Importance Of Pharmacy And Its Developments In Different Countries Essay

Length: 3 pages Sources: 1 Subject: Drama - World Type: Essay Paper: #12695447 Related Topics: Pharmacy, Professional Development, Pharmaceutical Industry, Countries
Excerpt from Essay :

¶ … evolution of academic infrastructure (such as colleges, associations, training requirements, etc.) for pharmacists in the U.S. versus one another country in the world. Please be precise and limit your answer to no more than one paragraph of 7-10 statements per country.

From the 1940s onwards the expansion of the pharmaceutical armamentarium led to rapidly increasing pharmaceutical sales in the U.S. This industry-led success helped to assure pharmacy incomes. The flexibility and diversity of the American system also permitted innovation in hospital and community practice alike, and over time lead to the establishment of a number of differing corporate pharmacies, internet pharmacies, and 'pharmacy benefit management' models. It may also be argued that the plurality and lack of consistently defined primary medical care in the U.S. system has created opportunities for pharmacies and pharmacists to play relatively strong care coordinating roles. In the absence for many people of a 'medical home', the part of pharmacists in areas such as medication management became a natural focal point (FIP, 2012).

Similar developments in the direction of a more pro-active approach to supplying medicines and positively influencing their use have taken place in Canada, where one year pharmacy diplomas and two-year Pharmacy degrees were first granted in 1914. Pharmacy services there have been provided within a relatively comprehensive State national insurance and Provincial care delivery framework. During the past decade policy related initiatives such as the Romanow report on the future of health care in Canada, and work undertaken by the Canadian Pharmacists Association have sought assertively to extend the clinical role of community pharmacists (FIP, 2012).

Discuss three laws or regulations that helped differentiate the role of pharmacists from others with whom they were previously joined. For each law or regulation, please be precise and limit your answer to no more than one paragraph of 5-7 statements.

The establishment and development of the FDA was the result of events not unlike those which have in the last few decades occurred in China, Nigeria, and the Indian subcontinent. They to a degree reflected the fact that America, although developing...

...

Frances Kelsey, a certified pharmacologist and a drug analyst at the FDA, prevented the U.S. authorization of "Thalidomide" as being a sedative anesthetic and anti-emetic for usage during pregnancy.

The 1968 Medicines Act introduced the concept of pharmacy (P) medicines, as distinct from prescription only medicines (POMs) and general sales list (GSL) products, which can legally be sold anywhere

The Ordre National des Pharmaciens was established in 1945 in France, in part to govern the distribution of community pharmacists on the basis of the population to be served in each locality (FIP, 2012).

Describe two incidents that have led to the pharmaceutical industry becoming one of the most regulated industries in the world. For each incident, please be precise and limit your answer to no more than one paragraph of 7-10 statements.

In West Germany, in comparison, wherein the community pharmacies had been socialized all through the short-lived Nazi administration, the Constitutional Court decided in 1958 that legal restrictions on the numbers of pharmacies violated the human rights and professional freedoms guaranteed in the constitution drafted after the war. On the other hand, Germany sustained limitations on ownership of pharmacy, averting the growth and development of the corporate pharmacy networks. These networks were, however, authorized both in the U.S. as well as in UK (FIP, 2012).

Alongside the other health sector developments, a number of governments increased their controls on pharmaceutical companies all through the 20th century. They additionally restrained projects, including pharmacy services as well as advertising of medical goods. In France, for example, the Ordre National des Pharmaciens was established in 1945, in part to govern the distribution of community pharmacists on the basis of the population to be served in each locality. Preceding French laws had been as old as to 1803, together with laws introduced subsequent to Napoleon assuming the First Republic's control (FIP, 2012).

Discuss how community pharmacies have evolved and are evolving in the U.S. and one another country in the world. Please be precise and limit your answer to no more than…

Sources Used in Documents:

Bibliography

FIP. (2012). From Making Medicines to Medicines to The evolution of a profession 1912-2012. UCL School of Pharmacy.

Hepler CD and Strand LM (1990) Opportunities and Responsibilities in Pharmaceutical Care. American Journal of Hospital Pharmacy 47, 533-43.


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