Falls Among the Elderly Age GROUP1 Essay

Excerpt from Essay :

Fall Among the Elderly Age Group

Falls among the Elderly Age Group

Biological Factors

Unintentional falls

Expected falls and unexpected falls

Risk Elements for Falls

Outline of Several Different Strategies

Counseling and Health Education Strategies

Single Strategies

Primary Strategies

Exercise and physical activity 8

Nursing-Home Strategies

Interventions of Unidentified Effectiveness

Developed Based on your Understanding of the Public Health Problem

Schedule an appointment with your Medic

Keep moving

Wear sensible shoes

According to JM (2009), "As people get older, falls turn out to be a typical and often hurting issue that occurs among those that are in the elderly category, producing a huge quantity of illness, death and use of health care services as well as premature nursing home admittances ( p. 42)." However, falls are a difficult, multi-faceted problem that comprises of social, medical, and financial elements. Medically, the mixture of a high occurs of falls and an increased vulnerability to injury makes the elderly population susceptible to falling down. Illnesses for example, age-related physiological changes (slowed reflexes) and osteoporosis serve to further raise risk to injury after even a fall that is minor (Campbell AJ, 2013). Extra risk factors for falls consist of older age, some weakness, uneven gait, misperception, and certain types of medications. Research shows that more precisely, medications that have a tendency to raise the risk of falls are Tricyclic antidepressants, and sedative hypnotic medications. The medical outcomes of falls have a lot to do with the elderly person's risk factor but the way in which the person falls down. Falls are able to come about in fractures, injuries to the head, delayed healing, raised risk of continual falls, and post- fall anxiety disorder.

Literature Review

Describing the word fall can be described as "accidentally hitting the ground as consequence of sudden onset of paralysis." There are different types of falls and all of them have different measures when it comes to hindrance. Some experts believe fall can be categorized as accidental, projected biological fall or unexpected physiological fall. (Campbell, 2013)There has been a lot of research work completed before on falls that among those that are aged and it has been discovered that a lot of falls take place because of modifiable and identifiable risks factors.

There are various kinds of and some are more dangerous than others.

Biological Factors

Research shows that the natural aging procedure and the results of chronic and acute health issues, raise the risk that an older individual will fall or sustain other kind of injuries. Disorders like Parkinson's disease, osteoporosis, heart disease, Arthritis, stroke, bowel bladder incontinence and blood pressure complications are some of the fall leading issues. (Debra J. Rose 2010 pp 36-37) Osteoporosis cause the bones to become brittle and fragile. They appear to fracture a lot more easily than the typical bone. Things like a minor run in or even a fall can do some serious damage. Hip fractures are a recurrent result of osteoporosis. As stated by National osteoporosis foundation, this disorder at one time was looked at as being a women's disease, but both men and women suffer from it, even though women have a higher chance. Caucasians and Asians are known to suffer more from Osteoporosis and is thought to be higher in other ethics and racial groups (Lord SR, 2013).

heredity is another risk factor of osteoporosis. Abuse of caffeine and alcohol is also linked to growth of osteoporosis. A period or low intake of calcium is considered to another factor which could guide to osteoporosis concern. Inactive person could have low bone and muscle mass because of the lack of physical activities. (A., 2012) the fear of falling or has significant inferences for an elderly person's standard of living, subsequent in lesser mobility and activity and an increase in dependence that has an affect on the person's quality of life, consistent exercises and providing consciousness on bone health could actually make the quality of life better. (Campbell AJ, 2013)

Unintentional falls

Investigations show that accidental falls are triggered by patients or even in some cases, residents slipping, tripping and normally the causes are because of environmental factors. Some of these factors occur because of slippery floors on account of spilled water and other factors such as bad lightening. Accidental falls are not able to be established utilizing any scale as other kinds however, they are able to be prohibited by adjustment of the surroundings by making it harmless for all. (Lord, 2013)

Expected falls and unexpected falls

The anticipated falls most of the time happen if a patient has been labelled as fall-prone. Some factors behind expected falls are those that are in really bad shape. (Hogan, 2009) Unanticipated falls take place under situations which cannot be forecasted. These falls take place when they are attacked or just start fainting. Unanticipated falls are not able to predicted by using any kind of scale nor can they be prevented by occurring during their first time, in this case protection strategies are made sure to stop any injury in the event of a patient falling. For instance, patients that are suffering from Parkinson Diseases are provided some tips on the different ways to fall without hurting themselves. (Rubenstein, 2009)

Behavioral risk issues are most of the time normally linked by a lot of different things. The most common behavioral risk concerns are having feet that are not in the best condition, alcohol use, and medication use. Also most individuals have this fear making the same mistake of falling again. Some experts believe that those who fear doing a lot of activities because of fear of falling again have more than one falls. A study by Rubenstein (2009) made the point that the lack of fun physical exercises is to be linked with injuries from bad falls. Also, sleeping disorders has been added to the list of causing falls. Campbell (2013) makes the point that medication plays a big part in falls among those that are older. A study by Bowling (2012) has displayed that half of patients that have acute hip fracture use drugs like benzodiazepine. Medication like anti-psychotic drugs anti- depressants and sedatives, donates to numerous falls because of side effects from them. Furthermore, people taking multiple prescriptions (Poly-pharmacy) are at a bigger risk of falling down. Drugs like Poly-pharmacy have some side effects that make some people uncomfortable, which involve a lot of drugs responses, drugs exchanges and likewise geriatric syndromes for example fall, urinary incontinence and cognitive impairments (Bowling, 2012)

Risk Elements for Falls

As one ages, the tendency of falling increases. Lord (2013) lately looked at some prospective studies and was able to find out that individuals who have fallen in the previous year have more of a chance of falling down again in the following years. Most of these falls in elderly individuals are usually connected to Intrinsic factors like physiological age changes. Research shows that activity being embarked on at the time of a fall likewise plays a great part of falls. A lot of falls can come due to the combination of environmental risks, physical disability or taking too many risks.

On the other hand, Intrinsic factors are believed to play the key part in the fall of among those that are 75 and over, even though environmental parts are looked at more as influential. extrinsic and Intrinsic factors can be further categorized into four groups of risk factors that replicate the broad determining factor of health are Behavioral risk factors, Environmental risk factors and Biological Factors. There is also activity linked causes that is risk taking behavior such that a resident not using an approved walking aid (Hogan, 2009).

Outline of Several Different Strategies

Counseling and Health Education Strategies

Older patients receiving counseling on measures to decrease the risk of falling is suggested (1). This reference is founded on fair evidence that these measures bring down the possibility of falling. These events consist of:

Exercise (particularly training to make balance better),

Safety-related behaviors and skills,

Environmental danger reduction, and Checking and regulating medicines (1).

Fall prevention programs consist of health education and health promotion materials about bringing down fall risks. At the same time, educational materials by themselves might not endorse behavioral changes (Bowling, 2012).

A lot of different health education programs engage home-hazard agendas that can be utilized by the health agency or personnel caregiver so they are able to bring the proper help to persons identifying fall hazards and to propose corrective action like removing potential tripping hazards like throw rugs, and clutter adding stair railings, refining lighting, bringing in nonslip floor exteriors, and putting in grab bars in the bathrooms. There are checklists provided to residents and they are given to them in order help them evaluate personal and environmental issues and find ways to take preventive action, involving behavioral changes.

Interventions are able to be separated into single and multi-factorial parts. Many studies have been looking into single risk-factor alteration and multi-factorial mediations, and have discovered that both are able…

Sources Used in Document:


A., B. (2012). Research methods in health: investigating health and health services. United Kingdom: Open University Press.

Campbell AJ, R. M. (2013). Rethinkingindividual and community fall preventionstrategies: a meta- regression comparingsingle and multifactorial interventions. Age and Ageing, 21(6), 656-662.

JM., H. (2009). Cognitive and Emotional benefits of exercise may mediate fall reduction. British Medical Journal, 128, 325(.

Lord SR, T. A. (2013). The effect of an individualized fall prevention program on fallrisk and falls in older people: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 14(8), 1296-1304.

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