The issue involves one institution awarding PLAR credits, and when a student then transfers to a similar program at another institution or applies to a higher level program after graduating, the second institution may not recognize the PLAR credits. The concern exists predominantly in the gap between program levels, for example a diploma graduate applying to a baccalaureate program, a baccalaureate graduate applying to a master's program. It is thought that if this is left unaddressed, increasing PLAR practices may well lower a barrier at one educational level, while raising a barrier at the next (Advancing PLAR in Alberta -- an Action Plan, 2009).
Another problem that has been associated with PLAR is institutional funding for both human resources and operations. There is a concern among institutions about being required to implement or increase their PLAR practices without additional government funding to support it. Most institutions currently do not have a dedicated manager to coordinate PLAR assessments. Human resources are also required to advise candidates about the PLAR process, and to develop and evaluate the PLAR assessments (Advancing PLAR in Alberta -- an Action Plan, 2009).
Some institutions have noted that workload issues can be a problem for the faculty tasked with developing and evaluating PLAR assessments, as well as for the manager responsible for coordinating PLAR programs. It has been noted that PLAR is resource intensive and requires different types of assessments created for different types of programs, which can be expensive and complicated. Other institutions have noted that the time required moving through the PLAR process from initial advising and application to awarding credit is work intensive for PLAR candidates and institutions. Candidates often expect immediate results, but depending on the course being challenged and whether or not PLAR assessment tools already exist for it, the process may require considerable development (Advancing PLAR in Alberta -- an Action Plan, 2009).
Marketing has also been identified as being an issue. It is thought that marketing directed to students, faculty, and institution staff needs to be increased. It is thought that some students may not be aware that PLAR exists while others may think PLAR is an easy way to get credits and don't understand the rigor, cost, and expectations that are involved. In addition, faculty and other institution staff members may also be unclear about what PLAR really is and how to implement it. It has been suggested that without effective and accurate information about PLAR, faculty buy-in will be difficult (Advancing PLAR in Alberta -- an Action Plan, 2009).
There have also been issues with quality assurance. There is concern that quality assurance practices need to be in place for PLAR to assure confidence in the outcomes of PLAR assessments. In order to make sure that there is quality training of staff and faculty is essential. Managers require training on the PLAR coordination process; advisors need training on how to adequately assist candidates, and faculty need training on how to develop and evaluate PLAR assessments efficiently and effectively (Advancing PLAR in Alberta -- an Action Plan, 2009).
It is thought that adults learn in many different ways throughout...
Social skills are developed over years and technical skills are increased at work and at home as needs arise. Many adults have had to learn computer skills in recent years due to the technological explosion that has occurred. Their labors in the volunteer sector and in their leisure time all add to adult learning. Unfortunately, many people have no way of documenting or verifying their knowledge and skills. PLAR is a practice that helps adults to display and obtain recognition for their learning acquired outside of formal education settings. PLAR focuses on what adults know and can do (Information on Prior Learning Assessment and Recognition in Canada, 2010).
PLAR is used to look at a person's knowledge and skills in relation to specific standards. The association of clear, measurable criteria is the key to a high-quality PLAR process. An assortment of techniques is often used to assess prior learning. Some organizations offer portfolio development courses. A portfolio is a controlled collection of documents and other items that show what an individual knows and can do (Information on Prior Learning Assessment and Recognition in Canada, 2010).
PLAR has several benefits. It helps to move forward access to education when formal credentials are not well understood. It helps place learners at appropriate levels within educational programs. It gets rid of the need for students to study things that they already know. It helps learners develop clear educational goals and plans. Research has indicated that PLAR also progresses learner confidence, self-esteem, and motivation. If an institution's course offerings are flexible, PLAR can reduce students' program workloads and costs. PLAR can also help to figure out if people need additional training, and it can reduce costs by determining training needs more accurately (Information on Prior Learning Assessment and Recognition in Canada, 2010).
Advancing PLAR in Alberta -- an Action Plan. (2009). Retrieved July 22, 2010, from Web site:
Applying education and skills to real employment opportunities. (n.d). Retrieved July 22, 2010,
from State of Washington Web site:
Assessment & Teaching of 21st Century Skills. (2010). Retrieved July 22, 2010, from Web site:
Fink, Flemming K., Rokkjaer, Ole and Schrey, Katriina. (2007). Work-Based Learning
and Facilitated Work-Based Learning, Retrieved July 22, 2010, from Web site:
Gramlich, Meredith, Crane, Kelli, Peterson, Kris and Stenhjem, Pam. (2003). Work-Based
Learning and Future Employment for Youth: A Guide for Parents and Guardians.
Retreived July 22, 2010, from NCSET Web site:
Information on Prior Learning Assessment and Recognition in Canada. (2010). Retrieved July
23, 2010, from Canadian Information Center for International Credentials Web site:
Prior Learning Assessment and Recognition. (n.d). Retrieved from The University of Winnipeg
Web site: http://adultlearner.uwinnipeg.ca/plar.html#whatarebenefits
Work-based learning. (n.d.). Retrieved July 22, 2010, from Analytic Quality Glossary Web site:
Work-Based Learning Program. (2010). Retrieved July 22, 2010, from Utah State Office of Education Web site: http://www.schools.utah.gov/cte/wbl.html
Human Resource Learning Development Human Resources Learning Development Learning and development is among leading businesses. Despite the current organizational budget squeezes, companies are making significant investments in training employees. Researches done on American companies reveal that these billion investments have actually improved the workforce where by skills are being transferred to everyday job (Wilson, 2005). Human Resources and Learning and Development activities support the Organization's strategy Learning development or training development is one of
human resource management policies organizations & Burger king 3.2analyse impact regulatory requirements human resource policies Burger King 4.1analyse impact Burger King structure management human resources 4. Human Resources Management at Burger King The role of HRM policies In today's business community, the employees represent intellectual capital and create value for the employer; in this setting, they are perceived as the most valuable organizational asset (Pindroh, 1996). In this understanding of the employees, the
The tourism activity requires clear quality standards that Hilton must meet. This business sector is more stable from this point-of-view than advertising. In other words, Hilton has an easier job than Interpublic Group in developing and implementing its strategy. Their strategies are based on different strategic objectives. Interpublic Group must counteract the effects of various changes determined by the business environment. In order to reach this objective, the company must
Public Human Resources Management Challenges facing human resource management Human Resource Management is the element of the organization that deals with the human aspect of the organization. The business world today, is very competitive. Every organization must align its resources to the organizational goals and objectives. According to Gill (2009), the employees of an organization are part of its assets just as capital and technology. Proper utilization of human resource can account
Human Resource in Aviation Industry Human resources are a set of individuals who make the workforce of an economy. Human capital is a term related to human resources, but to a narrow scope, the term relates to knowledge and skills of a worker. Human resource represents people, Labor, Manpower or talent. Companies view employees as assets, whose actions and skills add value to the organizations. Firms need to practice effective human
Human Resources Management If what is learned in an important college or university course is not put to use in some pragmatic way -- or understood in the larger social context -- then that learning may be viewed as meaningless time spent. No doubt there is a percentage of students that are simply going through the process of education, working for a degree that will open doors and lead, hopefully, to