant. AIHA J. 2003; 64(3):352-359.
3. Bates GP, Miller VS, Joubert DM. Hydration status of expatriate manual workers during summer in the Middle East. Ann. Occupational Hygiene 2009; 54(2):137-143.
old Chinese proverb that I believe encompasses my feelings for the nursing profession. With the healthcare industry in its current state of disruption, it has become very important to re-evaluate the relationship of patient care and patient satisfaction. "Sometimes patient satisfaction needs to be measured one patient at a time. This usually has nothing to do with the impersonality of the plan, the aloofness of the provider, or the quality of the specialists to whom one is referred. Rather, it involves the basic rationing philosophies of HMOs, particularly the for-profit variety." (Birenbaum, 107) We can't forget that the business objectives of HMO's aim to purchase services and materials at the lowest price possible and trying to lock in a price in advance. HMO's have therefore changed the philosophy of the healthcare industry. As nurses, we have to make the best of this atmosphere. This essay therefore serves as the final…
From the perspective of professionalism, I have learned that as a nurse, it is best to continue to function in the day-to-day with an open mind and to also be prepared to look for a viable solution through detailed research. For example, I have discovered that the Hmong philosophy may not have been all that far fetched. Shamanism is actually the foundation of many modern medical cures including various technologies, sciences and medicines. Shamanism has also been unofficially credited with having discovered the fact that the ability of people who have suffered a state of amnesia, epilepsy or other 'soul splitting' similar to Lia's are actually one way that the body allows for time to heal from brain trauma induced by accidents or other physical abuses. "There is a doorway within our minds that usually remains hidden and secret until the time of death. The Huichoil word for it is neirika. Neirika is a cosmic portway or interface between so-called ordinary and non-ordinary realities. It is a pathway and at the same time a barrier between worlds." (Halifax, 1991)
Lia's father may not have been right about the doors slamming as the stimulus, but he may have been on to something with the notion of a splitting of the soul. Long before modern psychology or medicine, Shamanism discovered that children used soul splitting events like epilepsy, amnesia, sleep and even comas to heal from events like mentally traumatic or emotional disturbances such as the loss of their parents or siblings. Just like modern medicine and psychology, shamanic journeys that realigned the human soul have been proven to have healed some forms of depression, helped in coma recoveries and more. When Lia was alive and well years after the western world had assumed she would not live more than a few months at best, the western world could have benefited by admitting that in this case at least, the Hmong way of life may have been superior. I believe that what I have learned from this class and from the story will advance me as a future nurse because I will apply the ideas of open mindedness with detailed research.
As the HMO payment philosophy
autobiographic summary. What value, philosophy and attributes describe you? What qualities define your character? Describe what significant events you believe influenced your character. Note any special activity or organization in which you have been involved. Consider what makes your desired profession relevant to you. What assets do you possess that will contribute to your success as a professional?
Change is something we can face with either trepidation or anticipation. I have always liked immersing myself in new experiences and situations. I come from a traditional Chinese culture that believes there are both Yin and Yang; that everything in life has an opposite and something to balance it. Unfortunately, it seamed I had a little too much "Yang" as my family had a number of problems that prevented me from enjoying a happy childhood. If I had believed in good karma, I would have concluded that growing up in Chinese-Vietnamese family…
At that time, however, I was fortunate to have had Dr. Lin, a Taiwanese professor, and my classmate Michael, (who would later become my husband), to help me through the transition of recovering my self-worth and purpose. They helped me put my life back together again. Both of them had a great deal of experience dealing with cultural adjustments, and they guided me through these difficult times by giving me support and by listening to the concerns of my daily life. Their efforts enabled me to understand the importance of listening empathetically, and inspired me to become an active listener when I am working to help others.
Just after Christmas in 2001, my son was born. Just as one might turn the page of a book to the next chapter, I became a new person. From a carefree twenty-year-old sophomore, I suddenly realized that I am not only responsible for my own actions, but also for my family's well being. Through this experience, I felt released from the bitterness trapped within me since my childhood, and I have changed the direction my life was headed, finding it within myself to fulfill my potential in everything I do.
I am very observant and I adapt well to new changes, but, when you are from a foreign country you are faced with many challenges. Fortunately, my husband and in-laws helped me to adapt to my new environment with their patience and love. This was the first time I became aware of the importance of family support. While my family educated me about the American way of life, they respected my differences and accepted my choice for living an Asian lifestyle in America. Therefore, I was able to make some adjustments to compromise with their lifestyle without losing my own identity. Even though I could have stayed the same as the first day I arrived in Indiana, I realized the benefits of
This brings us to the idea of ideal femininity. What is the ideal woman? What should we expect of the female gender in the new millennium? When comparing the two views above, I would say that Chan's ideal of the woman as one who is worthy of recognition for her efforts in any context is far more valid than that forwarded by Campbell, who creates an emotional victimhood for women. When combining these views, I would say the ideal woman is indeed emotional, but she is also capable of using her emotion to energize her efforts towards the life she desires. Emotion can translate into passion, and I believe that women have a possible advantage here. A woman's emotion for her family can create a passion for creating the perfect home. Her passion to contribute economically to her relationship with her partner or her family can lead to great excellence…
Campbell, S. (1994, Summer). Being Dismissed: The Politics of Emotional Expression. Hypatia, Vo. 9, No. 3. Retrieved from: http://www.jstor.org/stable/3810188
Chan, Z. (2002, Nov.) Cooking Soup to Writing Papers: A Journey Through Gender, Society and Self. Journal of International Women's Studies, Vol. 4, No. 1. Retrieved from: http://vc.bridgew.edu
There are many estern doctors who do not accept the traditional views and system of acupuncture but they have realized that it has certain effective aspects. estern doctors have therefore adapted acupuncture and used it as a way of regulating the nervous as well as the endocrine systems. There has also been widespread recognition of the painkilling aspects of acupuncture. hile there is still a general resistance to the deeper implications and world -view that acupuncture represents, yet there is no doubt that it is having an increasing impact on estern forms of medicine and healing praxis.
Acupuncture. May 4, 2007. http://skepdic.com/acupunc.html
American Academy of Medical Acupuncture: General Information. May 4, 2007. http://www.medicalacupuncture.org/acu_info/generalinfo.html
Definition of Allopathic. May 6, 2007. http://www.medterms.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=33612
Frequently asked questions. May 4, 2007. http://www.markgoulding.com/gpage.html
Pulse Diagnosis. May 4, 2007. http://www.answers.com/topic/pulse-diagnosis
The Fairbourne Clinic. May 4, 2007. http://www.fairbourneclinic.co.uk/therapies/acupuncture-Newbury-Berkshire.htm
Traditional Chinese Medicine: NHS. May 4, 2007. http://www.nhsdirectory.org/default.aspx?page=TCM&t=y…
Acupuncture. May 4, 2007. http://skepdic.com/acupunc.html
American Academy of Medical Acupuncture: General Information. May 4, 2007. http://www.medicalacupuncture.org/acu_info/generalinfo.html
Definition of Allopathic. May 6, 2007. http://www.medterms.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=33612
Frequently asked questions. May 4, 2007. http://www.markgoulding.com/gpage.html
D.). Rather than standing alone and interacting with the gazer, this Buddha holds back and is flanked by attendants, creating his own scene in the context of the relief. The Buddha's divinity, rather than his humanness is stressed in the design. The Buddha's hand is in a gesture of reassurance, conveyed from on high, as he sits upon an elevated platform.
Three seated Buddhas in the halo symbolize the deity's eternal nature, a concept that gained importance in China in the fifth century a.D" ("Seated Buddha with Attending Bodhisattvas," Early 6th century a.D.). Rather than being of the moment, and simplicity, the unique and eternal nature of the divine Buddha is stressed. The man's extraordinary, rather than ordinary qualities are at the forefront of the work. The limestone work is also embedded with scenes of the life of the historical Buddha and fantastical legends about his many incarnations over the…
Schumacher, Mark. "Overview of Zen Buddhism and Its Influence on Japanese Art."
21 Feb 2007] http://www.onmarkproductions.com/html/zen_art_tour.shtml
Seated Buddha with Attending Bodhisattvas." Early 6th century a.D. [21 Feb 2007] http://www.worcesterart.org/Collection/Chinese/1934.34.html
Shaka Nyorai: Historical Buddha Enlightened One." [21 Feb 2007] http://www.onmarkproductions.com/html/shaka.shtml
Penetrate Global Markets
Global marketing in today's world depends upon a mix of technological and cultural understanding as Spillan (2012) points out: the "reach of the Internet to unknown places" and the "social environments that exist in global regional market segments" help to drive the global economy and the markets that exist within it. Therefore, comprehending how the Internet and various social media outlets intersect and interact with social environments, especially in developing worlds, is supremely important in assessing one's role in the global market strategy. This is essentially also the point of Luca Lindner (2015), president of McCann Worldgroup and author of "Why Global Marketing Must Move Beyond Cultural Stereotypes and Go Deep." When Lindner advises that marketers "go deep," he means that marketers must tap into the "local" economy and culture of the environment they seek to reach: after all, the trend in recent years is a rise…
Greenstein, T. (2011). The Fed's $16 Trillion Bailouts Under-Reported. Forbes.
Retrieved from http://www.forbes.com/sites/traceygreenstein/2011/09/20/the-feds-16-trillion-bailouts-under-reported/
Jones, E. M. (2000). Libido Dominandi: Sexual Liberation and Political Control.
South Bend, IN: St. Augustine's Press.
Active defense is a real defense and passive defense is a spurious defense by Mao Zedong
Active defense can be simply explained as a defense launched with an objective of counter attacking the enemy.
Passive defense can be defined as defending for the sake of it.
Mao Zedong, in explaining active defense, referred it to as offensive defense, or defending through resolute engagements (Mao, 1965). In referring to passive defense Mao (1965) referred to it as pure defense or defensive defense. Mao (1965) noted that passive defense is a spurious or an inauthentic type of defense. According to Mao Zedong the only real defense was active defense. Active defense according to Zedong was defending with the intention of launching a counter attack and taking on the offensive. The difference between active and passive defense is in the reaction (Mao, 1965).
Mao contrasted passive defense with…
How Genes Influence Breast Cancer
Director of the National Cancer Institute
How Genes Influence Breast Cancer
Many environmental factors can affect a person's risk of breast cancer, but they are not the only issues to consider. Genetics also play a strong role in whether a person develops breast cancer or avoids it. A strong family history of the disease can predispose a person to breast cancer, but it is not a guarantee that the person will acquire the disease. Conversely, people with no family history have also contracted breast cancer, so genetics are not the only issue. They are merely a part of the puzzle. The research here indicates that genetics may be a larger part of the puzzle than first thought, however, and proposes recommendations to spend more time and financial resources on discovering the significance of genes and how they influence breast cancer. Recommendations for action…
Cao, Qiang, Qin, Chao, Meng, Xiaoxin, Ju, Xiaobing, Ding, Qi, Wang, Weilin, Zhu, Jian, Wang, Wei, Li, Pu, Jiawei, Chen, Zhang, Zhengdong, and Yin, Changjun. Genetic Polymorphisms in APE1 Are Associated With Renal Cell Carcinoma Risk in a Chinese Population. Molecular Carcinogenesis, 50: 863-870. 2011. Print.
Chang-Claude, Jenny, Popanda, Odilia, Tan, Xiang-Lin, Kropp, Silke, Helmbold, Irmgard, von Fournier, Dietrick, Haase, Wulf, Sautter-Bihl, Marie Luise, Wenz, Frederik, Schmezer, Peter, and Ambrosone, Christine B. Association between Polymorphisms in the DNA Repair Genes, XRCC1, APE1, and XPD and Acute Side Effects of Radiotherapy in Breast Cancer Patients. Clinical Cancer Research, 11: 4802-4809. 2005. Print.
Kang, Huafeng, Dai, Zhijun, Ma, Xiaobin, Ma, Li, Jin, Yaofeng, Liua, Xiaoxu, and Wang, Xijing. A genetic variant in the promoter of APE1 gene (?656 TNG) is associated with breast cancer risk and progression in a Chinese population. Gene, 531: 97-100. 2013. Print.
Poletto, Mattia, Di Loreto, Carla, Marasco, Daniela, Poletto, Elena, Puglisi, Fabio, Damante, Giuseppe, and Tell, Gianluca. Acetylation on critical lysine residues of Apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1(APE1) in triple negative breast cancers. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, 424. 2012. Print.
Most of the world's electronic trash -- especially old computers -- is dumped in the third world countries, resulting severe environmental problems and illnesses among residents. A latest news agency declares that about 80% of the world's electronic trash is imported to Asia every year, and about 90% of which ends up in China (Chandran, 2002). The large amount of electronic trash dumped in Chinese cities has created serious health hazards for residents living across these cities. Although Chinese authorities have listed Guangdong's towns of Guiyu, Longtang and Dali and other areas as the country's major collection and distribution centers for electronic trash, these areas now have become a health hazard. The health problems arise through cathode ray tubes (CTs), and any device that might hold them. CTs contain lead and other chemicals that leach from landfills into groundwater. The pollutants are released into the air during burning.
Bartholomew, Doug (2001). E-Business Commentary -- PC Makers: Haul Your Own Trash. Industry Week, August, pp.21-24.
Berger, Sandy (2004). Recycling Computers & Electronic Equipment. Compu-Kiss, pp. 1-2.
Chandran, Rina (2002). Trash e-trash. Business Line, April 10, pp. 4-5.
Markoff, John (2002). Technology's Toxic Trash Is Sent To Poor Nations. Silicon Valley Toxics Coalition, pp.7-8.
life experiences. It include explanation examples previous experiences implications future applications.
Universal Healthcare: Averting Crisis in the United States
A crisis is a unique moment of extreme pressure, exceptional in character and high in significance. Decisions made at the time of a crisis are qualified by the multiplicity of factors all demanding solutions at the same time. One mark of a good leader is the ability to make the right decisions during moments of crisis as well as in placid reflection. The political system of democracy is not well-suited to crises. Many voices piping up and arguing fail to develop consensus, and in spite of the good arguments of some, democratic politics cannot survive a crisis. In a crisis, only a few make the grade and emerge as leaders. The decisions facing leaders in the United States take into account the long-term goals of the world's largest economy, and also…
Dean, Howard. Howard Dean's Prescription for Real Healthcare Reform: How We Can Achieve Affordable Medical Care for Every American and Make Our Jobs Safer. Chelsea Green Publishing Company, 2009: White River Junction, VT.
Reid, T.E. The Healing of America: A Global Quest for Better, Cheaper, and Fairer Healthcare. Penguin Books, 2010: New York.
Mo Tzu, just like Confucius did, spend time and ducats travelling from one part to another, and advising leaders and those in authority of the importance of his universal love revolutionary implementation. They were even thought to be working totally apart, yet the two shared ancestral Chinese heritage. It is clear that the Confucius disciples were from different classes of society, and they searched for individuals who would be easily enlightened to be their follower, and adopt there doctrines. The history of the Mohists is however unclear, with suggestions relating to them slaves and detained prisoners, due to the fact they were ascetics (Chan, p. 212).
Current condition of human kind
In psychology, change has always been a factor of concern, as it defines the difference between the ancient and current human being. This change is brought about by the continuous universe changes and is usually due to the global…
Chan, Wing-Tsit. A Source Book in Chinese Philosophy. New Jersey: Princeton University Press. 1963. pp 1-883.
I Ching Classical Understand vs. Aleister Crowley
Any belief, whether it is a self-made system or is bestowed upon us from above, can be taken as a religious view, for how does one define religion except as a system which sets upon humans a certain lifestyle to follow. The definition might seem vague at the least, but to define religion is becoming increasingly difficult, as more and more new sources of religious believes emerge. In all sense of the world, there is a message, however it may or may not be from an omnipotent, invisible God; it can be from a messiah or a man who has been raised to the level of a Messiah by his/her followers, as is the case of Buddha. [1: END NOTES Connelly, Paul. Definition of Religion and Relates Terms. 1996. 23rd March 2012 .]
The same has been the fate of many of the…
Construction of an 'Analects of Confucius' knowledge base including pragmatics information. (Yang, 2011)
One study proposes an approach to constructing a knowledge base for the Analects of Confucius, which aims to promote a correct understanding of this text. The content of the Analects has not been categorized by topic and it always contains broader meanings. Thus, it is necessary to create a framework that can be used to manage and build the knowledge base for the text. Therefore, the present paper sets up a categorization system for the Analects, which is used to create a knowledge base by using pragmatics information, based on the utterance interpretation method in pragmatics.
Knowing to Act in the Moment: Examples from Confucius' Analects. (Lai, 2012)
Many scholars note that the Analects, and Confucian philosophy more generally, hold a conception of knowing that more closely approximates 'knowing-how' than 'knowing-that'. However, this author argues that…
Lai, K. (2012). Knowing to Act in the Moment: Examples from Confucius' Analects. Asian Philosophy, 347-364.
Yang, Y.T. (2011). Construction of an 'Analects of Confucius' knowledge base including pragmatics information. Electronics & Communications in Japan., 1-8.
Yao, X. (2012). INTRODUCTION: CONCEPTUALIZING VIRTUES IN THE ANALECTS OF CONFUCIUS. Journal of Chinese Philosophy, 3-7.
Mencius thought that virtue was a matter to be developed while Xunzi felt that what was required was not development, but reshaping. The first is like a sprout coming out in a tree whereas the second is like a piece of wood being shaped into an object required by humans. (Chinese Philosophy)
Apart from the argument as to whether goodness comes to man from birth or the state, man should practice goodness according to both the philosophers. In those days, living in a state was for the benefit of the state, and this philosophy certainly benefited the state. The general acceptance among them was also that men could be good if they chose to and it did not matter from where this came - birth or inclination. The difference was in thoughts as to where this morality originated from - Mencius believed that it came from the heart and not…
Adler, Joseph a. Chinese Religious Traditions. Upper Saddle River: Prentice Hall, 2002. Chapter 3. Retrieved at http://www2.kenyon.edu/Depts/Religion/Fac/Adler/Reln471/Xunzi.htm . Accessed on 10 June, 2005
Chinese Philosophy. Retrieved at http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_761568835/Chinese_Philosophy.html. Accessed on 10 June, 2005
Gier, Nicholas F. Xunzi and the Confucian answer to Titanism. Journal of Chinese Philosophy. Vol: 22:2 (1995.06) pp. 129-151. Retrieved at http://ccbs.ntu.edu.tw/FULLTEXT/JR-JOCP/gier.htm . Accessed on 10 June, 2005
Mencius (c. 372-289 BCE). Retrieved at http://www.iep.utm.edu/m/mencius.htm . Accessed on 10 June, 2005
Fire (the hottest element) and metal (the hardest) both are associated with yang. Nevertheless, the Blue Dragon that symbolizes wood is a principal symbol of yang, while the hite Tiger that symbolizes metal is a principal symbol of yin. This kind of reversal turns up frequently in the I Ching..[Newborn, 1986]
The I Ching is based on the principle of a broken line, representing yin, and an unbroken line, representing yang. There are eight trigrams: The I Ching [Y" Jing1] uses the trigrams by combining pairs of them into 64 hexagrams. The hexagrams reuse the trigrams by combining pairs of them into 64 hexagrams. The hexagrams represent states of affairs, and the I Ching is consulted through the construction of a hexagram to answer one's question. The construction is carried out either through a complicated process of throwing and counting yarrow stalks, or by throwing three coins. The obverse (head)…
Hooker, Richard. Chinese Philosophy. Confucianism. Undated 6-6-1999. Accessed February, 2002. http://www.wsu.edu:8080/~dee/CHPHIL/NEO.htm
Newborn, Sasha ICHING: The Book of Changes. Bandanna Books.1986
Ross, Kelley L. Ph. D. Confucius. 2000. Friesian.com.
Accessed February, 2002. http://www.friesian.com/confuci.htm
Confucianism, in other words, provided structure to various sets of ideals existing at the time. Central to this structure was compassion in human relationships.
According to the eligious Tolerance Website, social harmony was achieved by means of regulating human relationships upon the basis of compassion. Most interesting in these terms is the political aspect of such relationships. Confucius held that internalized human behavior was a better regulator of the law than punishment and laws that citizens do not fully understand. In this way, the philosopher believed that an understanding of the reasons behind compassionate behavior was a better political tool than the law itself. This is a very idealistic view, but perhaps somewhat unrealistic when today's paradigms are taken into account. Human behavior is simply not based upon compassion; particularly in Western society. Furthermore, there is a profusion of belief systems and philosophies in existence today. equiring an entire society…
Hays, Jeffrey. History of Confucianism. Facts and Details, 2008. http://factsanddetails.com/china.php?itemid=89&catid=3
Religious Tolerance. Confucianism: Beliefs, teachings, and relationships. 2010. http://www.religioustolerance.org/confuciu2.htm
Ross, Kelley L. Confucius, K'ung-fu-tzu or Kongfuzi. 2007. http://www.friesian.com/confuci.htm
Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Confucius. 2006. http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/confucius/
The book discusses the prevalent impression of oneself as a separate ego covered in a bag of skin that is similar to a hallucination that accords neither with experimental philosophy nor with the religions of the east, more specifically Hinduism. This hallucination undermines the use of technology and of formal education in general, because of its involvement in the destruction of humanity. atts favors the kind of education that gives us a sense of existence.
Allan atts, in his book: "On the Taboo Against Knowing hom you are" starts by questioning the amount of knowledge that a young person is supposed to seek in order to be in the know. He suggests the presence of some inside information and some special taboo on life that most teachers and parents have not taught. Culture plays a crucial role in the education of the young people through offering a platform for cultural…
Nietzsche, Friedrich. Twilight of the idols. Trans.Walter Kaufmann and R.J. Hollingdale.
London: Cambirdge university press, 1895. Retrieved from http://www.handprint.com/SC/NIE/GotDamer.html
Plato. The Republic. Trans. B. Jowett. London: Cambridge University press, 1998. Retrieved
By avoiding extremes, a sage can avoid conflict.
"Therefore the sage:
Eliminates arrogance" (Chapter 29)
Sage prefers Non-action:
This is the most vital attribute of a sage. The sage doesn't seek to impose or interfere and hence let people follow him on their own will. There is no compulsion in sage's rule. The sage seeks to rule people by example instead of force. He quietly observes and does and people then do the same as he wishes because they like the way the sage acts.
Therefore the sage says:
I take unattached action, and the people transform themselves
I prefer quiet, and the people right themselves
I do not interfere, and the people enrich themselves
I have no desires, and the people simplify themselves (Chapter 57)
Sage doesn't believe in ostentation:
A sage is a person of calm action which means that while he does what…
All references to Tao Te Ching come from: http://www.taoism.net/ttc/complete.htm [accessed 28th November 2009]
External vs. The Internal View in Neo-Confucian Thought
Since the beginning of time, philosophers have made a living looking at how people conduct themselves and trying to make sense of it. Sometimes the philosopher will devise a theory about how the human world works by looking inside themselves and trying to determine the answer, and other times they will observe what people actually do and make comments based on that. Two Chinese philosophers and teachers, Zhu Xi and Wang Yangming, who were the most prominent Neo-Confucian thinkers, had different ideas with regard to how people developed a moral sense and translated that to the world. They also understood the law very differently. This paper looks at the two philosophers and their perspectives on some key issues so as to determine how they differed, were similar and how they relate to a modern world that often seems to be largely amoral…
De Bary, William Theodore, and Irene Bloom. Sources of Chinese Tradition, 2nd ed., vol. 1 (New York: Columbia University Press, 1999), 849.
De Weerdt, Hilde. "Changing Minds through Examinations: Examination Critics in Late Imperial China." The Journal of the American Oriental Society 126, no. 3 (2006): 367-375.
Gardner, Daniel K. Zhu Xi's Reading of the Analects: Canon, Commentary, and the Classical Tradition. New York: Columbia University Press, 2003.
Guo, Xuezhi. The Ideal Chinese Political Leader: A Historical and Cultural Perspective. Westport, CT: Praeger, 2002.
Although scientists found artifacts and art objects of the Olmecs; until this century they did not know about the existence of the Olmecs. Most of the objects which were made by this community were associated with other civilizations, such as Mayan, Toltec or Chichimecan. The Olmec lived between 1600 B.C. And 1400 B.C. In South Mexico. The name of this tribe comes from an Aztec word "ollin" which means "land of rubber."
At first they ate fish and they later start to farm, and that made it possible for them to "develop the first major civilization in Mesoamerica." (The Olmec Civilization) Thanks to the steady food supplies the Olmec population grew and some came to have other occupations. "Some became potters or weavers. Others became priests or teachers." (Ibidem) Once the population grew, so did their farming villages which developed into cities. The present-day city of San Lorenzo was…
1. The Olmec Civilization, Retrieved December 14, 2012, from the Pleasant Valley School website: http://www.pvsd.k12.ca.us/180120521134440680/lib/180120521134440680/11-2_SG_7th.pdf
2. Villeacas, Daniel, Mother Culture of Mexico: The Olmecs, Denver Public Schools, 2005, Retrieved December 14, 2012, from the Denver Public Schools website: http://etls.dpsk12.org/documents/Alma/units/MotherCultureMexicoOlmecs.pdf
3. Olmec -- Masterworks of Ancient Mexico, Retrieved December 14, 2012, from the Los Angeles County Museum of Art website: http://www.lacma.org/eduprograms/EvesforEds/OlmecEssay.pdf
4. Hansen, Valerie, Curtis Kenneth, Curtis, Kenneth R., Voyages in World History: To 1600, Volume 1, Cengage Learning, December 30, 2008
Fundamental and inherently subjective (and thus at least partially false) systems of though cannot be avoided, and in Western thought this basic system consists of these ultimately false binary oppositions. This makes an understanding of a science that could incorporate objective and subjective elements a logical contradiction to Western minds.
Sivin concedes that Chinese science is not exactly the same as Western science (though this is arguably not really true in the present era), but he doesn't really put this in terms of a concession. Advances in Chinese astronomy and mathematics were made at approximately the same time they were being made in Europe, he contends, but due to a long and unbroken working understanding of how the observable world and universe worked -- even if it was more flawed than Ptolemy had achieved -- these advances did not cause or warrant the type of Scientific Revolution experienced in the…
Jacques Derrida (Alan Bass, trans.). Writing and Difference. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1980.
Sivin. (p. 102).
Fang Lizhi & Zhou Youyuan. Concepts of Space and Time in Ancient China and in Modern Cosmology. In Chinese studies in the history and philosophy of science and technology, F. Dainian & R. Cohen, eds. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Kluwer Acaemic Publishers, 1996.
Both Spartan men and women exercised together in the nude, and both were "encouraged to improve their intellectual skills" ("omen in Ancient Greece"). Being a woman in Sparta certainly ensured a greater sense of gender equality -- but that does not necessarily mean Sparta was the preferred residence of women in Greece. After all, Sparta did without a lot of the creature comforts that other city-states like Athens took for granted as essential to civilization. There is a reason the phrase "Spartan living" has come to be synonymous with the bare necessities.
As for variance in the social structure of the various states, democracy prevailed in Athens for a time (but so did tyranny and corruption as well). Thebes also had its monarchy and later on its heroic warrior citizens. Sparta had two kings who ruled simultaneously. But its social structure was also more slave-based than anywhere else. In fact,…
Haaren, John. Famous Men of Rome. NY: American Book Company, 1904.
Johnston, Sarah. Religions of the Ancient World. Harvard University Press, 2004.
Kyziridis, Theocharis. "Notes on the History of Schizophrenia." German Journal of Psychiatry, vol 8, 42-48, 2005.
Sikora, Jack. Religions of India. Lincoln, NE: Writer's Club Press, 2002.
Bonding Over Bullets: Gun Fu is the Way to a Better Tomorrow
John Woo redefined the action film genre with his 1986 Hong Kong film A Better Tomorrow. Staring the Asian TV star Chow Yun Fat and movie star Ti Lung, the film transcended the action genre already well-established in the West by using the various tropes of the genre (gangsters, the conflicted family, brother-against-brother, friend-in-peril, reformed hood, betrayal, and so on), mixing in elements of melodrama and morality (both Buddhism and Christianity appear in the film), and layering it with stylized gun violence -- gunplay like swordplay -- in a manner that had never before been seen. The film played, in certain moments, like a dance -- bullets being used like rain to wash away all the problems and issues that otherwise could not be resolved. For both Chinese and Western audiences, the film was something new: it appealed…
Confucianism in Pre-Modern China
Confucianism comes from the Chinese philosopher Confucius, after whom the philosophy takes its name. Confucius lived from the middle of the 6th century BC to the first part of the 5th century BC and was a teacher of the values of those who lived in the days of Chinese antiquity. For Confucius, the greatest years of the Zhou dynasty had come in the three centuries prior to his birth. The dynasty itself lasted for centuries following Confucius' life, though in a much different form from what came before. Confucius viewed the lessons of the early Zhou dynasty as containing valuable nuggets of wisdom. Confucius' teachings carried on well after his day as did many other schools of thought in China, where philosophy and wisdom were highly prized and sought after by many Chinese leaders from Confucius' own time till the end of the 3rd century BC.…
Feng Shui's Course In Hong Kong
Hong Kong goes its own ways. Not entirely, of course, and obviously much less so since 1997, but it retains a certainly cultural autonomy. One way in which Hong Kong has continued traditional beliefs and practices that have faded on the mainland is the degree of dedication to the practices of feng shui. There are several reasons why Hong Kong has maintained such traditions. Some of these arise from the fact that islands tend to be both conservative and independent, holding to traditions as a strength.
Mainland Chinese officials see their current and future strength as arising from their economic modernization, as essentially arising from their flight from tradition. Hong Kong, while certainly attached to economic prosperity and legally a part of China, has because of its geography also maintained an attachment to its past.
Hong Kong, no matter how many legal times it…
Carroll, Robert. Feng Shui: The Skeptics Dictionary. www.skepdic.com/fengshui.html. 2010.
Chua-Eoan, H., StonerT. & Wong, B. (1987). How to keep the dragons happy. http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,964725,00.html#ixzz1apwioL5e
Disneyland Hong Kong Feng Shui, http://www.disneyland-hong-kong.com/disneylandhongkongfengshui.htm.
There are no deductibles and no user fees nor limits to contributions on the plan. There are also no restrictions on services to be used and no premiums to pay for basic care coverage other than taxes, a far cry from the high deductibles, co-pays and other fees associated with health care in the United States.
Key to this point is the idea that Canadian health care costs less because a large portion of it is publicly financed. The author's note that since Canada adopted their universal healthcare system the Canadian Health Act has implemented a policy of public administration which keeps the cost of health care spending lower and maintains the government's ability to provide health care services to the entire population. The authors argue that public administration is a more optimal choice for keeping health care expenditures down because administration is inexpensive.
U.S. hospitals keep more details of…
Armstrong, Hugh; Armstrong, Pat; Fegan, P. (1998). "The Best Solution: Questions and Answers on the Canadian Health Care System." Washington Monthly, Vol. 30, Issue 6, p. 8
Clark, Cal & Mceldowney, Rene. (2000). "The Performance of National Health Care Systems: A "Good News, Bad News" Finding for Reform Possibilities." Policy Studies Review, Vol. 17, Issue 4, p. 133
Grubaugh, S.G. & Santerre, R.E. (1994). "Comparing the Performance of Health Care Systems: An Alternative Approach." Southern Economic Journal, Vol. 60, Issue 4, p. 1030
Martens, Pim. (200). "Health Transitions in a Globalising World: Towards More Disease or Sustained Health?" Futures, Vol. 34, Issue 7, p. 635+
This is the nature of the universe and the Book of Changes stresses the importance of understanding that there will be change so that one can be flexible and roll with the punches, essentially. Once one has the understanding that change is always going to occur, one can then cultivate the right attitude for dealing with the change. Another thing discussed in the Book of Changes is the notion that there is a persistent rule in the universe that will never change (though everything else is changing). The Book of Changes, therefore, was about inevitable change and a persistent rule.
Understanding yin and yang is fundamental for understanding feng shui as discussed in the Book of Changes. Though yin and yang are natural opposites, they still need each other in the natural world. That is to say that one can't exist with the other existing. Once yin and yang is…
Bruun, O. (2008). An introduction to feng shui. Cambridge University Press; 1st edition.
Lin, H. (2000). The art & science of feng shui. Llewellyn Publications.
" (Confucius, The Analects p.63 2, 2.5). Confucius had also taught, that filial piety was one of the two threads that held his whole teaching together. It could be said to symbolize the inner and outer, the yin and yang dimensions of human conduct. A person needs to be faithful to both the family and the larger world (Confucianism, 62). Ancestral veneration is not something we only see in Chinese religion, in fact it is practiced in many different religions in different types of ways (Li, 594). Perhaps it could be said then that the ancestor cult might have arisen out of psychological needs or attitudes, including the fear of the deceased, as well as feelings of piety towards them.
The Chinese word for ritual is Li and it is one of the five main virtues taught. Hsun-tzu, is best remembered for his doctrine of ritual action. He provides the…
Nuyen, A.T. (2000). Confucianism, the idea of min-pen and democracy. Copenhagen Journal of Asian Studies. 14:130-151
Hasen, C. (1972). Freedom and Moral Responsibility in Confucian Ethics. Philosophy East and West, 22:2, 169-184.
Liu, H. (2001). Confucianism in the eyes of a confucian liberal. New York: Peter Lang, (Chapter 2).
Li, C. (2006). The confucian ideal of harmony. Philosophy East & West, 56(4):583-603.
Bioethics has been dominated by a European model, with European worldviews and philosophies dominating the discourse. This is true in academia as well as in public policy.
The need for global bioethics discourse is pressing, because the life sciences are no longer regional or provincial in scope.
For example, there has been a lot of speculation as to the progress made in East Asian cloning laboratories, particularly in China and South Korea.
Claims that scientists have successfully cloned human beings are unsubstantiated.
However, the speculation does give rise to an important need to discuss bioethics from an East Asian perspective, using East Asian ethical frameworks like Confucianism.
In 2006, the International Association for Bioethics' (IAB) held its world congress in Beijing, a sure sign that the global bioethics community is becoming less Euro-centric in its approach.
Bioethics is starting to integrate non-European ethical and philosophical traditions.
It is noteworthy that most recently the government started soliciting opinions from legal academies, interested groups and the general public when drafting a major piece of legislation, to achieve democratic lawmaking and advance further compliance with the law (Lo, V.I., 2007).
The most important economic event at this stage or in the years following the 1978 economic reform in China is undoubtedly its accession to WTO at the end of 2001. Following 15 years of numerous negotiations and adjustments of policies, China eventually entered the mainstream world economy and started enjoying the benefits and facing the challenges of WTO.
In response to WTO requirements, China underwent a "make-over" in many aspects. A brief summary of China's WTO promises is shown in Figure 9A. According to the WTO agreement, China is subject to reviews by the WTO in the 8 years following its accession. The most recent one was announced in…
Bailey, P., China in the Twentieth Century. 2nd ed. 2001: Wiley-Blackwell. 296.
Brainard, S. Lael, "An Empirical Assessment of the Proximity-Concentration Trade-off between Multinationals Sales and Trade," American Economic Review, Sep. 1997, pp. 520-544.
Chow, G.C., THE IMPACT OF JOINING WTO ON CHINA'S ECONOMIC, LEGAL AND POLICAL INSTITUTIONS, in International Conference on Greater China and the WTO. 2001:Hong Kong.
Clarke, D.C., Legislating for a Market Economy in China. The China Quarterly, 2007(191): p.567-585.