Hygiene As A Pivotal Method Of Preventing Essay


¶ … Hygiene as a pivotal method of preventing infection in a health care setting Hand Hygiene as a Pivotal Method of Preventing Infection in a Healthcare Setting

Carpetti, G.M., Sandri, F., Trridapallli, E., Galleti, S., Petracci, E., & Faldella, G. (2007).

Nosocomial infection in very low birth weight infants. American journal of infection control, 36(6), 430-435.

To increase the chances of survival of VLBW infants, there are continued improvements in neo-natal management. However, the risk of infection during their stay in hospital is especially because they undergo diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. In order to eliminate the infections, and provide more chances of survival, the article suggests that hand washing is the only effective measure to prevent the transmission of microorganisms. In addition, it suggests that it is the most important precaution in infection control. In the study, sixteen VLBW infants, in the "before" period and five others in the "after" period had an infection after 72 hours of life.

This study confirms that hand hygiene was efficient, especially during CVC colonization. It decreased the incidence of colonization from 16.6% to 5.8%; and reduced the incidence of bloodstream infections in VLBW infants. Overall, the improvements in neo-natal management, will reduce the mortality rates, but owing to the fact that practitioners must handle VLBW infants, in comparison, the latter will efficiently reduce the rate of infections. For VLBW infants, hand hygiene compared to neo-natal management techniques, will increase their chances of survival by reducing mortality rates.

Andrej, T., & Andreas, W.F. (2004). Hand hygiene: A frequently missed lifesaving opportunity during patient care. Mayo clinic proceedings, 79(1), 109-216.

In this article, nosocomial infections affect almost 10% of the hospitalized patients. This presents a serious health problem in the healthcare facilities. The result of this is increased length of stay, increased morbidity and mortality, and increased expenses. This article suggests that the hands of health care workers are the main mode of transmission of multi-drug resistant pathogens and infections to hospitalized patients. However, appropriate hand hygiene is the least expensive, simplest, measure of preventing such infections. After Semmelweis commanded students and physicians to scrub their hands using chlorinated lime solution, when they were about to examine patients, the maternal mortality rate reduced to less than 3%, and the trend remained in the following years.

For this article, rubbing hands with alcohol saves the time used in cleaning the hands, as compared to a mere hand wash. In addition, it is less likely to cause skin problems. Therefore, alcohol hand rubs will produce better results as a hand hygiene method as compared to washing hands using soaps, which may harbor pathogens and increase the rates of re-infection. In the hospitalized patients, alcohol hand rubs compared to washing hands using soap and water will reduce the rates of nosocomial infections in the hospital environment.

Asare, A., Enweronu-Laryea, C.C., & Newman, J.M. (2009). Hand hygiene practices in a neo-natal intensive care unit in Ghana. Journal of infection in developing countries, 3(5), 352-356.

Infections are the primary cause of neonatal mortality in the developing countries, especially at home because the newborns die without medical care. This is a global health problem; therefore, there have been increased efforts to reduce the mortality and morbidity by improving referral pathways, and overall care when handling sick newborns. The study is aware of the significance of hand hygiene in preventing the incidence of infections; therefore, owing to the varied hand hygiene practices in healthcare facilities, there is a need to improve the practices among the health workers.

In the study for this article, there were a total of 97 contacts; 49 high risks and 48 low-risks. However, the healthcare associated infections are also increasing in the neo-natal units of the developing countries. Therefore, the study suggests that there is a need to improve hand hygiene practice strategies because they will help in preventing infections. In order to eliminate the mortality rates of newborns, the study encourages improved hand hygiene practices over improved neo-natal management practices because the former has shown substantial proof in reducing the mortality rates in the developing countries.

Chuck, B. (2009). Semmelweis revisited: Hand hygiene and nosocomial disease transmission in the anesthesia workstation. Anna journal, 77(3), 229-37.

This article takes us back to the 1840s, when there was an observation by Semmelweis, which 20% of women experiencing childbirth in the Viennese obstetrician, died of a febrile disease. It was later discovered by Semeweis that some toxin, in a way, reached the patients from the care provider's hands. Owing to this, he demanded that every staff involved in the obstetrical delivery should wash their hands between the patient's...


Later on, they came to discover the disease was the puerperal fever. In addition, the literature provided in this article suggests that proper cleansing of the hands is very effective and it is the simplest measure in efforts to prevent noscomial infections.
The author further suggest that anesthesia staff are the main causes of the inconsistent hand hygiene practices; notably, the randomized study affirms that personal hand hygiene resulted in fewer events of patient contamination. The author also notes that there are chemical advances to kill microbes, but compared to hand hygiene, the latter is simpler, practical, and low-cost, and has proved to reduce the incidence of nosocomial infection. For women experiencing childbirth, hand hygiene practices compared to chemical advances to kill microbes, will significantly reduce the incidences of puerperal fever.

Won, S., Chou, H., Hsieh, W., Chen, C., Huang, S., Tsou, K., & Tsao, P. (2004). Hand

washing program for the prevention of nosocomial infections in a neo-natal intensive care unit. Infection control and hospital epidemiology, 25(9), 742-746.

Nosocomial infections are major problems and cause substantial mortality and morbidity for patients in the neo-natal intensive care unit (NICU). The article suggests that the rates of nosocomial infections in the NICUs range from 11-22%. Conversely, the authors suggest that hand washing is a simple and economical measure that can lower the incidence of nosocomial infection. Some of the interventions such as prophylactic antibiotics, immunoglobins, and physical barriers are not effective in the prevention of these infections, and the incidence of the infections in these settings remains high. However, in comparison to the hand hygiene program, there was an increase in the compliance rate, and subsequent infections reduced.

This supported by empirical evidence; after the institution adopted hand washing, the rate of infections reduced from 15.13 in a 1000 patient days before adoption, to 10.45 and 11.86 in a 1000 patient days, after adoption. The rate of nosocomial infection rate in the NICU reduced after adoption of the hand hygiene program. For patients in the neo-natal intensive care unit, hand hygiene practices when compared to the use of prophylactic drugs, immunoglobins and physical barriers, will increase the compliance rates, which in turn will reduction of nosocomial infections.

Chen, Y., Sheng, W., Wang, J., Chang, S., Lin, H. (2011). Effectiveness and limitations of hand hygiene promotion on decreasing healthcare-associated infections. PLoS One, 6(11).

Healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) are global healthcare problems, which cause concern in respect to the safety and quality of healthcare provision. Therefore, patients are not safe because the infections occur in a healthcare setting, where they thought was a safe place. The study provided in this article suggests that compliance with hand hygiene is the most important intervention in tackling this global phenomenon. In the study, compliance with the hand hygiene program led to decreased trends for hospital-associated infections, especially those caused by MRSA and XDRBA.

In addition, this approach was cost-effective. However, not all hand-washing programs are as effective, but in comparison, the most appropriate approach was to rub the hands with alcohol. Many patients may find themselves hospitalized in hospitals, which makes them vulnerable to hospital-associated infections. The single most important intervention is the use of hand hygiene practices; in particular, rubbing hands with alcohol, compared to other hand hygiene practices because it led to decreased trends for HAIs especially those resulting from MRSA and XDRBA.

Tran, J. (2009). Comparison of hand hygiene evaluations: A literature review. The University of Texas School of Public health, ProQuest, UMI Dissertations Publishing. 1467437.

The article suggests that the hands are the most common method of transmitting bacteria and infections, which later lead to development of hospital-acquired infections. However, the most significant intervention is the utilization of hand hygiene practices. The practices comprise of the most effective methods of preventing further spread of the pathogens, hence limiting the incidence of healthcare-associated infections, and decreasing the transmission of multi-drug resistant organisms. However, the compliance rates to utilize these measures are very low. The study suggests that after training, the compliance rates rose from 6.3% to 81.2%, a positive move, which suggests reduced rates of infection.

Mortality rates in clinics under the supervision of medical students were high than in the clinics cared for by midwives. This was after the students; the students washed their hands using water and soap. However, after they rubbed their hand suing chlorine solution before provision of care, mortality rates decreased from 10% to 1%. For patients in a healthcare setting, rubbing hands with alcohol-based solutions compared to washing hands with soap and…

Sources Used in Documents:


Allerganzi, B., Pittet, D. (2009). The role of hand hygiene in healthcare-associated infection prevention. Journal of hospital infection, 73, 305-315.

Andrej, T., & Andreas, W.F. (2004). Hand hygiene: A frequently missed lifesaving opportunity during patient care. Mayo clinic proceedings, 79(1), 109-216.

Asare, A., Enweronu-Laryea, C.C., & Newman, J.M. (2009). Hand hygiene practices in a neo-natal intensive care unit in Ghana. Journal of infection in developing countries, 3(5), 352-356.

Carpetti, G.M., Sandri, F., Trridapallli, E., Galleti, S., Petracci, E., & Faldella, G. (2007).
Seese, R., & Goldfarb, J. (2009). Chater 5: Infection control in the hospital. Retrieved from https://mhprofessional.com/downloads/products/007148924X/shah-05-chapter-05.pdf

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