History of Riga, Latvia the Essay

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9-11).

Wars

In 1621, Riga came under the rule of Swedish King Gustavus Adolphus who declared Riga the second capital of Sweden. During the Russian-Swedish War, Russia failed to colonize Riga as it remained to be the, "second largest city under Swedish control until 1720 during a period in which the city retained a great deal of self-government autonomy" (ibid., par. 13). In 1720, Tsar Peter the Great of Russia became successful in its invasion to Riga. As a result, "Riga was annexed by Russia and became an industrialized port city of the Russian empire" (ibid., par. 13). By 1900, Riga was already holding the third spot in terms of Russia's most industrialized cities. This massive industrialization led to the rise of Latvian bourgeoisie which made Riga the center of National Awakening. This particular social phenomenon entailed a string of nationalist movements (ibid., par.15).

German occupation in Riga during World War I was met by countered measures of the Latvians commanded by Czarist generals as Riga was still under Russian control. As a defensive measure, Russia dismantled and relocated around five hundred Latvian industries to central Russia. At this point, movement towards freedom for Latvia and freedom for Russia intensified. Latvian Provisional National Council and the Riga Democratic Bloc were then created. These two parties together with other political parties formed the Latvian People's Council on November 18,
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1918. This momentous date marked the declaration of Latvian independence and the formation of its army ("History of Latvia" Dec. 2008, par. 6).

Consequent events involved the resurgence of German occupation, Soviet power, and counter-offenses of Latvian army. On September 22, 1921, Latvia obtained its independent statehood and joined the League of Nations. The government declared then declared Latvia as a democratic, parliament republic. The decade was marked by the institutionalization of Latvian laws, constitution, and attempts toward economic reform (ibid., par. 7). But this independence is nothing but short-lived as it was followed by World War II, and again, Soviet domination ("Riga, Latvia, 2008, par.25-26). Moreover, "Many Latvians [during this time], were deported to Siberia and other regions of the Soviet Union, commonly being accused of having collaborated with the Nazis or of supporting anti-Soviet Resistance" (ibid., par 26).

After Soviet Union's dissolution, Latvia found itself again, in the familiar process of re-establishing its independence. Finally, on September 17, 1991, Latvia declared itself an independent democratic state (ibid., par.28).

References

History of Nations. (n.d.) "History of Latvia." Retrieved from www.historyofnations.net/europe/latvia.html. On December 1.

Latvia & Riga. (n.d.). "History." Retrieved at http://www.latvia-riga.com/history_latvia.htm#on December 1, 2008.

New World Encyclopedia, (n.d.). "Riga, Latvia." Retrieved at http://www.newworldencyclopedia.org/entry/Riga,_Latviaon December 1, 2008.

U.S. Department…

Sources Used in Documents:

References

History of Nations. (n.d.) "History of Latvia." Retrieved from www.historyofnations.net/europe/latvia.html. On December 1.

Latvia & Riga. (n.d.). "History." Retrieved at http://www.latvia-riga.com/history_latvia.htm#on December 1, 2008.

New World Encyclopedia, (n.d.). "Riga, Latvia." Retrieved at http://www.newworldencyclopedia.org/entry/Riga,_Latviaon December 1, 2008.

U.S. Department of State. (n.d.). "Background Note: Latvia." Retrieved from www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/5378.htm. On December 1.

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