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Removal Act of May 28, 1830 was an act by both Houses of Congress of the U.S., which provided for an exchange of lands with the native Indian tribes residing in any of the states or territories and for their removal west of the Mississippi River, their traditional land, to the prairies. It was signed by then President Andrew Jackson into law.
The eviction of these Indian tribes from a land they called their own was part of the course of the Westward expansion by European-Americans. These tribes then lost their lands by purchase, war, disease or extermination but many were formalized by treaty. They fought for that right so hard that the Treaty of Greenville of 1785 had to be signed to end bloody Indian wars in Ohio (Goodman 2003). The agreement recognized such right for "as long as the woods grow and waters run."
The Constitution of 1789,…… [Read More]
The Injustice of the Indian Removal Act 1830
The Indian Removal Act signed by Andrew Jackson in 1830 was meant to establish peace in the nation and to give the Native Americans their own territory where they could practice their own activities, traditions and culture without interference from the American government. However, the Act resulted in the forced migration of thousands of Native Americans from their traditional homelands to a region of the U.S. that did not suit their lifestyle or their culture. Many suffered and died during the march on the Trail of Tears from the Southern states to Oregon. Though Jackson may have had good intentions at the time, the removal can now be viewed as an American tragedy that might have been prevented. In fact, it was just one example of an exercise in human rights abuses in a long history of human rights abuses committed…… [Read More]
President Andrew Jackson had long pursued an aggressive approach to Native Americans before 1838-9, when 4000 Cherokee died during the forcible removal program dubbed later the "Trail of Tears"
Five tribes in the Southeastern United States had been dubbed "civilized" because of their willingness to assimilate: the Cherokee, Chickasaw, Choctaw, Creek, and Seminole.
The informal and formal agreements between Native Americans and the federal government began to fall apart due to increasing demand for land.
Greed and white supremacist ideology laid the groundwork for the Indian Removal Act of 1830, revealing stark connections between the Trail of Tears and the legacy of slavery in the United States.
Sheer greed prompted much of the Indian removal policies, broken treaties, and ultimately, forced exile.
A. Burgeoning numbers of settlers into the lands now part of Georgia and Alabama pressured the federal government for support in their endeavor to expand cotton plantations.
B.…… [Read More]
How valuable is history if it is truly written by the victors of war? What remains of the historical account are only tiny fragments of what the true and whole story encapsulated. What we are left with are scraps of stories that are fragmented and skewed to the current power structures that run the institutions. Understanding this skeptical attitude is extremely important when judging an historical account.
The purpose of this essay is to discuss the removal of Native Americans from the region east of the Mississippi in the time of 1830. This essay will examine both sides of the argument and address the ethical, moral, philosophical and legal aspects to this complex and sophisticated subject. This essay will ultimately try to distinguish that the removal of these people's land, while extremely expedient and profitable, was a clear violation of the human ethic and should be remembered as…… [Read More]
He was viewing them as little children who required guidance. He tended to believe that the policy of removal had great benefits to the Indians. Majority of the white Americans were thinking that United States was not capable of extending past Mississippi. The removal was capable of saving the Indian nationals from the white's depredations Foreman 1932).
The removal could make them to govern themselves peacefully
It was assumed that the removal was to resettle the Indians in a region where they were capable of governing themselves peacefully. However, a number of Americans viewed this as being a mere excuse for a cruel and appalling course of action, and complained against the removal of the Indian nationals. Their complaints however could not prevent the southeastern populations from being removal. The first lot of people to sign the removal treaty was the Choctaws. They did this in September 1830. A number…… [Read More]
The name Seminole is derived from the Spanish word "cimarron" meaning "wild men." Seminoles were originally given this name since they were Indians who had escaped from slavery in the British-controlled northern colonies. hen they arrived in Florida, they were not known as Seminoles as they were in reality Creeks, Indians of Muskogee derivation. The Muskogean tribes made up the Mississippian cultures which were temple-mound builders. "Among the Muskogean tribes were the Creeks, Hitichis and Yamasees of Georgia, the Apalachees of Florida, the Alabamas and Mobiles of Alabama, and the Choctaws, Chickasaws and Houmas of Mississippi" (Murray, n.d.).
It is believed that the Seminole tribe settled in Florida as far back as 10,000 BC. For hundreds of years, the Seminole Indians essentially ruled almost all of Florida. Even when the Europeans arrived, at first they were not concerned in the area of Florida, but displayed more inquisitiveness toward…… [Read More]
Carlisle Indian School: founded 1879; Indian boarding school; Pennsylvania; forced assimilation of native children; abuse of children
11. Cheyenne Tribe: Plains Indians; a Sioux name for the tribe; currently comprises two tribes; ties with Arapaho; hunters; ghost dance
12. ed Cloud: leader of Ogala Lakota; fierce warrior opposed U.S.; ed Cloud's War 1866-1868; Wyoming, Montana; became leader on reservation
13. Comanche Tribe: Texas, Colorado, New Mexico, Kansas, Oklahoma; Plains Indians; hunter-gatherers; about 14,000 remain; speak Uto-Aztecan language related to Shoshone
14. Joseph Brant: Thayendanegea; Mohawk; American evolution fought with British to help Indians; became Mason; active political leader for Six Nations
15. Trail of Tears: massive relocation of Native Americans; affected Choctaw, Cherokee and other southern Indians; move to Oklahoma Indian Territory; 1830s; related to Indian emoval Act; represented treaty violations
16. Pontiac's War: 1763; Great Lakes region; Pontiac was Odawa leader; war against British after Seven Years War; British…… [Read More]
Often, treaties were signed, and then as more people moved into the area, they were ignored.
By 1834, the BIA was working with warring Indian tribes attempting to keep the peace, and the scope of government involvement in this area continued to grow. Jackson's Indian policies were much more dramatic than any of the others before him. During his presidency, he authorized military campaigns against the Indians, the Indian emoval Act of 1830 allowed the government to remove Indians to lands far west, even further than earlier relocations, and the reservations of warring tribes were often place near each other. In short, the Federal Indian policies throughout this period were all about the government, and had little valid concern for the Natives.
Editors. 2009. Federal Indian Policy Timeline. Washington State Historical Society. http://stories.washingtonhistory.org/treatytrail/context/policy-timeline-1.htm.
Campbell, John. 2006. The Seminoles, the "Bloodhound War" and Abolitionism, 1796-1865. Journal of Southern History 72,…… [Read More]
Extinction of the Native American
The area of the world that is now known as the United States of America used to belong to various tribes of people which are now known as Native Americans as opposed to their old name, Indians, which was a misnomer based on the erroneous idea that explorers from Europe did not know that such a large land mass existed and that by crossing the Atlantic Ocean, they had made it to the country of India. hen Europeans first arrived in this country, they were highly outnumbered by populations of Native Americans. The United States of America is a nation that was built on the ideas of life, liberty, pursuit of happiness, and freedom for all persons. Yet, that freedom has been won only through the genocide of hundreds of thousands of people. In the course of a few centuries, the Native American peoples have…… [Read More]
Indian Welfare Act
There are few things in life as traumatic as losing a child. Unfortunately, this is a phenomenon that plagues humanity on a daily basis. Children are lost in many ways. Some die, some are kidnapped. Others are lost through adoption. For some mothers, adoption is an informed decision made on the basis of what the individual believes is right for her child. However, there is also a phenomenon of adoption that occurred during the 1960s and 1970s, in which mothers were more or less coerced in giving up their children for adoption. In many cases, this coercion also occurred without informed consent, where mothers were asked to sign documents without receiving full disclosure regarding the nature of such documents. This occurred disproportionately among Indian children, many of whom were forcibly removed from their parents during the 1960s and 1970s. This resulted in the Indian Child Welfare Act,…… [Read More]
American Indian Movement
The poorest people in America are the American Indians and it is also a fact that Indian reservations have unique laws that has made it a nation by itself within the United States. The modern movements focus on the American Indian reservations being empowered by self-determination. This is important for the economic, social and cultural improvement of the American Indians. It was with the Nixon administration that the welfare of the tribes became the focus of the government. The subsequent administrations encouraged the Indians to adapt to a policy of political and economic self-determination. Today many reservations have become economic hubs with tax and regulation havens for investment. Thus as of now the Mescalero and White Mountain Apaches "have become premier private managers of multiple-use forest resource economies." (Legters; Lyden, 1994)
However it must be stated that only during the eagan administration that there were major reports…… [Read More]
Indian tribes in the Eastern United States. At the time, the nation was expanding westward and there were concerns that the Indians could begin attacking civilized areas. After the end of the Black Hawk War, is when these worries increased exponentially. As a result, different states began to pass laws that restricted and limited the power of Indian tribes. (emini, n.d., pp. 107 -- 119)
Once this occurred, is when the Cherokee became worried about being forced westward. This was problematic, as they had adopted civilized practices including: establishing a functioning democracy, they had their own language, newspaper and Constitution. These areas led many to believe that the Cherokee would remain in the region. As they were not: a threat to society and believed they had the support of the American people. (emini, n.d., pp. 107 -- 119)
Moreover, the Cherokee were able to win two favorable Supreme Court decisions…… [Read More]
Politics makes strange bedfellows, we are told, with the implication that those brought together by the vagaries of politics would be best kept apart. But sometimes this is not true at all. In the case of the Black Seminoles, politics brought slaves and Seminole Indians politics brought together two groups of people who would - had the history of the South been written just a little bit differently - would never have had much in common. But slaves fleeing their masters and Seminoles trying to lay claim to what was left of their traditional lands and ways found each other to be natural allies in Florida and in time in other places as well. This paper examines the origin of this particular American population, describing how the Black Seminoles changed over time and how their culture reflected both African and Seminole elements.
The Black Seminoles began in the early 1800s…… [Read More]
Captain Smith by Pocahontas
Antonio Capellano's sculpture The Preservation of Captain Smith by Pocahontas (1825) is still in the Capitol Rotunda along with other works of the same period such as illiam Penn's Treaty with the Indians and The Landing of the Pilgrims, although they no longer resonate with audiences in the same way as they did in the 19th Century. In the 20th and 21st Centuries, more sophisticated and educated viewers at least would realize that these are all the product of an era of estern expansion and a highly romanticized view of history that is heavily tinged with racism and white nationalism. hen these sculptures were first commissioned by the U.S. government, the early republic was engaged in westward expansion that would result in the destruction, displacement or removal of most Native Americans, a process that most white Americans of the era regarded as necessary and beneficial. All…… [Read More]
Crow: Spokesman for the Sioux, is an account of the U.S. conflict with the Sioux, which gives a unique insight into the Sioux's version of events.
Main Idea: American authors/historians have only given U.S., side of events.
American historians give one side of history, incomplete picture.
Indians presented as violent primitive barbarians.
Anderson finally gives accurate account.
Main Idea: The Native Americans were treated very badly by U.S.
White settlers had no respect for natives or their customs.
Indian emoval Act 1830: forces all natives to move west of the Mississippi.
Native Americans cannot win.
Anderson's book gives accurate account.
Little Crow used as example, gives Sioux point-of-view.
Little Crow, and the Sioux, are a real people with a real culture and real feelings.
C. Anderson presents the Sioux side by delving into the Sioux's history and culture.
D. This is how to present an accurate portrait of events.
Little…… [Read More]
Still, many prospered -- visitors such as Alexis de Tocqueville from France marveled at American's drive to acquire wealth, American faith and sociability, as well as the profound racial divisions that characterized American society. American society was poised in continual paradoxes -- religious yet money-hungry, disdainful of social hierarchies yet dependant upon oppressing or disenfranchising races to secure advancement of poorer whites. America was also land-hungry in a way that put it into conflict with its neighbor Mexico, despite its insistence upon being against colonialism, having been born of resistance to colonial Britain. This resulted in the Mexican-American ar and the eventual incorporation of Texas into the Union.
Texas and the est itself is still another paradox of the American experiment. For those unable to become wealthy through capitalism, striking out on one's own in the west seemed a better alternative to the increasingly civilized and also socially entrenched east.…… [Read More]
During antebellum America, the Jacksonian Democrats were created. This was a group that viewed themselves as protectors of the common people. A powerful executive whose goal was to destroy aristocracy in America, Andrew Jackson, ruled the Jacksonian Democrats. (Schlesinger)
Strangely, this group was not made up of the common people. The Jacksonian Democrats were a wealthy group that supported equality between white men, enacted radical economic policies, and disregarded any capabilities of the federal government. Many say that the group was not the introducers of democracy in America but rather users of the system for their own benefit.
During the early 1800's, the United States was growing at a rapid pace. A market revolution took place as cash-crop agriculture and capitalist manufacturing replaced the artisan economy. However, this prosperity created a split between the industrializing, urban north, agrarian, rural South, and the expanding West.
The Jacksonians passed the…… [Read More]
Sociologists explain their condition through a culture-of-poverty theory or the theory of internal colonialism. Under the first theory, Appalachia families, for better or worse, simply cope with poverty. The second theory, on the other hand, ascribes poverty in Appalachia to structural causes. The theories offer insights but are both found to be quite deficient (Billings and Blee).
The first theory on culture-on-poverty became popular in the 60s and drew its premise from Appalachia's ethnic geography in the late 19th century. It was then perceived as a distinct region and race that entered the American consciousness only after the Civil War (Billings and Blee 2002). Imaginative fictionists only conjured images of the mountain and upland cultures, which were vastly out of step with the lowland's, culturally ad economically. At the turn of the century, Willim Goddell Frost, president of Berea College of Kentucky, discoursed on the people of the southern amounts…… [Read More]
It also illustrated the solidification of the definition of a true American as a white male. Andrew Jackson was a populist, and spoke out against the landed aristocracy, of which Jefferson was a member. Jackson wanted votes for all men, regardless of property-holding status, but he also wanted to expand property ownership to a larger proportion of the population. his would be accomplished by expansion westward.
he Indian Removal Act of 1830 confirmed the Jacksonian idea that America was not a race-neutral civilization, and depended upon the subjugation and eradication of some races, while it strove to build up its own status: "hey have neither the intelligence, the industry, the moral habits, nor the desire of improvement which are essential to any change in their condition. Established in the midst of another and superior race, they must necessarily yield to the force of circumstances and ere long disappear," said Jackson,…… [Read More]
Native Tribes and American Identity
It is reasonable to suggest that the United States would not exist in its current form without the contributions and influences of the millions of Native Americans who already lived here when the first colonists arrived. Not only did these early Native Americans teach the new European arrivals how to survive in the New World, in some cases they even freely supported them for years while they awaited assistance from Europe, all with no real expectation of being repaid in kind or turn. Without this assistance, the settlement of the American continent might well have been delayed for several more decades.
In addition, and although many modern Americans may not realize it, the so-called “melting pot” that would characterize the American identity during much of the 19th and 20th centuries was the direct result of the influences of Native American tribes. Moreover, Native American tribes…… [Read More]
uh.edu). He also made the electing process more democratic by having conventions where he had representatives from every state nominate a presidential candidate to represent their individual parties. This would provide a more accurate representation of who the people themselves saw as President.
Jackson also had great influence on the economic situation of that era. In order for Americans to start to buy more American goods, Jackson wanted to pass a tariff on all English goods. Although this meant that America would get more of their things sold and purchased, it also meant that Americans had to pay more for necessary goods that came from abroad (McGraw-Hill, p.338). This angered the South who owned property and were most affected by the rise in these tariffs. This was the beginning of the Nullification Act. This act was made as a compromise to steadily reduce the tariff placed throughout the years, but…… [Read More]
American president as a king would have been one of the greatest insults in the early 19th century, merely decades after the United States won its independence from the British crown. Andrew Jackson's policies and leadership style both reminded the American public of monarchic rule. Here, Jackson is depicted as a loathsome king who tramples on the American constitution and wants to veto any legislation Congress tries to pass. The veto power refers to Jackson's vetoing of several congressional bills including those related to the creation of federal banking systems. At the top of the cartoon, the words "Born to Command" underscore the comparison with Jackson and a dictatorial ruler. Interestingly, Jackson touted himself as being the "man of the people," not "King Andrew." One reason why Jackson did engage his veto power as often as he did was that he viewed his role as being to protect the people,…… [Read More]
The Cherokee Tribe in North Carolina is part of the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians, a federally-recognized independent Native American Cherokee tribe whose home base is in Cherokee, North Carolina, south of the Smoky Mountains. The Eastern Band is comprised of the descendants of the approximately 800 Cherokee who did not join the Trail of Tears—the forced migration of the Native American nations from the Southern U.S. region to the western U.S. region designated by the U.S. government as Indian Territory following the Indian Removal Act of 1830. This relatively small number of Cherokee (compared to the 16,000 Cherokee who were relocated) avoided relocation by living on privately owned land, as opposed to communal land. For example, some 400 Cherokee lived on acreage owned by William Holland Thomas in the Smoky Mountains. Thomas had been taken in by the Cherokee in his youth and now returned the favor in…… [Read More]
Social ideals and ethics are secondary. As such, if it were most beneficial to the State to commit genocide while conquering another nation, that would be the course of action taken. However, again thanks to increased media coverage, the world and governing bodies such as the U.N. Would not sit idly by. For this reason, this perspective is quickly becoming antiquated. Idealism, in contrast, is on the other end of the international relations spectrum.
Idealism surmises that a State's internal policies should be reflected in their foreign policies -- what they wish to occur within their boundaries is what they should support outside of their boundaries. Followers of idealism live by the Golden un -- Do unto others as you'd have them do unto you. The promotion of human rights globally would be incredibly important, from this perspective, as they too would want to enjoy the benefits of human rights…… [Read More]
Again, this is where a multi-national organization, like the UN, can help eliminate this bias to really determine if the practice is a human rights violation.
Human rights has been a concern for societies since ancient times. Today, although many strides have been made, there are still concerns about human rights violations. Thanks to advancements in communication technologies, now the plight of those suffering on the other side of the globe can be acknowledged by others, who in the past would not have known about it. Also, multi-national organizations, such as the UN, have made human rights a priority. Yet, this does not simply give a singular nation carte blanche to intervene when they believe a violation of human rights is occurring. This is due to both State sovereignty and cultural practices. A singular nation cannot make an unbiased decision on whether or not a practice is truly a…… [Read More]
It also allowed unions to deny non-whites access to benefits of health care, job security and pensions. Housing was also affected. The revolutionary programs of the Federal Housing dministration were set up so that non-whites could not own homes. The system deemed integrated communities ineligible for home loans. Between 1934 and 1962 it was estimated that ninety eight percent of money for home loans went t whites. The government programs and policy caused the creation of segregated white suburbs around the country. To this day Black and Latinos have a smaller chance of successful mortgage applications.
s a result of this preferential treatment for whites over the generations, New York University economist Edward Wolf describes whites as having assets and net worth of eight times that of a typical frican-merican family. Even with equal incomes whites have double the wealth of blacks because of home ownership and inheritance from parents.…… [Read More]
ace: Power of an Illusion
This second episode of the PBS series, "The Story we Tell" discusses how race and racism developed in this country. Surprisingly, the series experts believe race has a history, and develops over time, and "that it is constructed by society to further certain political and economic goals" ("ace"). The episode begins with narration that leads into the controversial words of Thomas Jefferson, who wrote that he found blacks inferior to whites in "body and mind." The episode suggests that Thomas Jefferson was then the first American to theorize race in the country. The episode then goes on to discuss the juxtaposition of Jefferson's theory that "all men are created equal" with his own slaveholding and clear approval of slaveholding in the United States. Does this mean that the founding fathers felt those of color were "less than" men?
The episode then discusses early history in…… [Read More]
A very large number of Mexicans and Puerto icans came into the country in order to get away from poverty and to find a way to make a living. The 20th-century Cuban migration, which started in 1959 when Fidel Castro took over the government of Cuba, was mostly for political motivations (The Story of Hispanics in the Americas, n.d.).
According to data collected by the United States Department of Commerce, Hispanics are a younger, less well off, and less educated group than the rest of the population. Their median age is about 23. Sixty-three percent were under age 30 in 1992, and 40% were 18 or younger. The median family income was $23,400. This was higher than the median for blacks but lower than the rest of the non-Hispanic median of $35,200. Of the three groups, Mexican-Americans, Puerto icans, and Cubans, the Puerto icans had the lowest incomes and the…… [Read More]
S. government chose not only to ignore the great humanitarian tragedy but even refused to condemn the killing. The American inaction on the wandan genocide places a big question mark on any subsequent action of its government overseas for humanitarian reasons.
Besides being accused of using "humanitarianism" as a smokescreen for pursuing its own narrow national interests, the United States is also accused of undermining the United Nations and International Law in following a policy of unilateralism and pre-emption. The results of pre-emptive action by the United States for purportedly humanitarian reasons in recent times have been far from satisfactory. For example, when the NATO forces started its bombing campaign in Kosovo in 1999, there was a mass exodus of about 200,000 Serbs and other non-Albanian minorities as refugees from the province; there was an increase in the Serbs' attacks on ethnic Kosovan Albanians and their ethnic cleansing: as a…… [Read More]
Between 1865 and 1920, industrialization had diverse effects on the life of Americans. While it improved the life of Americans, it also created problems for the society. Following the civil war, the amount of city jobs and factory jobs increased. As urbanization increased, rural populations decreased. Steel production rates and education increased during this period. Transportation was made more available and easier with the growth of railroads. The American society was revolutionized (Oleson & Brown, 1976).
Major aspects of industrialization during 1865 and 1920 that influenced U.S. society, economy, and politics
Following the civil war, the U.S. embraced steps to become a more industrialized country. Between 1865 and 1920, the effects of industrialization were visible in diverse aspects of the U.S. society. One aspect of American life that improved following this period was steel production. The drastic increase in steel production is linked to new technologies in the…… [Read More]
Clearly, at the time when the dam was being built, no one cared if it would have had devastating effects on certain communities, since it had been certain that no white community would have been affected by the construction. One could go as far as claiming that the Native Americans have been discriminated, and, that they had no eyes in favor of the people that have approved the dam's construction in the territory.
The American government would come across several problems when being put against the ancient burial ground ethical dilemma. Leaders normally pay great importance to getting as much people as they can to vote them. Thus, if the present American president would continue to ignore the demands made by the Native American tribe, it would ruin his reputation among Native American tribes across the U.S.
The Federal Government will lose large amounts of money if it were to…… [Read More]
Western Experience: Native American Displaced to Oklahoma
The rumors were true, and I feel like a fool that I had not believed them when I first heard them. They had been talking for years about the possibility that the government would come and take our land, but, like many others, I felt that would not occur if we cultivated the land the same way as the white men. The main objection to our people being in the East had been that were barbaric and uncivilized, so that living like white people would spare us from being treated as subhuman. My family and I settled down to farm our land and we were very successful at it, which made us think that there would be no further efforts to rob us from our land. We had heard so many arguments that the government would want to take land from us because…… [Read More]
1820-1850 is seen as a period of major change in American History. We often call this period the Age of ackson, since Adrew ackson had a profound influence on this entire period. Describe what ackson stood for and what his policies on the spoils system, nullification, The Bank of the U.S., Indian Removal, land sale, and the opening of the West. Also discuss the great strides in transportation in this era. Then I want you to give an assessment as to whether you feel that the changes were due to the actions of ackson or would they have occurred at this time regardless of who sat in the White House? Be very specific.
The Age of ackson
Andrew ackson's election for U.S. presidency in 1828 made it possible for the masses to acknowledge that change was going to happen. In addition to the fact that the new president had innovative…… [Read More]
But it certainly was a crucial step in he legitimation of free labor" (141).
eligion in general and revivals especially eased the pains of capitalist expansion in the early 19th century U.S. After Finney was gone, the converted reformers evangelized the working class; they supported poor churches and built new ones in working class neighborhoods. Finney's revival was effective since it dissected all class boundaries and united middle and working class individuals in churches. The middle class went to church, because of the moral obligation to do so; the working classes went, because they were concerned about losing their. Workers who did not become members of churches had more difficulty keeping their jobs. To succeed in ochester, it was astute for the employees to become active churchgoers.
In 1791, not much before the Native Americans began their trek across the country and ochester, New York, was changing its employee/merchant system,…… [Read More]
A coalition of English colonists. There was no miscegenation of white and Indian alliances. Also, properties as well as people were fair game, another aspect of the war that heightens the divided nature of cultural attitudes between both peoples. The Indians attacked English farms and towns from Narragansett Bay to the Connecticut River Valley, reflecting, according to Lepore, the different groups' views on house, property, livestock and the overall environment. The Indians favored communal ownership of property, and general use of the land, while the English retained European attitudes that stressed private land ownership and private control of livestock and titles to land tracts and farms. Although these privacy concerns had been at issue before, never had the two sides been so schematically divided. Simmering tensions came to the forefront, and the fighting only ended after Philip was shot, quartered, and beheaded in ritual and retributive fashion in August 1676.…… [Read More]
The Nazis, however, were seriously mistaken. According to Thomas D. Morgan, "No group that participated in orld ar II made a greater per capita contribution, and no group was changed more by the war." Native Americans willingly enlisted in the war more than any other group in America. Native American tribes that had a long tradition of warrior culture took up arms to defend the American nation. They also served as communication liaison agents who befuddled German and Japanese code-breakers.
Native American contribution fundamentally changed hite's attitude toward American Indians. Many soldiers referred to Native Americans as "Chefs," as a sign of respect. Holm explains: "hites, who made Indian policies at the time, came out of the war with new, or at least different, images of Indian people. These changed views created an atmosphere in which men of varying motives and goals could institute the termination policy under the cloak…… [Read More]
Sociology: Anti-Immigration Policies
-California Proposition 227 and Proposition 187-
The purpose of this paper is to research Anti-immigration policies in the United States and to further discuss California's Propositions 227 and 187 and in the critique of the literature to compare and contrast these policies while at the same time to interject originally and critical thinking from the perspective of underlying assumptions, potential weaknesses in the argument of methodological approach and further to analyze their potential value in really grasping an understanding in the immigration issue as to "second generation."
Early roots in anti-immigration sentiment were expressed in the two-dollar a head tax of immigrants in 1903 and in 1997 moving upward to four-dollars a head. "Anti-immigrant sentiment is a result of ignorance of the value of immigrants throughout the history of the United States," pointed our Michael Lin, National President of the Organization of Chinese-Americans (OCA)
During the year…… [Read More]
Cuban Missile Crisis: Why we need more balance of power in the world.
Cuban Missile crisis in 1960s may raise a serious political question in retrospect i.e. should America be allowed to exist as the sole superpower and what could be the repercussions of such an existence? Now fifty years or so later, we are in a much better position to answer this question. United States or any other nation for that matter must not work as the sole superpower because it can cause many political upheaval as we recently witnessed. We will discuss the Cuban Missile crisis in detail but first we must establish that American history is fraught with events and wars that were fought on the false belief of America's superiority which made it an imperial power. Examples of these events include the Mexican-American War, the Spanish-American War and not to mention the current conflict with Iraq.…… [Read More]
As the costs were considerably less, the profit margins were greater and they were adaptable to host of different weather conditions. ("A rief History of Slavery")
How did the ritish and American ways of viewing representative government differ? How did these differences lead to problems between ritain and America?
The ritish believed that Parliament should address the different issues affecting the colonies. However, the colonists were not given any kind of representation or a way of discussing their grievances. This is different from the American views, where people felt that everyone should be allowed to speak directly with their representatives, about a host of issues.
Over the course of time, this would lead to problems between ritain and America. As the colonists felt that Parliament was not willing to listen to their concerns or to discuss them, by ensuring that they had some form of representation. This is was problematic,…… [Read More]
The FDIC is one of oosevelt's most notable legacies. However, New deal economics have largely fallen by the wayside. The neo-liberal market economy that prevailed in the latter decades of the 20th century counteracts the inherent socialism of the New Deal.
A series of public works programs like the Civil Works Administration (CWA), the Public Works Association (PWA), the Works Progress Administration (WPA), and the Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) helped stimulate the American economy in the wake of the Depression. Public works projects resulted in improved transportation infrastructures, which would become increasingly important during the age of the automobile.
The New Deal also resulted in improved labor laws under the Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938 and therefore offered tacit support for labor unions. One of the most lasting legacies of the New Deal was the Social Security Act, encouraging investments in pensions which would also stimulate the economy. Although…… [Read More]
The significance here, of course, is that the government will continue seeking ways to streamline care and services, and that if a foster care program is clinically proven to be beneficial in deterring criminal behavior amongst Native American juveniles, there will be an increased tendency to remove youngsters from their homes and Native American families in lieu of enforced foster care. This would be consistent with the liberty the government has exercised in removing Native American children from their homes since the 19th century.
It is, therefore, incumbent upon the Native American communities to exercise their own preventative and interventions aimed at curbing and resolving juvenile criminal behaviors. It is the only alternative to what is today the only way that society can continue to remove Native American children from their family and Native American communities.
Eddy, J.M., Whaley, .B., & Chamberlain, P. (2004). The Prevention of…… [Read More]
This would result in a proliferation of German success and influence throughout the continent and an effective solidarity amongst German immigrants.
5) hat was the "wolf by the ears" quandary that Takai suggests late century American slaveholders found themselves to be in? hat were they afraid of? hat solutions to the problems created by slavery were possible considering the existing conditions and mentalities in American societies at the time?
The problem of slavery had become pressing, not just insofar as it represented a serious humanitarian crisis for the U.S. But even further, as it presented the U.S. And many of its citizens a serious threat to stability. Jefferson's comments, which sound derisive enough, were actually couched in the understanding that the slave class of the United States was justifiably angry, restless and therefore, dangerous to its master. Accordingly, Takaki reports that "As it is,' Jefferson cried out, 'we have the…… [Read More]
UK Immigration Act of 1971 and Its Enforcement with espect to Administrative emoval/Deportation when Articles 3 and 8 of European Convention of Human ights are Engaged
Following the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, many observers stated that "nothing would ever be the same again" and in some ways they have been absolutely correct. While the United Kingdom continues its inexorable march to become fully integrated into the burgeoning European Union, a number of obstacles remain firmly in place that relate to the perceived need by the UK government to better control movement of foreigners within its borders. The purpose of this study was to provide an examination of the UK Immigration Act of 1971 and its enforcement with respect to administrative removal or deportation when Articles 3 and 8 of European Convention of Human ights are engaged. This study used a three-chapter format to achieve this research purpose. Chapter…… [Read More]
Today, overt discrimination has largely disappeared in urban areas, but in rural regions Dalits often remain excluded from social and religious life, although here too prejudice seems to be declining (omini (29 August 2008).)
In short, Dalits have made huge strides in the Indian system ever since the modern constitution forbade their discrimination. By 1995, for instance, 17.2% of jobs were held by Dalits whilst Dalits too held 10% of the highest paying jobs in the Indian government. In 1997, a Dalit, K.R. Narayanan, was actually elected as president. Dalits have been elected to the highest judicial and political positions, and, in general, their quality of life has attained similar metric to that of the quality of Indian life in general. Discrimination still seems to be persisting in mute desegregated forms but it also seems to be waning.
As regards the hijra, in recent years, Indian constitution attempted to repeal…… [Read More]
Maharshtrian cuisine comprises of hot, aromatic meat and fish curries and subtle flavoring of vegetarian cuisine. Peanuts and cashew nuts are widely used in vegetables and the main cooking medium is peanut oil. Another feature is the use of a deep purple berry with a sweet and sour taste, otherwise called kokum, in sol kadhi, an appetizer-digestive, which is served chilled. Non-vegetarian and vegetarian dishes are served with boiled rice or rotis made from rice flour. Dessert is commonly comprises rotis (a type of bread) stuffed with a sweet mixture of jaggery and gram flour.
Goan cuisine boasts of delicacies like tangy pork 'vindaloo', spicy 'sorpotel' and the popular fish curry with rice. Most of their meals are accompanied with local wine or local liqueur, 'Feni'. Meals are simple but most are also chili hot, spicy and pungent. The basic components include rice, fish and coconut and delicacies made from…… [Read More]
Your Highnesses have an Other World here, by which our holy faith can be so greatly advanced and from which such great wealth can be drawn," wrote Christopher Columbus to the king and queen of Spain following his third voyage to the Americas in 1498 (rinkley 1). ut even after visiting the New World three times he still had no idea what he had truly started, and he certainly saw no sign that he had began a new era in history. Yet, the history of European involvement in America had begun. Over the next several decades Spanish conquistadores made more and more voyages to the New World, and the royal treasuries grew. Settlements were established and the other European powers, seeing their opportunity, soon made efforts to establish colonies of their own.
In the midst of all of this, the native inhabitants were removed from their lands and…… [Read More]
This intervention by U.S. In a foreign country, in literal words, changed the course of history for the whole world and still its outcomes are yet, to be decided.
The attack on U.S. By Al-Qaeda, on 11th September, 1998, changed the course of American paradigm of Muslims and gave a strong cause for George Bush's "ar against Terrorism." here thousands of American citizens died in Twin Towers, so did the global efforts of maintaining peace between estern and Muslim countries.
Right after, this attack, U.S. invaded Afghanistan initially through Missile attacks and then landed its troops into this land of rocks, physically. Thousands of American soldiers were deputed there and made to fight the mujahids of Al-Qaeda who were rather well-versed with the seasonal feasibility of their land.
Therefore, initially, U.S. army did faced a lot of difficulties, mainly because of weather and foreignness of the war field. However with…… [Read More]
And farther west on the Great Plains were the Teton Sioux, among them the Oglalas, whose chief was Red Cloud, and among the Hunkpapas, was Sitting ull, who together with Crazy Horse of the Oglalas, would make history in 1876 at Little ig Horn (rown 10).
After years of broken promises, conflicts and massacres, came the Treaty of Fort Laramie, said to be the most important document in the history of Indian-white relations on the Great Plains (Marrin 94). The treaty basically set aside a Great Sioux Reservation on all of present-day South Dakota west of the Missouri River up to and including the lack Hills, and barred all whites except government officials from the reservation and from a vast "unceded" territory lying between the lack Hills and ighorn Mountains (Marrin 94). Under the treaty, these lands belonged to the Lakota "forever" unless three-quarters of the tribes' men agreed to…… [Read More]
Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO) is a growing problem especially with advances via the Monsanto lobby in Congress. There are several avenues Monsanto can take to generate an environment in the United States that supports GMO crops and GMO ingredients. They can alter the GMO food labeling bill and pressure farmers to adopt use of their patented seeds, among other actions. To thwart these efforts, the American public must act quickly. They must lobby the government against Monsanto and use the evidence from countries like India and Argentina where GMO crops grow, to demonstrate the deleterious effects of GMO.
The first problem that must be solved is GMO and labeling. The GMO food labeling bill must allow clear labeling of GMO foods instead of the QR codes. A second problem is Monsanto itself. Monsanto’s power regarding seed patenting must be eliminated. India ruled Monsanto cannot patent cotton seeds…… [Read More]
They other group that faced quiet a bit of resistance was that of the colored women. In a work by Watkins Harper, Colored Women of America, the plight of colored women during this era was discussed in detail. The white and black women during this time period were constantly aggravated by the lack of backing for reprieve, land transformation, and compensations that they believed as just. This radical position was thwarted by a male biased society that dishonored female restructuring and tried to stop black reliance on the federal government. The women's visualization of liberty, turned out to be very different from that of the men's.
Black women played a vital role in econstruction. In numerous manners these militant women had further in common with their white equals than the freed women whose agony they wanted to alleviate. All through the Civil War, abolitionist and ex- slave Harriet Jacobs toiled…… [Read More]
If a health outcome is perceived to higher or lower magnitude between populations, there exists a disparity. Imperatively, aspects such as age, race or ethnicity, disability, sexual identity, socioeconomic status, geographic location and sex are all contributing factors to a person’s ability to attain good health. In this case, the disparity selected is the obesity status of children. Notably, obesity is increasing at a significant rate across the globe and is in the present day approximated to be prevalent in more than 300 million people across the globe. In children today, obesity is the most prevalent metabolic and nutritional illness, whereas three decades ago this was barely seen. There are different ways in which members of this group may be disadvantaged with regard to health status. In accordance to Ahmad et al. (2010), childhood obesity can give rise to diabetes, high blood pressure, cancer, liver disease, heart disease,…… [Read More]
old Chinese proverb that I believe encompasses my feelings for the nursing profession. With the healthcare industry in its current state of disruption, it has become very important to re-evaluate the relationship of patient care and patient satisfaction. "Sometimes patient satisfaction needs to be measured one patient at a time. This usually has nothing to do with the impersonality of the plan, the aloofness of the provider, or the quality of the specialists to whom one is referred. Rather, it involves the basic rationing philosophies of HMOs, particularly the for-profit variety." (Birenbaum, 107) We can't forget that the business objectives of HMO's aim to purchase services and materials at the lowest price possible and trying to lock in a price in advance. HMO's have therefore changed the philosophy of the healthcare industry. As nurses, we have to make the best of this atmosphere. This essay therefore serves as the final…… [Read More]
But after local wastewater plants were "...upgraded and farms' management practices were improved, the amount of phosphorus declined and the copper sulfate was no long considered necessary" (Royte, 2007). The Times' story reports that to prevent the dumping of partially treated sewage water into the waterways, septic tanks need to be upgraded and "cleaning the water in sewage treatments plants even more thoroughly before it is discharged into the watershed..." is necessary. That will be quite a job, because "more than two dozen of the roughly 100 wastewater treatment plants that discharge into the city's watershed use a suboptimal cleaning process."
TO: The flooding problem. hy has it become a more serious problem in recent years? Taking New York City as an example of the problem and its roots, the New York Times article alluded to in the previous section points out that recently, as developers began clearing more and…… [Read More]
S. history such as Hurricane Andrew and the Northridge earthquake. Post-9/11 infrastructure protection investments have focused on increasing the security of infrastructure, not in increasing its resilience." (p. 258)
Certainly, these breakdowns are an indication that many of the interagency strategies brought to bear in the discussion on public administration had not been executed effectively, especially those intended to coalesce under the roof of the Department of Homeland Security. A quick review of the disaster management failures of Katrina are appropriate here. Accordingly, for five days after the landfall and passage of Hurricane Katrina, hordes of people stranded in New Orleans continued to wait for some indication that the federal government would soon be provided relief. Stranded and contained in horrific conditions in the city's football arena, the Superdome, which had been converted to a makeshift evacuation shelter with woefully insufficient supplies and accommodations for the tens of thousands who…… [Read More]
Air pollution pertains to substances and gases in the air that threaten health and life. Among these are pollutants and irritants, such as nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, and carbon dioxide; particulates, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), toxic substances and some natural substances, like pollen. ut most of the pollution comes from the by-products of industrialization - fossil fuel combustion, transportation, transportation, power plant emissions and those from other industrial processes. The burning of fossil fuels to generate electricity alone is the greatest source of air pollution in the U.S.A. These outdoor pollutants can undermine health and cause environmental disturbances, such as acid rain, and are toxic.
Studies show that we now spend more than 90% of our lives inside buildings and other constructed environments. ecause of this, such structures - including homes and office buildings - are constructed with energy efficiency and comfort foremost in mind. The installation of central heating,…… [Read More]
" According to anuri "...the inference drawn here is that since there are no inherent rules (or 'guiding principles') in the international system, states act upon their natural predatory instincts in order to prove the 'initial impetus' for conflict, and therefore the states that are preyed upon must respond to the predator by defending themselves, or indeed counterattacking them." (2007)
The realist view is such that holds that the outbreak of conflict is supported alone by domestic policies and predatory practices." (anuri, 2007)
Garib (2003) writes in the work entitled: "Realism and Liberalism Reconsidered in Post 9/11 American Foreign Policy" that while the liberalism of former President George W. ush is "ostensibly present in the National Security Council's 2002 National Security Strategy, which speaks of America crating 'a balance of power that favors human freedom' and of a new American international outlook which seeks to create political and economic freedom,…… [Read More]
The Seven Years War saw Britain established as the greatest colonial power, with control over India and North America seemingly secured, while Prussia emerged as the greatest power on the Continent, and the dominant force inside Germany, reducing still further the power of the Holy Roman Empire and Habsburg Austria. Frederick II of Prussia (the Great) emerges as the most remarkable leader of the war. Prussia was the smallest of the main combatants, and yet Frederick survived year after year of campaigning, and despite coming near to defeat he emerged triumphant (Richard).
Histories of the American Revolution tend to start in 1763, the end of the Seven-Year's War, a worldwide struggle for empire that pitted France against England in North America, Europe, and Asia. Fred Anderson, who teaches history at the University of Colorado, takes the story back a decade and explains the significance of the conflict in American history.…… [Read More]
hen the word terrorism or terrorist is spoken, the immediate image for most people is the likes of Al Qaida and the bombings of the London Subway or the 9/11 attacks on American soil. This is a very limited understanding of terrorist groups. In almost every nation, religion, and ethnic group, there are factions of individuals who are dedicated to a political cause. They are so dedicated that they are willing to commit acts of violence on a large scale in order to make their point and force those in power to satisfy their demands. Most often, these groups have an agenda which is antithetical to the aims and best interests of the larger population; something that does not matter to them. Terrorists will do whatever it is they deem necessary in order to achieve their ends. The base word terror explains exactly how they choose to force…… [Read More]
The concept of Marine insurance is something that has been developing at a fast rate of late. (Marine Insurance: Barlow, Lyde and Gilbert) What exactly is insurance and how long has the concept been recognized? Insurance can be defined as a form of provision of a safety net for the distribution of risks. This is generally made in the form of a financial provision that is meant to protect against losses that may occur due to certain unavoidable reasons. Insurance works like this: a person who wishes to insure an object or possession or belonging of his will pay a certain amount of money that has already been fixed by the insurance agent in order to offer the security of the money to distribute the risks when the insurer happens, by misfortune, to lose his possession or damage it because of an unavoidable reason. The insurer, by the…… [Read More]
Since taconite iron ore can be attracted by magnets, it is called a magnetite. Magnetite is abundant in the Minnesota Iron ange as well as the Michigan Iron ange that is located next to Marquette as well as in the Penokee ange in Wisconsin, Minnesota. In Wisconsin-Minnesota's Gogebic-Penokee ange, the taconite iron ore deposits are concentrated on the bands that run from the Mellen area in Ashland County up to the area near Upson in the Iron County.
The taconite iron ore extraction process
The mining of taconite iron ore in the Gogebic-Penokee ange is carried out by means of open-pit mining methods. The mining process commences by the drilling of a hole into the ground in order to determine the exact location and quality of the iron ore deposit. The drilling also reveals the characteristics of the rocks that surround the ore. For the rather large modern mines, there…… [Read More]