Italian Renaissance Art Research Paper

Length: 8 pages Sources: 4 Subject: Art  (general) Type: Research Paper Paper: #86316615 Related Topics: Italian Renaissance, Italian, Baroque Art, 19th Century Art
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Italian Renaissance Art

Mannerism

Mannerism is a period of European art that arose from the later years of the Italian High Renaissance around 1520. It went on until around 1580 in Italy, when a more Baroque style developed to take its place, but Northern Mannerism lasted into the first part of the 17th century, all through much of Europe. Stylistically, Mannerism includes an assortment of methods swayed by, and responding to, the congruous principles and controlled naturalism associated with artists such as Michelangelo, Leonardo da Vinci, and Raphael. This essay will discuss Mannerism expression of an era, the characteristics that define this movement and the reason why it is an extension of the earlier conventions.

Mannerism: Reflection of the Era

For years, many have thought that Mannerism was essentially considered to be a tendency developed by artist because it communicated the liberalism in their expression. However, more evidence leans toward the fact that it was the opposite. Mannerism was more of a reflection of the era. Why? Because a lot of artists began to study and paint events around them. There was a change of expressing what was going on during that time. Maniera which is a term that was used to refer to this crusade implies distinct stylization and a fascination with pseudo conventions. In the 16th century approach, then associated with significant power of presentation and the overpowering of complex and challenging problems, was extremely obtained in the arts, in the literature, as well as in human dignity. It is a reflection of an era because of a fascination with style and artistry. Other experts would argue that it was a directing power of mannerism, one that was considered an essentially flawed, anti-naturalistic style.

To repeat a much-quoted expression, Mannerism is very much a 'stylish' form of the time that reflects those times. Since it transgressed moderation, Mannerism attracted to an elite group of specialists, not to the general populace.

Mannerism was the reflection of an era because it has a discernible and distinctive style that initially emerged in Rome around the year of 1520 then it was moved to Florence between 1522-23 and to other Italian cities during that same time. Mannerism started becoming a reflection of the era about that time because it was turning into a global style and was repositioned to Fontainebleau in 1530, where it was put to practice in the establishment of French court art. Mannerism ran its unpredictable movement until approximately 1590, by this point it had been significantly displaced by the stronger and more persistent principles of the early Baroque. Interesting to include that while we are mainly concerned with painting here, we must also keep in mind that for a major component of 16th century Mannerism was also the dominant trend in architecture, sculpture, music and literature.

(Figure 1). Entombment, 1528; Santa Felicita, Florence. In the Capella Capponi at Santa Felicita, Florence. He painted this masterpiece in extremely vivid colors and featuring deeply moving figures that seem lost in a trance of sorrow; this is one of the major works of Mannerism.

The idea of Mannerism as a distinctive style inserted in between the dying High Renaissance and the dynamic Baroque era is a comparatively new development. Certainly a 16th century painter was not aware that he was living in a delegated time period or working in a designated method, just as those artist in the 20th century are aware of. A lot of the art disapproval from the 17th to the 19th centuries observed such a disparity, nevertheless, and generally reduced this brief period as immoral and corrupt.

Only around 1920 was such an overwhelming condemnation overturned, and the merits and difficulties of this abandoned time were appreciated and studied for the way Mannerism was a reflection of the times.

It is fascinating to learn that the name Mannerism is actually an umbrella term that attempts to integrate its many surfaces, because a lot of different centers of artistic production, contradictory trends, varieties of patrons, and unique phrases are concerned.

...

A lot of the artists shied away from the classical style of amounts. This artist re-imagined how to paint individuals with overstated limb measurements and unusual situations. Muscular models were painted perversely, bulging with extraordinary muscular development.

(Figure 2). The Judgment of Paris, Date: 1628, Movement: Renaissance (Late, Mannerism), Theme: Mythology This well-known and often portrayed scene proposes a more natural way to paint naked people. We do not observe why the three extra women are also portrayed -- they maybe would also like to contribute and fight for the title of "Most Beautiful" that was given by Paris to Venus. Some believe that their breasts match the Goddess' ones.

Mannerism denied balance and harmony. Renaissance paintings depended more on approaches that were inflexible on understanding but at the same time, Mannerism also used implicit and uneven proportions. However, when it comes to an in depth analysis of Mannerism, it can be explained in the movement, distortion of figures, manipulation of space, light and spiritual intensity

Many contemporary artists debate this movement because of its dynamic manner but this feature has the desire to illustrate various aspects of the figure led to the optical idea of movement. In sculpture, this enthused the formation of groups of figures or single figures that can be looked at from different angles, rather than from a solitary perspective; the figure seems to be in continual association, so the viewer is poised to keep moving around it. Giorgio Vasari invented the expression figura serpentinata (serpentine line) to identify this idea (P. C. Castagno). This shape expanded from the classical contrapposto, in which the turn of the head faces where the hips are at, and one leg is weight-bearing and upright while the other is free and flexed, all irregularities being settled in a balance that is absolute.

The Mannerist origin is passionate and fluis, more twisting than equilibrium. Other experts would argue just the opposite by supposing the fact that the origin is not passionate. In a two-dimensional representation, the design is comprised in an S-curve, so the head looks the opposite way as the feet, the hips joining the opposite members by ways of a curve that is graceful.

Some modern day artist dispute the fact that the distortion of figures represents the intenseness of the artist with the Mannerist fondness for the representation of the irregular. It must be understood that the misrepresentation of the human figure, was done routinely with the purpose of making it more animated, and that it was of primary significance. Others believe the opposite because they imply that there is not much animation involved. Experts also believe that the proportions could not be forced randomly in the paintings but many artists during that time embraced that process. For example, in Florentine paintings, particular figures were usually lengthened, while the heads continued kind of small. This anti-classical method to the human body also happened in northern and central Italy and the Venetian-trained painter El Greco was seriously affected.

When it comes to manipulation of space, in both architecture and painting, Renaissance space is perceptibly described on all edges. Others will argue that it is labeled on just some of the edges. In Mannerist arrangements, space is unequally occupied. Others will support the theory that it is equally occupied. The image plane did not any longer have to press by the rubrics of standpoint, and its natural boundaries were overlooked and distorted. A lot of times there is only a neutral background, transporting no explicit environment. In other preparations, the background appears to break into hugeness, interspersed with accompanying scenes that are apparently not linked with the central subject.

A similar feature occurred in architecture: the impact of combined plan that encompassed space methodically and sensibly, was abandoned in affirmation of tan lengthened axes that drawn-out space open-endedly, closing in the idea of the long gallery building.

In a lot of instances, many young and mature artists believe that the space in two-dimensional configurations are condensed. A lot believe that strong figures and other components do involve an empty area which to some is unpleasantly close to the center boundaries. Other popular Mannerist strategies that the artist preferred to use are asymmetrical strategies, off-center diagonals, and figures that are cut off, not solely limited by the picture plane.

The artist wanted to make sure that it had a variety of erratic significance to their work that was an understanding that they wanted to purposely make vague. These artists in the movement did this by building tension in the viewer's constructing.

Just as they controlled space and quantities to achieve irritating effects, Mannerist artists also had a sense of manipulating light for the dramatic impact. At this time, most of the elements being used were no longer a…

Sources Used in Documents:

Works Cited

Friedlander, Walter. "Mannerism and Anti-Mannerism in Italian Painting." Stockton: Columbia University Press, 1965. 17-60.

Gardner, Helen Louise. "The Metaphysical Poets, Selected and Edited." New York: Penguin Books, 1972. 10-65

Smyth, Craig Hugh. "Mannerism and Maniera, with an introduction by Elizabeth Cropper." Vienna: IRSA, 1992. 56-78.

Sypher, Wylie. "Four Stages of Renaissance Style: Transformations in Art and Literature, 1400-1700." Doubleday., 1955. 21-58.


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