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Removal Act of May 28, 1830 was an act by both Houses of Congress of the U.S., which provided for an exchange of lands with the native Indian tribes residing in any of the states or territories and for their removal west of the Mississippi River, their traditional land, to the prairies. It was signed by then President Andrew Jackson into law.
The eviction of these Indian tribes from a land they called their own was part of the course of the Westward expansion by European-Americans. These tribes then lost their lands by purchase, war, disease or extermination but many were formalized by treaty. They fought for that right so hard that the Treaty of Greenville of 1785 had to be signed to end bloody Indian wars in Ohio (Goodman 2003). The agreement recognized such right for "as long as the woods grow and waters run."
The Constitution of 1789,…
Ferraro, Vincent. Indian Removal Act of 1830. Mount Holyoke College International Relations, 2003. http://www/mtholyoke.edu/acad/intrel/removal.htm
Golden Ink Internet Solutions. The Trail of Tears - Cherokee Indians Forcibly Removed from North. http://ngeorgia.com/history/nghistt.html
Goodman, Rebecca. Indian Removal Act Broke Greenville Treaty. Ohio Moments: The Cincinnati Enquirer, 2003. http://enquirer.com/editions/2003/05/28/loc_ohiodate0528.htm
Meyers, Jason. No Idle Past: Uses of History in the 1810 Indian Removal Debates. Historian Journal, 2000.
The Injustice of the Indian Removal Act 1830
The Indian Removal Act signed by Andrew Jackson in 1830 was meant to establish peace in the nation and to give the Native Americans their own territory where they could practice their own activities, traditions and culture without interference from the American government. However, the Act resulted in the forced migration of thousands of Native Americans from their traditional homelands to a region of the U.S. that did not suit their lifestyle or their culture. Many suffered and died during the march on the Trail of Tears from the Southern states to Oregon. Though Jackson may have had good intentions at the time, the removal can now be viewed as an American tragedy that might have been prevented. In fact, it was just one example of an exercise in human rights abuses in a long history of human rights abuses committed…
President Andrew Jackson had long pursued an aggressive approach to Native Americans before 1838-9, when 4000 Cherokee died during the forcible removal program dubbed later the "Trail of Tears"
Five tribes in the Southeastern United States had been dubbed "civilized" because of their willingness to assimilate: the Cherokee, Chickasaw, Choctaw, Creek, and Seminole.
The informal and formal agreements between Native Americans and the federal government began to fall apart due to increasing demand for land.
Greed and white supremacist ideology laid the groundwork for the Indian Removal Act of 1830, revealing stark connections between the Trail of Tears and the legacy of slavery in the United States.
Sheer greed prompted much of the Indian removal policies, broken treaties, and ultimately, forced exile.
A. Burgeoning numbers of settlers into the lands now part of Georgia and Alabama pressured the federal government for support in their endeavor to expand cotton plantations.
"Indian Removal." PBS. Retrieved online: http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aia/part4/4p2959.html
Manning, Martin J. and Wyatt, Clarence R. Encyclopedia of Media and Propaganda in Wartime America. Vol. 1. ABC-CLIO, 2011.
United States Department of State Office of the Historian. "Milestones." Retrieved online: https://history.state.gov/milestones/1830-1860/indian-treaties
How valuable is history if it is truly written by the victors of war? What remains of the historical account are only tiny fragments of what the true and whole story encapsulated. What we are left with are scraps of stories that are fragmented and skewed to the current power structures that run the institutions. Understanding this skeptical attitude is extremely important when judging an historical account.
The purpose of this essay is to discuss the removal of Native Americans from the region east of the Mississippi in the time of 1830. This essay will examine both sides of the argument and address the ethical, moral, philosophical and legal aspects to this complex and sophisticated subject. This essay will ultimately try to distinguish that the removal of these people's land, while extremely expedient and profitable, was a clear violation of the human ethic and should be remembered as…
He was viewing them as little children who required guidance. He tended to believe that the policy of removal had great benefits to the Indians. Majority of the white Americans were thinking that United States was not capable of extending past Mississippi. The removal was capable of saving the Indian nationals from the white's depredations Foreman 1932).
The removal could make them to govern themselves peacefully
It was assumed that the removal was to resettle the Indians in a region where they were capable of governing themselves peacefully. However, a number of Americans viewed this as being a mere excuse for a cruel and appalling course of action, and complained against the removal of the Indian nationals. Their complaints however could not prevent the southeastern populations from being removal. The first lot of people to sign the removal treaty was the Choctaws. They did this in September 1830. A number…
(415 pp., 14 ill., 6 maps, Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1932.)
Gibson, Arrell M. Oklahoma: A History of Five Centuries. Norman, University of Oklahoma Press, 1981
Lindberg, Kip and Matthews, Matt. "To Play a Bold Game: The Battle of Honey Springs" North and South Magazine December 2002: pgs. 56- 61.
The name Seminole is derived from the Spanish word "cimarron" meaning "wild men." Seminoles were originally given this name since they were Indians who had escaped from slavery in the British-controlled northern colonies. hen they arrived in Florida, they were not known as Seminoles as they were in reality Creeks, Indians of Muskogee derivation. The Muskogean tribes made up the Mississippian cultures which were temple-mound builders. "Among the Muskogean tribes were the Creeks, Hitichis and Yamasees of Georgia, the Apalachees of Florida, the Alabamas and Mobiles of Alabama, and the Choctaws, Chickasaws and Houmas of Mississippi" (Murray, n.d.).
It is believed that the Seminole tribe settled in Florida as far back as 10,000 BC. For hundreds of years, the Seminole Indians essentially ruled almost all of Florida. Even when the Europeans arrived, at first they were not concerned in the area of Florida, but displayed more inquisitiveness toward…
Murray, D.J. n.d. "The Unconquered Seminoles." Web. 5 February 2012. Available at:
"Seminole." n.d. Web. 6 February 2012. Available at:
Carlisle Indian School: founded 1879; Indian boarding school; Pennsylvania; forced assimilation of native children; abuse of children
11. Cheyenne Tribe: Plains Indians; a Sioux name for the tribe; currently comprises two tribes; ties with Arapaho; hunters; ghost dance
12. ed Cloud: leader of Ogala Lakota; fierce warrior opposed U.S.; ed Cloud's War 1866-1868; Wyoming, Montana; became leader on reservation
13. Comanche Tribe: Texas, Colorado, New Mexico, Kansas, Oklahoma; Plains Indians; hunter-gatherers; about 14,000 remain; speak Uto-Aztecan language related to Shoshone
14. Joseph Brant: Thayendanegea; Mohawk; American evolution fought with British to help Indians; became Mason; active political leader for Six Nations
15. Trail of Tears: massive relocation of Native Americans; affected Choctaw, Cherokee and other southern Indians; move to Oklahoma Indian Territory; 1830s; related to Indian emoval Act; represented treaty violations
16. Pontiac's War: 1763; Great Lakes region; Pontiac was Odawa leader; war against British after Seven Years War; British…
"Red Cloud." PBS. Retrieved Mar 26, 2009 from http://www.pbs.org/weta/thewest/people/i_r/redcloud.htm
Saunders, R. (2007). "Chief Pontiac's War -- 1763." Retrieved Mar 26, 2009 from http://colonial-america.suite101.com/article.cfm/chief_pontiacs_war_1763
Often, treaties were signed, and then as more people moved into the area, they were ignored.
By 1834, the BIA was working with warring Indian tribes attempting to keep the peace, and the scope of government involvement in this area continued to grow. Jackson's Indian policies were much more dramatic than any of the others before him. During his presidency, he authorized military campaigns against the Indians, the Indian emoval Act of 1830 allowed the government to remove Indians to lands far west, even further than earlier relocations, and the reservations of warring tribes were often place near each other. In short, the Federal Indian policies throughout this period were all about the government, and had little valid concern for the Natives.
Editors. 2009. Federal Indian Policy Timeline. Washington State Historical Society. http://stories.washingtonhistory.org/treatytrail/context/policy-timeline-1.htm.
Campbell, John. 2006. The Seminoles, the "Bloodhound War" and Abolitionism, 1796-1865. Journal of Southern History 72,…
Editors. 2009. Federal Indian Policy Timeline. Washington State Historical Society. http://stories.washingtonhistory.org/treatytrail/context/policy-timeline-1.htm.
Campbell, John. 2006. The Seminoles, the "Bloodhound War" and Abolitionism, 1796-1865. Journal of Southern History 72, no. 2: 259+.
Prucha, Francis Paul. 1984. The Great Father: The United States Government and the American Indians. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press.
Indian Welfare Act
There are few things in life as traumatic as losing a child. Unfortunately, this is a phenomenon that plagues humanity on a daily basis. Children are lost in many ways. Some die, some are kidnapped. Others are lost through adoption. For some mothers, adoption is an informed decision made on the basis of what the individual believes is right for her child. However, there is also a phenomenon of adoption that occurred during the 1960s and 1970s, in which mothers were more or less coerced in giving up their children for adoption. In many cases, this coercion also occurred without informed consent, where mothers were asked to sign documents without receiving full disclosure regarding the nature of such documents. This occurred disproportionately among Indian children, many of whom were forcibly removed from their parents during the 1960s and 1970s. This resulted in the Indian Child Welfare Act,…
"Indian Child Welfare Act -- Termination Of Parental Rights -- Adoptive Couple V. Baby Girl." Harvard Law Review 127.1 (2013): 368-377. Academic Search Premier. Web. 24 Apr. 2014.
Jacobs, Margaret D. "Remembering The "Forgottern Child": The American Indian Child Welfare crisis Of The 1960S and 1970S. "American Indian Quarterly 37.1/2 (2013): 136-159. Academic Search Premier. Web, 24 Apr. 2014.
American Indian Movement
The poorest people in America are the American Indians and it is also a fact that Indian reservations have unique laws that has made it a nation by itself within the United States. The modern movements focus on the American Indian reservations being empowered by self-determination. This is important for the economic, social and cultural improvement of the American Indians. It was with the Nixon administration that the welfare of the tribes became the focus of the government. The subsequent administrations encouraged the Indians to adapt to a policy of political and economic self-determination. Today many reservations have become economic hubs with tax and regulation havens for investment. Thus as of now the Mescalero and White Mountain Apaches "have become premier private managers of multiple-use forest resource economies." (Legters; Lyden, 1994)
However it must be stated that only during the eagan administration that there were major reports…
Bolt, Christine. (1990) "American Indian Policy and American Reform: Case Studies of the Campaign to Assimilate the American Indians" Routledge. Pages: 250, 298
Fritz, Henry E. (1963) "The Movement for Indian Assimilation, 1860-1890." University of Pennsylvania Press: Philadelphia. Page Number: 15, 34, 56,138
Indian tribes in the Eastern United States. At the time, the nation was expanding westward and there were concerns that the Indians could begin attacking civilized areas. After the end of the Black Hawk War, is when these worries increased exponentially. As a result, different states began to pass laws that restricted and limited the power of Indian tribes. (emini, n.d., pp. 107 -- 119)
Once this occurred, is when the Cherokee became worried about being forced westward. This was problematic, as they had adopted civilized practices including: establishing a functioning democracy, they had their own language, newspaper and Constitution. These areas led many to believe that the Cherokee would remain in the region. As they were not: a threat to society and believed they had the support of the American people. (emini, n.d., pp. 107 -- 119)
Moreover, the Cherokee were able to win two favorable Supreme Court decisions…
Remini, R. (n.d.). Andrew Jackson vs. The Cherokee Nation.
Politics makes strange bedfellows, we are told, with the implication that those brought together by the vagaries of politics would be best kept apart. But sometimes this is not true at all. In the case of the Black Seminoles, politics brought slaves and Seminole Indians politics brought together two groups of people who would - had the history of the South been written just a little bit differently - would never have had much in common. But slaves fleeing their masters and Seminoles trying to lay claim to what was left of their traditional lands and ways found each other to be natural allies in Florida and in time in other places as well. This paper examines the origin of this particular American population, describing how the Black Seminoles changed over time and how their culture reflected both African and Seminole elements.
The Black Seminoles began in the early 1800s…
Amos, Alcione M., and Thomas Senter (eds). The Black Seminoles. History of a Freedom-Seeking People. Gainesville: UP of Florida, 1996.
Hancock, I. The Texas Seminoles and Their Language. Austin: African and Afro-American Studies and Research Center, University of Texas at Austin, 1980. http://members.aol.com/angelaw859/movement.html http://www.nps.gov/foda/Fort_Davis_WEB_PAGE/About_the_Fort/Seminole.htm
Jahoda, G. The Trail of Tears. Kansas City: Wings Press, 1995.
Captain Smith by Pocahontas
Antonio Capellano's sculpture The Preservation of Captain Smith by Pocahontas (1825) is still in the Capitol Rotunda along with other works of the same period such as illiam Penn's Treaty with the Indians and The Landing of the Pilgrims, although they no longer resonate with audiences in the same way as they did in the 19th Century. In the 20th and 21st Centuries, more sophisticated and educated viewers at least would realize that these are all the product of an era of estern expansion and a highly romanticized view of history that is heavily tinged with racism and white nationalism. hen these sculptures were first commissioned by the U.S. government, the early republic was engaged in westward expansion that would result in the destruction, displacement or removal of most Native Americans, a process that most white Americans of the era regarded as necessary and beneficial. All…
Fryd, Vivien Green. "Two Sculptures for the Capitol" in Mary Ann Calo (ed). Critical Issues in American Art: A Book of Readings. Perseus Books, 1998: 93-108.
Scheckel, Susan. The Insistence of the Indian: Race and Nationalism in Nineteenth-Century American Culture. Princeton University Press, 1998.
Tilton, Robert S. Pocahontas: The Evolution of an American Narrative. Cambridge University Press, 1994.
Crow: Spokesman for the Sioux, is an account of the U.S. conflict with the Sioux, which gives a unique insight into the Sioux's version of events.
Main Idea: American authors/historians have only given U.S., side of events.
American historians give one side of history, incomplete picture.
Indians presented as violent primitive barbarians.
Anderson finally gives accurate account.
Main Idea: The Native Americans were treated very badly by U.S.
White settlers had no respect for natives or their customs.
Indian emoval Act 1830: forces all natives to move west of the Mississippi.
Native Americans cannot win.
Anderson's book gives accurate account.
Little Crow used as example, gives Sioux point-of-view.
Little Crow, and the Sioux, are a real people with a real culture and real feelings.
C. Anderson presents the Sioux side by delving into the Sioux's history and culture.
D. This is how to present an accurate portrait of events.
Anderson, G.C. Little Crow: Spokesman for the Sioux, St. Paul: Minnesota Historical Press. 1986. Print.
"Bingham Hall: Dakota Conflict 1862 New Ulm Minnesota" Bingham Hall: New Ulm Bed and Breakfast Lodging. Web Apr. 1, 2011. www.bingham- hall.com/DakotaConflict1862NewUlmMinnesota.html.
Hoover, Herbert T. "Review of Little Crow: Spokesman for the Sioux" Digital Commons. University of Nebraska-Lincoln, 1988. Web.
Still, many prospered -- visitors such as Alexis de Tocqueville from France marveled at American's drive to acquire wealth, American faith and sociability, as well as the profound racial divisions that characterized American society. American society was poised in continual paradoxes -- religious yet money-hungry, disdainful of social hierarchies yet dependant upon oppressing or disenfranchising races to secure advancement of poorer whites. America was also land-hungry in a way that put it into conflict with its neighbor Mexico, despite its insistence upon being against colonialism, having been born of resistance to colonial Britain. This resulted in the Mexican-American ar and the eventual incorporation of Texas into the Union.
Texas and the est itself is still another paradox of the American experiment. For those unable to become wealthy through capitalism, striking out on one's own in the west seemed a better alternative to the increasingly civilized and also socially entrenched east.…
Wilentz, Sean; Jonathan Earle; Thomas G. Paterson. Major Problems in the Early Republic,
1787-1848, 2nd Edition. Wadsworth, 2008.
During antebellum America, the Jacksonian Democrats were created. This was a group that viewed themselves as protectors of the common people. A powerful executive whose goal was to destroy aristocracy in America, Andrew Jackson, ruled the Jacksonian Democrats. (Schlesinger)
Strangely, this group was not made up of the common people. The Jacksonian Democrats were a wealthy group that supported equality between white men, enacted radical economic policies, and disregarded any capabilities of the federal government. Many say that the group was not the introducers of democracy in America but rather users of the system for their own benefit.
During the early 1800's, the United States was growing at a rapid pace. A market revolution took place as cash-crop agriculture and capitalist manufacturing replaced the artisan economy. However, this prosperity created a split between the industrializing, urban north, agrarian, rural South, and the expanding West.
The Jacksonians passed the…
Schlesinger, Jr. The Age of Jackson. 1945.
Latner, R. The Presidency of Andrew Jackson. 1979.
Sellers, Charles. The Market Revolution: Jacksonian America, 1815-1846. 1991.
Sociologists explain their condition through a culture-of-poverty theory or the theory of internal colonialism. Under the first theory, Appalachia families, for better or worse, simply cope with poverty. The second theory, on the other hand, ascribes poverty in Appalachia to structural causes. The theories offer insights but are both found to be quite deficient (Billings and Blee).
The first theory on culture-on-poverty became popular in the 60s and drew its premise from Appalachia's ethnic geography in the late 19th century. It was then perceived as a distinct region and race that entered the American consciousness only after the Civil War (Billings and Blee 2002). Imaginative fictionists only conjured images of the mountain and upland cultures, which were vastly out of step with the lowland's, culturally ad economically. At the turn of the century, Willim Goddell Frost, president of Berea College of Kentucky, discoursed on the people of the southern amounts…
Billings, Dwight and Blee, Kathleen M. Rural Poverty in Appalachia. Fathom Knowledge Network, 2002. http://www.fathom.com/features/122206
Coats, Lauren. Crafting Appalachian Identity: Regional Handicrafts and the Politics of Culture. University of Pennsylvania, 1997. http://www.history.upenn.edu/phr/archives/97/coats.html
Hagedorn, Jake. The Music of Appalachia. http://webpages.charter.net/jakehagedorn.appalachia.html
Lewis, Ronald and Billings, Dwight B. Appalachian Culture and Economic Development. http://www.wvu.edu/pdfiles/lewisarc.pdf
It also illustrated the solidification of the definition of a true American as a white male. Andrew Jackson was a populist, and spoke out against the landed aristocracy, of which Jefferson was a member. Jackson wanted votes for all men, regardless of property-holding status, but he also wanted to expand property ownership to a larger proportion of the population. his would be accomplished by expansion westward.
he Indian Removal Act of 1830 confirmed the Jacksonian idea that America was not a race-neutral civilization, and depended upon the subjugation and eradication of some races, while it strove to build up its own status: "hey have neither the intelligence, the industry, the moral habits, nor the desire of improvement which are essential to any change in their condition. Established in the midst of another and superior race, they must necessarily yield to the force of circumstances and ere long disappear," said Jackson,…
The war with Mexico, which resulted in the establishment of Texas as one of the states of the union, was also characterized as a battle of civilizations, with Mexicans being characterized as 'inferior' and undeserving of a state that had been their territory, into which they had invited American settlers. Because the American settlers in Texas were white, ergo Texas was seen as a 'white' and 'American' nation in a way that transcended most legal conceptions of what constituted national ownership of a territory.
As expansion westward continued, so did the divisions in the nation over slavery. A variety of compromises were instated to balance the U.S. between slave and free, but a crisis was clearly building in terms of how the U.S. would finally identify itself -- could an American citizen be anything other than a white man? But not only southerners subscribed to the doctrine of racial inferiority: In a perfect ideological storm, a misinterpretation of Darwinian notions of the evolution of the races and anthropological study of 'primitive' societies and skull sizes were used to justify the inequitable status of black people and the right of Europeans to dominate all other races in the name of progress. Racism and domination of native peoples was cast in a moral light.
Finally, he inferiority of certain races became codified into law: the 1857 Dred Scott U.S. Supreme Court case declared that people of African ancestry, enslaved or free, could never become citizens of the United States. The Court's opinion stated that black people "had no rights which the white man was bound to respect," and in effect, one a slave, always a slave. Hopes that slavery would die out of its own accord were extinguished.
Native Tribes and American Identity
It is reasonable to suggest that the United States would not exist in its current form without the contributions and influences of the millions of Native Americans who already lived here when the first colonists arrived. Not only did these early Native Americans teach the new European arrivals how to survive in the New World, in some cases they even freely supported them for years while they awaited assistance from Europe, all with no real expectation of being repaid in kind or turn. Without this assistance, the settlement of the American continent might well have been delayed for several more decades.
In addition, and although many modern Americans may not realize it, the so-called “melting pot” that would characterize the American identity during much of the 19th and 20th centuries was the direct result of the influences of Native American tribes. Moreover, Native American tribes…
uh.edu). He also made the electing process more democratic by having conventions where he had representatives from every state nominate a presidential candidate to represent their individual parties. This would provide a more accurate representation of who the people themselves saw as President.
Jackson also had great influence on the economic situation of that era. In order for Americans to start to buy more American goods, Jackson wanted to pass a tariff on all English goods. Although this meant that America would get more of their things sold and purchased, it also meant that Americans had to pay more for necessary goods that came from abroad (McGraw-Hill, p.338). This angered the South who owned property and were most affected by the rise in these tariffs. This was the beginning of the Nullification Act. This act was made as a compromise to steadily reduce the tariff placed throughout the years, but…
McGraw Hill. The American Republic to 1877: Unit 5: The Growing Nation:
Chapter 11: The Jackson Era. The McGraw Hill Companies and Glencove.
2004, 2nd edition. Print.
"Learn about the Jacksonian Era." Digital History. n.d. n.p. 27 May 11
American president as a king would have been one of the greatest insults in the early 19th century, merely decades after the United States won its independence from the British crown. Andrew Jackson's policies and leadership style both reminded the American public of monarchic rule. Here, Jackson is depicted as a loathsome king who tramples on the American constitution and wants to veto any legislation Congress tries to pass. The veto power refers to Jackson's vetoing of several congressional bills including those related to the creation of federal banking systems. At the top of the cartoon, the words "Born to Command" underscore the comparison with Jackson and a dictatorial ruler. Interestingly, Jackson touted himself as being the "man of the people," not "King Andrew." One reason why Jackson did engage his veto power as often as he did was that he viewed his role as being to protect the people,…
"Andrew Jackson, (n.d.). Retrieved online: http://americanhistory.si.edu/presidency/timeline/pres_era/3_668.html
"King Andrew." [Political Cartoon]. Available online: http://www.archives.gov/exhibits/treasures_of_congress/Images/page_9/30a.html
Thompson, et al. (n.d.). An overview of healthcare management. Retrieved online: http://samples.jbpub.com/9780763790868/90868_CH01_FINAL_WithoutCropMark.pdf
The Cherokee Tribe in North Carolina is part of the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians, a federally-recognized independent Native American Cherokee tribe whose home base is in Cherokee, North Carolina, south of the Smoky Mountains. The Eastern Band is comprised of the descendants of the approximately 800 Cherokee who did not join the Trail of Tears—the forced migration of the Native American nations from the Southern U.S. region to the western U.S. region designated by the U.S. government as Indian Territory following the Indian Removal Act of 1830. This relatively small number of Cherokee (compared to the 16,000 Cherokee who were relocated) avoided relocation by living on privately owned land, as opposed to communal land. For example, some 400 Cherokee lived on acreage owned by William Holland Thomas in the Smoky Mountains. Thomas had been taken in by the Cherokee in his youth and now returned the favor in…
Social ideals and ethics are secondary. As such, if it were most beneficial to the State to commit genocide while conquering another nation, that would be the course of action taken. However, again thanks to increased media coverage, the world and governing bodies such as the U.N. Would not sit idly by. For this reason, this perspective is quickly becoming antiquated. Idealism, in contrast, is on the other end of the international relations spectrum.
Idealism surmises that a State's internal policies should be reflected in their foreign policies -- what they wish to occur within their boundaries is what they should support outside of their boundaries. Followers of idealism live by the Golden un -- Do unto others as you'd have them do unto you. The promotion of human rights globally would be incredibly important, from this perspective, as they too would want to enjoy the benefits of human rights…
Human rights timeline: From antiquity to the Magna Carta. (No date). Retrieved October 28, 2009, from http://www.gwu.edu/~erpapers/humanrights/timeline/timeline1.cfm .
Human rights timeline: From European expansion to the Enlightenment. (No date). Retrieved October 28, 2009, from http://www.gwu.edu/~erpapers/humanrights/timeline/timeline2.cfm .
Human rights timeline: From the American Revolution to Napoleon. (No date). Retrieved October 28, 2009, from http://www.gwu.edu/~erpapers/humanrights/timeline/timeline3.cfm .
Human rights timeline: From the Indian Removal Act to the U.S. Sedition Act. (No date). Retrieved October 28, 2009, from http://www.gwu.edu/~erpapers/humanrights/timeline/timeline4.cfm .
Again, this is where a multi-national organization, like the UN, can help eliminate this bias to really determine if the practice is a human rights violation.
Human rights has been a concern for societies since ancient times. Today, although many strides have been made, there are still concerns about human rights violations. Thanks to advancements in communication technologies, now the plight of those suffering on the other side of the globe can be acknowledged by others, who in the past would not have known about it. Also, multi-national organizations, such as the UN, have made human rights a priority. Yet, this does not simply give a singular nation carte blanche to intervene when they believe a violation of human rights is occurring. This is due to both State sovereignty and cultural practices. A singular nation cannot make an unbiased decision on whether or not a practice is truly a…
Alley, L., Fairley, T., Cardinez, C., & Pordell, P. (2007) "Key cancer and public health concepts and definitions." In Global health care: Issues and policies. ed. Carol Herz. Sudbury, MA: Jones & Bartlett Publishers.
Eliminating female genital mutilation. (2008). Retrieved November 3, 2009, from http://www.uneca.org/daweca/Documents/fgm_statement_2008.pdf .
Herz, J. "Rise and Demise of the Territorial State." World Politics 9.4. (Jul 1957): 473-493.
Human rights timeline: From antiquity to the Magna Carta. (No date). Retrieved November 3, 2009, from http://www.gwu.edu/~erpapers/humanrights/timeline/timeline1.cfm .
It also allowed unions to deny non-whites access to benefits of health care, job security and pensions. Housing was also affected. The revolutionary programs of the Federal Housing dministration were set up so that non-whites could not own homes. The system deemed integrated communities ineligible for home loans. Between 1934 and 1962 it was estimated that ninety eight percent of money for home loans went t whites. The government programs and policy caused the creation of segregated white suburbs around the country. To this day Black and Latinos have a smaller chance of successful mortgage applications.
s a result of this preferential treatment for whites over the generations, New York University economist Edward Wolf describes whites as having assets and net worth of eight times that of a typical frican-merican family. Even with equal incomes whites have double the wealth of blacks because of home ownership and inheritance from parents.…
As a result of this preferential treatment for whites over the generations, New York University economist Edward Wolf describes whites as having assets and net worth of eight times that of a typical African-American family. Even with equal incomes whites have double the wealth of blacks because of home ownership and inheritance from parents. The advantage is also passed on to the next generation. The whites are in a better position to put their children through college, assist them with their own home purchase and to help through hard times. This wealth can be passed down through generations and so this racial wealth gap seems to have increased since the civil rights days. This is demonstrated by the fact that in 1865 after Emancipation African-Americans owned 0.5% of the total worth of the U.S. One hundred and thirty five years later in 1990 they still only owned 1% of the national wealth.
Despite all this whites still believe that race does not affect their lives. Some attribute differences in achievement to differences in ability and motivation. But sociologist Dalton Conley showed that the difference in performance between whites and other racial groups had nothing to do with nature but was due to unequal circumstances.
The author concludes that attempts to treat everyone the same does not reverse the unfair advantages that allowed white Americans to accumulate so much in the past years.
ace: Power of an Illusion
This second episode of the PBS series, "The Story we Tell" discusses how race and racism developed in this country. Surprisingly, the series experts believe race has a history, and develops over time, and "that it is constructed by society to further certain political and economic goals" ("ace"). The episode begins with narration that leads into the controversial words of Thomas Jefferson, who wrote that he found blacks inferior to whites in "body and mind." The episode suggests that Thomas Jefferson was then the first American to theorize race in the country. The episode then goes on to discuss the juxtaposition of Jefferson's theory that "all men are created equal" with his own slaveholding and clear approval of slaveholding in the United States. Does this mean that the founding fathers felt those of color were "less than" men?
The episode then discusses early history in…
The Story we Tell." Race: The Power of an Illusion. Prd. Larry Adelman. California Newsreel, 2003.
S. government chose not only to ignore the great humanitarian tragedy but even refused to condemn the killing. The American inaction on the wandan genocide places a big question mark on any subsequent action of its government overseas for humanitarian reasons.
Besides being accused of using "humanitarianism" as a smokescreen for pursuing its own narrow national interests, the United States is also accused of undermining the United Nations and International Law in following a policy of unilateralism and pre-emption. The results of pre-emptive action by the United States for purportedly humanitarian reasons in recent times have been far from satisfactory. For example, when the NATO forces started its bombing campaign in Kosovo in 1999, there was a mass exodus of about 200,000 Serbs and other non-Albanian minorities as refugees from the province; there was an increase in the Serbs' attacks on ethnic Kosovan Albanians and their ethnic cleansing: as a…
Arima, Y. (2003). "The Way to Pearl Harbor: U.S. Vs. Japan." ICE Case Studies:
Number 118, December, 2003. Retrieved on September 9, 2006 at http://www.american.edu/TED/ice/japan-oil.htm
Introduction: The World of 1898." (1998). The Spanish American War-Hispanic Division: Library of Congress. Retrieved on September 9, 2006 at http://www.loc.gov/rr/hispanic/1898/intro.html
Parmet, H.S. (1993) "The History of American Foreign Policy: Thematic Essay." Encarta Yearbook, 1993: Microsoft Encarta Encyclopedia, 2005, CD ROM Version
Between 1865 and 1920, industrialization had diverse effects on the life of Americans. While it improved the life of Americans, it also created problems for the society. Following the civil war, the amount of city jobs and factory jobs increased. As urbanization increased, rural populations decreased. Steel production rates and education increased during this period. Transportation was made more available and easier with the growth of railroads. The American society was revolutionized (Oleson & Brown, 1976).
Major aspects of industrialization during 1865 and 1920 that influenced U.S. society, economy, and politics
Following the civil war, the U.S. embraced steps to become a more industrialized country. Between 1865 and 1920, the effects of industrialization were visible in diverse aspects of the U.S. society. One aspect of American life that improved following this period was steel production. The drastic increase in steel production is linked to new technologies in the…
Dubofsky, M. (1996). Industrialism and the American worker, 1865-1920. Wheeling, Ill: H. Davidson.
Johnson, C.D. (1993). Redeeming America: Evangelicals and the road to Civil War. Chicago: I.R. Dee.
Oleson, A. & Brown, S.C. (1976). The pursuit of knowledge in the early American Republic: American scientific and learned societies from colonial times to the Civil War. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.
Banks, N. (2006). Uplifting the race through domesticity: Capitalism, African-American migration, and the household economy in the Great Migration era of 1916-1930. Feminist Economics, 12, 4, 599-624.
What were the primary motivations and factors that led to the U.S. shift from isolationism and continental expansion to imperialism by the late 19th and early 20th centuries?
America’s so-called “shift” from isolationism and continental expansion to imperialism by the late 19th and early 20th centuries was really nothing more than a natural evolution of America’s “Manifest Destiny.” Before the US could enter its imperial phase beginning with the Spanish-American War at the turn of the century, it had first to square accounts on the continent by pushing its borders as far as they could be pushed. Once the West had been thoroughly settled and the Union held together (the major conflict of the 19th century), the US could turn its attention to foreign lands and global plans to facilitate the spread of the American Empire. It would have been impossible for the US to achieve imperial objectives any…
Lease, Mary Elizabeth. Women in the Farmers’ Alliance. (1891). In Reading the American Past, Vol. 2. Ed. By Michael P. Johnson. Bedford/St. Martins, 2012.
O’Sullivan, John. "Manifest destiny." Sanford, Manifest Destiny (1845): 26-32.
Peck, Mary Gray. Carrie Chapman Catt: A Biography. New York: HW Wilson Company, 1944.
Smith, Adam. The wealth of nations. Aegitas, 2016.
Roark, James L., Michael P. Johnson, Patricia Cline Cohen, Sarah Stage, and Alan Lawson. Understanding the American promise, volume 2: from 1865: a brief history of the United States. Vol. 2. Macmillan, 2011.
Clearly, at the time when the dam was being built, no one cared if it would have had devastating effects on certain communities, since it had been certain that no white community would have been affected by the construction. One could go as far as claiming that the Native Americans have been discriminated, and, that they had no eyes in favor of the people that have approved the dam's construction in the territory.
The American government would come across several problems when being put against the ancient burial ground ethical dilemma. Leaders normally pay great importance to getting as much people as they can to vote them. Thus, if the present American president would continue to ignore the demands made by the Native American tribe, it would ruin his reputation among Native American tribes across the U.S.
The Federal Government will lose large amounts of money if it were to…
1. Coffey, Louis. (2006). Mediated Settlement of a Native American Land Claim. The CPA Journal. Questia, Web, 21 Feb. 2010.
2. Grigg, William Norman, (2002, July 15) Protector of the Nez Perce: Chief Joseph of the Nez Perce Tribe Excelled as a Military Strategist, Courageously Fought as a Warrior, and Valiantly Protected Those Entrusted to His Care," the New American, Questia, Web, 21 Feb. 2010.
3. Kay Roels, Starla, (1998) Borrowing Instead of Taking: How the Seemingly Opposite Threads of Indian Treaty Rights and Property Rights Activism Could Intertwine to Restore Salmon to the Rivers. Environmental Law 28.2: 375, Questia, Web, 21 Feb. 2010.
4. Simms, Andrew, (2003, September 15). Who Owns the World? Everything-From Land, Water and Plant Seeds to Folk Stories and Football Results-Can Now Be Claimed as Private Property. Andrew Simms on the New Enclosures," New Statesman, Questia, Web, 21 Feb. 2010.
Western Experience: Native American Displaced to Oklahoma
The rumors were true, and I feel like a fool that I had not believed them when I first heard them. They had been talking for years about the possibility that the government would come and take our land, but, like many others, I felt that would not occur if we cultivated the land the same way as the white men. The main objection to our people being in the East had been that were barbaric and uncivilized, so that living like white people would spare us from being treated as subhuman. My family and I settled down to farm our land and we were very successful at it, which made us think that there would be no further efforts to rob us from our land. We had heard so many arguments that the government would want to take land from us because…
Edmunds, R.D. (2006, March 14). "Native American displacement amid U.S. expansion."
Prelude to War: Manifest Destiny. Retrieved March 15, 2012 from PBS Website
Sherfly, M. (2003). "Indian removal." Dictionary of American History. Retrieved March 15,
1820-1850 is seen as a period of major change in American History. We often call this period the Age of ackson, since Adrew ackson had a profound influence on this entire period. Describe what ackson stood for and what his policies on the spoils system, nullification, The Bank of the U.S., Indian Removal, land sale, and the opening of the West. Also discuss the great strides in transportation in this era. Then I want you to give an assessment as to whether you feel that the changes were due to the actions of ackson or would they have occurred at this time regardless of who sat in the White House? Be very specific.
The Age of ackson
Andrew ackson's election for U.S. presidency in 1828 made it possible for the masses to acknowledge that change was going to happen. In addition to the fact that the new president had innovative…
Jackson was determined to remove Indians from territories in the vicinity of American states and he believed that by moving them to the West he would make it possible for Americans to settle further to the West on territories previously belonging to Native Americans. His actions have had terrible consequences on Indian populations as they were forced to travel westward to territories that they nothing to do with and as they were poorly equipped to travel great distances. "Between 1830 and 1838, virtually all the "Five Civilized Tribes" were expelled from the southern states and forced to relocate in the new Indian Territory, which Congress had officially created by the Indian Intercourse Act of 1834" (245).
Jackson was actively involved in cancelling the Second Bank of the United States' federal charter for a series of reasons mainly related to how particular individuals were provided with the opportunity to exploit both the government and the nation's finances. Given that Jackson intended to provide all people with equal powers to experience progress, he acknowledged that the federal charter was actually meant to assist wealthy individuals in becoming richer. His involvement was practically meant to assist western and southern states in having the opportunity to progress similar to how northern states were progressing. The seventh president was reluctant to allow the country's rich families to continue to exploit the masses without providing them with the privileges that underprivileged individuals were entitled to.
It is difficult to determine the exact role that Jackson played in the change happening throughout the U.S. In the 1928-1960 time periods. The fact that the first phase of the industrial revolution happened concomitantly to the Age of Jackson makes it possible for individuals to understand that Americans had been particularly successful as a result of these two occurrences, considering that the industrial revolution enabled them to industrialize their businesses and that Jackson introduced thinking that would no longer allow influential actors to intervene and prevent the masses from progressing.
But it certainly was a crucial step in he legitimation of free labor" (141).
eligion in general and revivals especially eased the pains of capitalist expansion in the early 19th century U.S. After Finney was gone, the converted reformers evangelized the working class; they supported poor churches and built new ones in working class neighborhoods. Finney's revival was effective since it dissected all class boundaries and united middle and working class individuals in churches. The middle class went to church, because of the moral obligation to do so; the working classes went, because they were concerned about losing their. Workers who did not become members of churches had more difficulty keeping their jobs. To succeed in ochester, it was astute for the employees to become active churchgoers.
In 1791, not much before the Native Americans began their trek across the country and ochester, New York, was changing its employee/merchant system,…
Gilje, Paul a., ed. The Wages of Independence: Capitalism in the Early American Republic. Madison, WI: Madison House, 1997
Johnson, Paul E. A Shopkeeper's Millennium: Society and Revivals in Rochester, New York, New York: Hill and Wang, 2004.
McCusker, J.J. And Menard, R.R., the Economy of British America, 1607-1789, Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1985.
Slaughter, Thomas. R. Whiskey Rebellion: Frontier Epilogue to the American Revolution, New York, Oxford Press, 1986.
A coalition of English colonists. There was no miscegenation of white and Indian alliances. Also, properties as well as people were fair game, another aspect of the war that heightens the divided nature of cultural attitudes between both peoples. The Indians attacked English farms and towns from Narragansett Bay to the Connecticut River Valley, reflecting, according to Lepore, the different groups' views on house, property, livestock and the overall environment. The Indians favored communal ownership of property, and general use of the land, while the English retained European attitudes that stressed private land ownership and private control of livestock and titles to land tracts and farms. Although these privacy concerns had been at issue before, never had the two sides been so schematically divided. Simmering tensions came to the forefront, and the fighting only ended after Philip was shot, quartered, and beheaded in ritual and retributive fashion in August 1676.…
Lepore, Jill. The Name of War. New York: Knopf, 1998.
The Nazis, however, were seriously mistaken. According to Thomas D. Morgan, "No group that participated in orld ar II made a greater per capita contribution, and no group was changed more by the war." Native Americans willingly enlisted in the war more than any other group in America. Native American tribes that had a long tradition of warrior culture took up arms to defend the American nation. They also served as communication liaison agents who befuddled German and Japanese code-breakers.
Native American contribution fundamentally changed hite's attitude toward American Indians. Many soldiers referred to Native Americans as "Chefs," as a sign of respect. Holm explains: "hites, who made Indian policies at the time, came out of the war with new, or at least different, images of Indian people. These changed views created an atmosphere in which men of varying motives and goals could institute the termination policy under the cloak…
"America at War: World War II." Digital History. Web. 23 May 2012
Black, Helen K., and William H. Thompson. "A War Within a War: A World War II Buffalo Soldier's Story." Journal of Men's Studies 20.1 (2012): 32-46. Web. 23 May 2012.
Clive', Alan. "Women Workers in World War Ii." Labor History 20.1 (1979): 44. Web. 23 May 2012.
De Graaf, Lawrence B. "Significant Steps on an Arduous Path: The Impact of World War II on Discrimination Against African-Americans in the West." Journal of the West 35 (1996): 24-33. Web. 23 May 2012.
Sociology: Anti-Immigration Policies
-California Proposition 227 and Proposition 187-
The purpose of this paper is to research Anti-immigration policies in the United States and to further discuss California's Propositions 227 and 187 and in the critique of the literature to compare and contrast these policies while at the same time to interject originally and critical thinking from the perspective of underlying assumptions, potential weaknesses in the argument of methodological approach and further to analyze their potential value in really grasping an understanding in the immigration issue as to "second generation."
Early roots in anti-immigration sentiment were expressed in the two-dollar a head tax of immigrants in 1903 and in 1997 moving upward to four-dollars a head. "Anti-immigrant sentiment is a result of ignorance of the value of immigrants throughout the history of the United States," pointed our Michael Lin, National President of the Organization of Chinese-Americans (OCA)
During the year…
Griswold, Daniel T. (2002) Trade Policy Analysis no. 19, 2002 Oct 15 Key Points: "Willing Workers: Fixing the Problem of Illegal Mexican Migration to the United States" http://www.freetrade.org/pubs/pas/tpa-019es.html
Reyhner, Jon (1993) American Indian Language Policy and School Success
The Journal of Educational Issues of Language Minority Students, Volume 12, Special Issue III, Summer 1993, pp. 35-59.
Cuban Missile Crisis: Why we need more balance of power in the world.
Cuban Missile crisis in 1960s may raise a serious political question in retrospect i.e. should America be allowed to exist as the sole superpower and what could be the repercussions of such an existence? Now fifty years or so later, we are in a much better position to answer this question. United States or any other nation for that matter must not work as the sole superpower because it can cause many political upheaval as we recently witnessed. We will discuss the Cuban Missile crisis in detail but first we must establish that American history is fraught with events and wars that were fought on the false belief of America's superiority which made it an imperial power. Examples of these events include the Mexican-American War, the Spanish-American War and not to mention the current conflict with Iraq.…
Rothernberg. R.S. "Crisis Time." USA Today 130.2676 (2001)
Meagher. MR."In an Atmosphere of National Peril': The Development of John F. Kennedy's World View." Presidential Studies Quarterly 27.3 (1997):
Krenn ML. "Robert Weisbrot. Maximum Danger: Kennedy, the Missiles, and the Crisis of American Confidence." International Social Science Review (2002):
Nigro Jr. LJ. "High Noon in the Cold War: Kennedy, Khrushchev, and the Cuban Missile Crisis." Parameters 35.3 (2005)
As the costs were considerably less, the profit margins were greater and they were adaptable to host of different weather conditions. ("A rief History of Slavery")
How did the ritish and American ways of viewing representative government differ? How did these differences lead to problems between ritain and America?
The ritish believed that Parliament should address the different issues affecting the colonies. However, the colonists were not given any kind of representation or a way of discussing their grievances. This is different from the American views, where people felt that everyone should be allowed to speak directly with their representatives, about a host of issues.
Over the course of time, this would lead to problems between ritain and America. As the colonists felt that Parliament was not willing to listen to their concerns or to discuss them, by ensuring that they had some form of representation. This is was problematic,…
Brewer, Lawanda. "Religion in Colonial America." UNCP, 2001. Web. 11 Feb. 2011
"A Brief History of Slavery." Religious Tolerance, 2006. Web. 11 Feb. 2011
Geise, Robert. American History to 1877. Hauppauge, NY: Baron's Educational Services, 1992. Print.
MLA Format. http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/747/01/
The FDIC is one of oosevelt's most notable legacies. However, New deal economics have largely fallen by the wayside. The neo-liberal market economy that prevailed in the latter decades of the 20th century counteracts the inherent socialism of the New Deal.
A series of public works programs like the Civil Works Administration (CWA), the Public Works Association (PWA), the Works Progress Administration (WPA), and the Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) helped stimulate the American economy in the wake of the Depression. Public works projects resulted in improved transportation infrastructures, which would become increasingly important during the age of the automobile.
The New Deal also resulted in improved labor laws under the Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938 and therefore offered tacit support for labor unions. One of the most lasting legacies of the New Deal was the Social Security Act, encouraging investments in pensions which would also stimulate the economy. Although…
Andrew Jackson." State Library of North Carolina. Retrieved Dec 4, 2006 at http://statelibrary.dcr.state.nc.us/nc/bio/public/jackson.htm
Andrew Jackson." The White House. Retrieved Nov 4, 2006 at http://www.whitehouse.gov/history/presidents/aj7.html
Dred Scott case: the Supreme Court decision." PBS. Retrieved Dec 4, 2006 at http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aia/part4/4h2933.html
Jacksonian Democracy." Fact Monster. Retrieved Dec 4, 2006 at http://www.factmonster.com/ce6/people/A0858962.html
The significance here, of course, is that the government will continue seeking ways to streamline care and services, and that if a foster care program is clinically proven to be beneficial in deterring criminal behavior amongst Native American juveniles, there will be an increased tendency to remove youngsters from their homes and Native American families in lieu of enforced foster care. This would be consistent with the liberty the government has exercised in removing Native American children from their homes since the 19th century.
It is, therefore, incumbent upon the Native American communities to exercise their own preventative and interventions aimed at curbing and resolving juvenile criminal behaviors. It is the only alternative to what is today the only way that society can continue to remove Native American children from their family and Native American communities.
Eddy, J.M., Whaley, .B., & Chamberlain, P. (2004). The Prevention of…
Eddy, J.M., Whaley, R.B., & Chamberlain, P. (2004). The Prevention of Violent Behavior by Chronic and Serious Male Juvenile Offenders: A 2-Year Follow-Up of a Randomized Clinical Trial. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders, 12(1), 2+. Retrieved July 13, 2008, from Questia database:
This would result in a proliferation of German success and influence throughout the continent and an effective solidarity amongst German immigrants.
5) hat was the "wolf by the ears" quandary that Takai suggests late century American slaveholders found themselves to be in? hat were they afraid of? hat solutions to the problems created by slavery were possible considering the existing conditions and mentalities in American societies at the time?
The problem of slavery had become pressing, not just insofar as it represented a serious humanitarian crisis for the U.S. But even further, as it presented the U.S. And many of its citizens a serious threat to stability. Jefferson's comments, which sound derisive enough, were actually couched in the understanding that the slave class of the United States was justifiably angry, restless and therefore, dangerous to its master. Accordingly, Takaki reports that "As it is,' Jefferson cried out, 'we have the…
Diner, H.R. (1983). Erin's Daughters in America: Irish Immigrant Women in the Nineteenth Century. The Johns Hopkins University Press.
Takaki, R. (2008). A Different Mirror: A History of Multicultural America. Back Bay Books.
UK Immigration Act of 1971 and Its Enforcement with espect to Administrative emoval/Deportation when Articles 3 and 8 of European Convention of Human ights are Engaged
Following the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, many observers stated that "nothing would ever be the same again" and in some ways they have been absolutely correct. While the United Kingdom continues its inexorable march to become fully integrated into the burgeoning European Union, a number of obstacles remain firmly in place that relate to the perceived need by the UK government to better control movement of foreigners within its borders. The purpose of this study was to provide an examination of the UK Immigration Act of 1971 and its enforcement with respect to administrative removal or deportation when Articles 3 and 8 of European Convention of Human ights are engaged. This study used a three-chapter format to achieve this research purpose. Chapter…
Apap, J. And Carrera, S. 2004, "Maintaining Security within Borders: Toward a Permanent State of Emergency in the EU?" Alternatives: Global, Local, Political 29(4): 399.
Barav, A., Wyatt, D.A. And Wyatt, J. 1998, Yearbook of European Law, Vol. 17. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
Bello, J.H. 1995, "Community Competence to Conclude Certain International Agreements." American Journal of International Law, 89(4): 772-789.
Brown, J.M.and Louis, W.R. (Eds.). 1998, The Oxford History of the British Empire, Vol. 4. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press
Today, overt discrimination has largely disappeared in urban areas, but in rural regions Dalits often remain excluded from social and religious life, although here too prejudice seems to be declining (omini (29 August 2008).)
In short, Dalits have made huge strides in the Indian system ever since the modern constitution forbade their discrimination. By 1995, for instance, 17.2% of jobs were held by Dalits whilst Dalits too held 10% of the highest paying jobs in the Indian government. In 1997, a Dalit, K.R. Narayanan, was actually elected as president. Dalits have been elected to the highest judicial and political positions, and, in general, their quality of life has attained similar metric to that of the quality of Indian life in general. Discrimination still seems to be persisting in mute desegregated forms but it also seems to be waning.
As regards the hijra, in recent years, Indian constitution attempted to repeal…
Damal, Swarnakumar (2005). Dalits of Nepal: Who are Dalits in Nepal. International Nepal Solidarity Network
Left Justified. 1997 Excerpts from the Constitution of India
Hrw.org. 13 February 2007. "India: 'Hidden Apartheid' of Discrimination Against Dalits." http://www.hrw.org/en/news/2007/02/12/india-hidden-apartheid-discrimination-against-dalits
Maharshtrian cuisine comprises of hot, aromatic meat and fish curries and subtle flavoring of vegetarian cuisine. Peanuts and cashew nuts are widely used in vegetables and the main cooking medium is peanut oil. Another feature is the use of a deep purple berry with a sweet and sour taste, otherwise called kokum, in sol kadhi, an appetizer-digestive, which is served chilled. Non-vegetarian and vegetarian dishes are served with boiled rice or rotis made from rice flour. Dessert is commonly comprises rotis (a type of bread) stuffed with a sweet mixture of jaggery and gram flour.
Goan cuisine boasts of delicacies like tangy pork 'vindaloo', spicy 'sorpotel' and the popular fish curry with rice. Most of their meals are accompanied with local wine or local liqueur, 'Feni'. Meals are simple but most are also chili hot, spicy and pungent. The basic components include rice, fish and coconut and delicacies made from…
Audretsch, D.B. And Meyer, N.S. " Religion, Culture and Entrepreneurship in India." Indiana
University Public Affairs Conference. 2009. 17 Apr.2010.
"Cuisine." Cuisine Tours of India, Culinary Tour India, Indian Cuisines information,
Your Highnesses have an Other World here, by which our holy faith can be so greatly advanced and from which such great wealth can be drawn," wrote Christopher Columbus to the king and queen of Spain following his third voyage to the Americas in 1498 (rinkley 1). ut even after visiting the New World three times he still had no idea what he had truly started, and he certainly saw no sign that he had began a new era in history. Yet, the history of European involvement in America had begun. Over the next several decades Spanish conquistadores made more and more voyages to the New World, and the royal treasuries grew. Settlements were established and the other European powers, seeing their opportunity, soon made efforts to establish colonies of their own.
In the midst of all of this, the native inhabitants were removed from their lands and…
Brinkley, Douglas. American Heritage: History of the United States. New York: Viking, 1998.
Davis, Kenneth. American History. New York: Harper Collins, 2003.
Gutman, Bill and Anne Wertheim. The Look-It-Up Book of the 50 States. New York: Random House, 2002.
Turner, Frederick. The Frontier in American History. New York: Dover Publications, 1996.
This intervention by U.S. In a foreign country, in literal words, changed the course of history for the whole world and still its outcomes are yet, to be decided.
The attack on U.S. By Al-Qaeda, on 11th September, 1998, changed the course of American paradigm of Muslims and gave a strong cause for George Bush's "ar against Terrorism." here thousands of American citizens died in Twin Towers, so did the global efforts of maintaining peace between estern and Muslim countries.
Right after, this attack, U.S. invaded Afghanistan initially through Missile attacks and then landed its troops into this land of rocks, physically. Thousands of American soldiers were deputed there and made to fight the mujahids of Al-Qaeda who were rather well-versed with the seasonal feasibility of their land.
Therefore, initially, U.S. army did faced a lot of difficulties, mainly because of weather and foreignness of the war field. However with…
Bean, Lowell John. "Mukat's People: The Cahuilla Indians of Southern California." Berkeley, California: University of California Press.1972
Bean, Lowell John. "Cahuilla," in California" pp. 575 -- 587. Handbook of North American Indians, William C. Sturtevant, general editor, vol. 8. Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. 1978
Bean, Lowell John, Sylvia Brakke Vane, and Jackson Young. " the Cahuilla Landscape:
Brown, Glenn . "Chapter XX Sculpture." History of the United States Capitol. Government Printing Office. 2007
And farther west on the Great Plains were the Teton Sioux, among them the Oglalas, whose chief was Red Cloud, and among the Hunkpapas, was Sitting ull, who together with Crazy Horse of the Oglalas, would make history in 1876 at Little ig Horn (rown 10).
After years of broken promises, conflicts and massacres, came the Treaty of Fort Laramie, said to be the most important document in the history of Indian-white relations on the Great Plains (Marrin 94). The treaty basically set aside a Great Sioux Reservation on all of present-day South Dakota west of the Missouri River up to and including the lack Hills, and barred all whites except government officials from the reservation and from a vast "unceded" territory lying between the lack Hills and ighorn Mountains (Marrin 94). Under the treaty, these lands belonged to the Lakota "forever" unless three-quarters of the tribes' men agreed to…
American History since 1865: Wounded Knee
1988. The Dictionary of Cultural Literacy. Retrieved October 14, 2005 from HighBeam Research Library Web site.
Amerman, Stephen Kent.
2003. Let's get in and fight!" American Indian political activism in an urban public school system, 1973. The American Indian Quarterly. June 22. Retrieved October 14, 2005 from HighBeam Research Library Web sit.
Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO) is a growing problem especially with advances via the Monsanto lobby in Congress. There are several avenues Monsanto can take to generate an environment in the United States that supports GMO crops and GMO ingredients. They can alter the GMO food labeling bill and pressure farmers to adopt use of their patented seeds, among other actions. To thwart these efforts, the American public must act quickly. They must lobby the government against Monsanto and use the evidence from countries like India and Argentina where GMO crops grow, to demonstrate the deleterious effects of GMO.
The first problem that must be solved is GMO and labeling. The GMO food labeling bill must allow clear labeling of GMO foods instead of the QR codes. A second problem is Monsanto itself. Monsanto’s power regarding seed patenting must be eliminated. India ruled Monsanto cannot patent cotton seeds…
They other group that faced quiet a bit of resistance was that of the colored women. In a work by Watkins Harper, Colored Women of America, the plight of colored women during this era was discussed in detail. The white and black women during this time period were constantly aggravated by the lack of backing for reprieve, land transformation, and compensations that they believed as just. This radical position was thwarted by a male biased society that dishonored female restructuring and tried to stop black reliance on the federal government. The women's visualization of liberty, turned out to be very different from that of the men's.
Black women played a vital role in econstruction. In numerous manners these militant women had further in common with their white equals than the freed women whose agony they wanted to alleviate. All through the Civil War, abolitionist and ex- slave Harriet Jacobs toiled…
If a health outcome is perceived to higher or lower magnitude between populations, there exists a disparity. Imperatively, aspects such as age, race or ethnicity, disability, sexual identity, socioeconomic status, geographic location and sex are all contributing factors to a person’s ability to attain good health. In this case, the disparity selected is the obesity status of children. Notably, obesity is increasing at a significant rate across the globe and is in the present day approximated to be prevalent in more than 300 million people across the globe. In children today, obesity is the most prevalent metabolic and nutritional illness, whereas three decades ago this was barely seen. There are different ways in which members of this group may be disadvantaged with regard to health status. In accordance to Ahmad et al. (2010), childhood obesity can give rise to diabetes, high blood pressure, cancer, liver disease, heart disease,…
old Chinese proverb that I believe encompasses my feelings for the nursing profession. With the healthcare industry in its current state of disruption, it has become very important to re-evaluate the relationship of patient care and patient satisfaction. "Sometimes patient satisfaction needs to be measured one patient at a time. This usually has nothing to do with the impersonality of the plan, the aloofness of the provider, or the quality of the specialists to whom one is referred. Rather, it involves the basic rationing philosophies of HMOs, particularly the for-profit variety." (Birenbaum, 107) We can't forget that the business objectives of HMO's aim to purchase services and materials at the lowest price possible and trying to lock in a price in advance. HMO's have therefore changed the philosophy of the healthcare industry. As nurses, we have to make the best of this atmosphere. This essay therefore serves as the final…
From the perspective of professionalism, I have learned that as a nurse, it is best to continue to function in the day-to-day with an open mind and to also be prepared to look for a viable solution through detailed research. For example, I have discovered that the Hmong philosophy may not have been all that far fetched. Shamanism is actually the foundation of many modern medical cures including various technologies, sciences and medicines. Shamanism has also been unofficially credited with having discovered the fact that the ability of people who have suffered a state of amnesia, epilepsy or other 'soul splitting' similar to Lia's are actually one way that the body allows for time to heal from brain trauma induced by accidents or other physical abuses. "There is a doorway within our minds that usually remains hidden and secret until the time of death. The Huichoil word for it is neirika. Neirika is a cosmic portway or interface between so-called ordinary and non-ordinary realities. It is a pathway and at the same time a barrier between worlds." (Halifax, 1991)
Lia's father may not have been right about the doors slamming as the stimulus, but he may have been on to something with the notion of a splitting of the soul. Long before modern psychology or medicine, Shamanism discovered that children used soul splitting events like epilepsy, amnesia, sleep and even comas to heal from events like mentally traumatic or emotional disturbances such as the loss of their parents or siblings. Just like modern medicine and psychology, shamanic journeys that realigned the human soul have been proven to have healed some forms of depression, helped in coma recoveries and more. When Lia was alive and well years after the western world had assumed she would not live more than a few months at best, the western world could have benefited by admitting that in this case at least, the Hmong way of life may have been superior. I believe that what I have learned from this class and from the story will advance me as a future nurse because I will apply the ideas of open mindedness with detailed research.
As the HMO payment philosophy
But after local wastewater plants were "...upgraded and farms' management practices were improved, the amount of phosphorus declined and the copper sulfate was no long considered necessary" (Royte, 2007). The Times' story reports that to prevent the dumping of partially treated sewage water into the waterways, septic tanks need to be upgraded and "cleaning the water in sewage treatments plants even more thoroughly before it is discharged into the watershed..." is necessary. That will be quite a job, because "more than two dozen of the roughly 100 wastewater treatment plants that discharge into the city's watershed use a suboptimal cleaning process."
TO: The flooding problem. hy has it become a more serious problem in recent years? Taking New York City as an example of the problem and its roots, the New York Times article alluded to in the previous section points out that recently, as developers began clearing more and…
Clausen, Jan. (2000). Northwest Tribes Fight Against Formidable Odds to Save Endangered
Salmon. Nation. 270(3), 22-24.
Gelt, Joe. (2005). Managing the Interconnecting Waters: The Groundwater-Surface Water
Dilemma. University of Arizona. Retrieved Oct. 16, 2007, at http://cals.arizona.edu/axwater/arroyo/081con.html .
S. history such as Hurricane Andrew and the Northridge earthquake. Post-9/11 infrastructure protection investments have focused on increasing the security of infrastructure, not in increasing its resilience." (p. 258)
Certainly, these breakdowns are an indication that many of the interagency strategies brought to bear in the discussion on public administration had not been executed effectively, especially those intended to coalesce under the roof of the Department of Homeland Security. A quick review of the disaster management failures of Katrina are appropriate here. Accordingly, for five days after the landfall and passage of Hurricane Katrina, hordes of people stranded in New Orleans continued to wait for some indication that the federal government would soon be provided relief. Stranded and contained in horrific conditions in the city's football arena, the Superdome, which had been converted to a makeshift evacuation shelter with woefully insufficient supplies and accommodations for the tens of thousands who…
Agnos, a. (1998). Single Family Loan Production and Servicing. U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development. (USDHUD).
Associated Press (AP). (2005). FEMA knew Katrina response was 'broken,' MSNBC.
Brown, a.D. (2004). Authoritative Sensemaking in a Public Inquiry Report, Organization Studies, 25(1), 95-112.
Brown N., Vega S., Dupree a., Hartong R. (2010). DHS' Progress in Federal Incident Management Planning, Department of Homeland Security Office of Inspector General
Air pollution pertains to substances and gases in the air that threaten health and life. Among these are pollutants and irritants, such as nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, and carbon dioxide; particulates, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), toxic substances and some natural substances, like pollen. ut most of the pollution comes from the by-products of industrialization - fossil fuel combustion, transportation, transportation, power plant emissions and those from other industrial processes. The burning of fossil fuels to generate electricity alone is the greatest source of air pollution in the U.S.A. These outdoor pollutants can undermine health and cause environmental disturbances, such as acid rain, and are toxic.
Studies show that we now spend more than 90% of our lives inside buildings and other constructed environments. ecause of this, such structures - including homes and office buildings - are constructed with energy efficiency and comfort foremost in mind. The installation of central heating,…
1. Alpha nutrition Programs. Indoor Air-More Contaminated Than Outdoor Air?
2. Ammann, Harriet M. Is Indoor Mold Contamination a Threat to Health?
Office of Environmental Health Assessments, Washington State Department of Health
The Seven Years War saw Britain established as the greatest colonial power, with control over India and North America seemingly secured, while Prussia emerged as the greatest power on the Continent, and the dominant force inside Germany, reducing still further the power of the Holy Roman Empire and Habsburg Austria. Frederick II of Prussia (the Great) emerges as the most remarkable leader of the war. Prussia was the smallest of the main combatants, and yet Frederick survived year after year of campaigning, and despite coming near to defeat he emerged triumphant (Richard).
Histories of the American Revolution tend to start in 1763, the end of the Seven-Year's War, a worldwide struggle for empire that pitted France against England in North America, Europe, and Asia. Fred Anderson, who teaches history at the University of Colorado, takes the story back a decade and explains the significance of the conflict in American history.…
hen the word terrorism or terrorist is spoken, the immediate image for most people is the likes of Al Qaida and the bombings of the London Subway or the 9/11 attacks on American soil. This is a very limited understanding of terrorist groups. In almost every nation, religion, and ethnic group, there are factions of individuals who are dedicated to a political cause. They are so dedicated that they are willing to commit acts of violence on a large scale in order to make their point and force those in power to satisfy their demands. Most often, these groups have an agenda which is antithetical to the aims and best interests of the larger population; something that does not matter to them. Terrorists will do whatever it is they deem necessary in order to achieve their ends. The base word terror explains exactly how they choose to force…
Anderson, Jon Lee. "Death of the Tiger." The New Yorker. 2011. Print.
Bhattacharji, Preeti. "Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (aka Tamil Tigers)." Council on Foreign
Buerk, Roland. "Sri Lankan Families Count Cost of War." BBC News. 2008. Web. 2012.
The concept of Marine insurance is something that has been developing at a fast rate of late. (Marine Insurance: Barlow, Lyde and Gilbert) What exactly is insurance and how long has the concept been recognized? Insurance can be defined as a form of provision of a safety net for the distribution of risks. This is generally made in the form of a financial provision that is meant to protect against losses that may occur due to certain unavoidable reasons. Insurance works like this: a person who wishes to insure an object or possession or belonging of his will pay a certain amount of money that has already been fixed by the insurance agent in order to offer the security of the money to distribute the risks when the insurer happens, by misfortune, to lose his possession or damage it because of an unavoidable reason. The insurer, by the…
Admiralty Law.com" Retrieved at http://www.admiraltylaw.com/papers/2000.htm. Accessed on 19 September, 2004
Averagium" Retrieved at http://harvey-ashby.co.uk/Averagium%20-%20Winter%202002.pdf. Accessed on 19 September, 2004
Commercial Hull" (2004) Retrieved at http://www.veromarine.co.nz/dirvz/marine/marine.nsf/content/ProductsHullCommercialHullAccessed on 19 September, 2004
English Marine Insurance Act 1906" Retrieved at http://www.solarnavigator.net/english_marine_insurance_act_1906.htm . Accessed on 19 September, 2004
Since taconite iron ore can be attracted by magnets, it is called a magnetite. Magnetite is abundant in the Minnesota Iron ange as well as the Michigan Iron ange that is located next to Marquette as well as in the Penokee ange in Wisconsin, Minnesota. In Wisconsin-Minnesota's Gogebic-Penokee ange, the taconite iron ore deposits are concentrated on the bands that run from the Mellen area in Ashland County up to the area near Upson in the Iron County.
The taconite iron ore extraction process
The mining of taconite iron ore in the Gogebic-Penokee ange is carried out by means of open-pit mining methods. The mining process commences by the drilling of a hole into the ground in order to determine the exact location and quality of the iron ore deposit. The drilling also reveals the characteristics of the rocks that surround the ore. For the rather large modern mines, there…
Broman, A (2011)'Silent Majority' Backs Penokee Mine: Gogebic Taconite President
Cannon, W.F., (1973)The Penokean orogeny in northern Michigan, in Young, G.M., ed., Huronian stratigraphy and sedimentation: Geological Association of Canada Special Paper
Clements, B and Sack, C (2008)Introduction to Mining in the Penokees
Managing Organisational Culture
The values and behaviors that contribute to the unique social and psychological environment of an organization make up the organizations culture. Organizational culture is the summation total of an organization's past and current suppositions, incidents, viewpoint, and values that hold it together, and is articulated in its self-image, inner workings, connections with the outside world, and future prospects.
In dealing with the management of organisational culture, it is firstly essential to recognize as fully as possible the characteristics of the existing or new target culture to include the myths, symbols, rituals, values and assumptions that strengthen the culture. Organisational culture is not something that can be viewed very easily it is consequently quite hard to replace it. Usually when certain leaders form a company, their values are converted into the actions of the members of that organisation. When other leaders take over, it may not…
Background To Business in China. n.d. [ONLINE]. Available at: http://www.worldbusinessculture.com/Chinese-Business-Style.html [Accessed 18 August 2012].
Campbell, B. 2010. [ONLINE]. How To Improve Your Corporate Culture. Available at: http://www.bcbusinessonline.ca/bcb/business-sense/2010/05/28/how-improve-your-corporate-culture [Accessed 15 August 2012].
Differences in Culture. n.d. [ONLINE]. Available at: http://www.analytictech.com/mb021/cultural.htm [Accessed 24 August 2012].
Edgar H. Schein's Model of Organizational Culture. 2010. [ONLINE]. Available at: http://www.businessmate.org/Article.php?ArtikelId=36 [Accessed 18 August 2012].
The Leblanc alkali production processes were especially pernicious, but they followed along the lines of previous industrial processes. In other words, the first British environmental legislation was a response not so much to a qualitative change in industrial processes and their environmental impact but more to a quantitative increase in sources of pollution that had up to that point been (if only barely) tolerable.
Legislation Arising From Public Anger
At the center of the first British environmental legislation was the Leblanc process, an industrial process that produced of soda ash (which is chemically sodium carbonate) that came into use in the first decades of the 19th century. Named after its inventor, Nicolas Leblanc, it replaced an older process in which soda ash had been produced from wood ash. However, as the availability of wood ash declined (because of deforestation, a process that was occuring both in Great Britain and across…
Resources Act (WRA) of 1991. This act "establishes the duties of the Environment Agency (EA) on flood defence and other areas relating to water management and quality."
"The EA has discretionary powers to improve and maintain river conditions. This means that the EA is not obliged to construct or maintain such works. In practice, the EA will only proceed with schemes that are not only beneficial but cost-effective.
"The Act also grants the EA powers to issue flood warnings and regulate what can be discharged into rivers, estuaries, coastal waters, lakes and groundwaters."
Canadian law on flooding is similarly divided between common law and statutory law.