Job Satisfaction and Disabled Workers Productivity
The theoretical frameworks this research will rely on are well-established. The theoretical framework in this study is constructed on Maslow's Hierarchy of Human Needs. Maslow proposed that unless the basic lower needs of the human being were met that the human would not even acknowledge the higher level needs. Maslow conceptualized this hierarchy as shown in the following illustration.
Maslow's Hierarchy of Human Needs
Personality & Spirituality (2012)
The bottom level is comprised by the short-term basic individual or physiological needs of the person, which include food, water, warmth, and sex.
The second level is comprised by safety needs including security, stability, and order.
The third level is representative of the individual's needs for social affiliation or love and belonging.
The fourth level is the need for esteem or the need to be recognized among social groups and peers.
The next to the top level is that of self-actualization which is the individual's desire for deeper fulfillment through realization of their full potential as a human being.
Finally, the level at the very top of the pyramid is that of self-transcendence or the experience of being in unit and serving that, which extends beyond the individual self.
Maslow noted that the individual who while studying who is operating at the level of self-actualization experience peaks in learning. This are described as profound and life-altering and moments that once experienced are sought again and again. The individual is therefore motivated by these experiences. The theoretical framework in this study involves the use of Maslow's hierarchy applied to the 3M model.
Maslow's Hierarchy of Human Needs The 3M Model
The 3M model is introduced by Roessler (2002) which is reported to be inclusive of the constructs of: (1) match; (2) maturity; and (3) mastery. (2002, p.1) The match construct is reported as a requirement for adaptability in the individual's career since it is reflective of the "proper fit between a person and a job, as described in the Minnesota Theory of Work Adjustment (Dawis, 1996)." (Roessler, 2002, p.1) The maturity construct refers to answering the "...developmental or expectable challenges that unfold with time on the job." (Roessler, 2002, p.1) Finally, the mastery construct relates to the daily problems in the work environment that serve to "...thwart one's career motives and threaten job retention." Roessler, 2002, p.1) People with disabilities are reported to experience challenges in retaining employment due to "inadequate job performance or poor work adjustment." (Roessler, 2002, p.1, p.1)
The work of Roessler and Bolton (1985) states findings that approximately "50% of the rehabilitation clients in the sample were to working because of inadequate job performance or poor work adjustment." (2002, p.1) Additionally stated by Roessler is "Research clearly indicates that satisfaction with life and self-perceived productivity is related to employment and income level (Mehnert, Krauss, Nadler, & Boyd, 1990; Salkever, 2000)." (2002, p.1)
It is reported that match models "are silent" but there are two questions that are critical and related to the dynamics of job tenure" and are stated as follows: (1) What are the predictable (i.e., expectable) on-the-job challenges that a person must meet over time in order to advance in a position? And (2) How can the person learn to cope more effectively with unpredictable day-to-day problems that occur at work? (Roessler, 2002, p.1)
The work of Dix and Savickas (1995) are reported to have linked two job retention tasks to three periods of job establishment as follows: (1) stabilization -- adapting "to the organizational culture and achieving a satisfactory level of position performance; (2) consolidation -- relating "effectively to coworkers and maintaining productive work habits," and (3) advancement -- moving "toward the next promotion within the current organization and planning future career moves, including reflection about changing organizations or field." (p. 94 cited in: Roessler, 2002, p.1)
The work of Konrad, et al. (nd) reports a study that examined whether the various employment statuses of under-employment, temporary employment, unemployment and non-participation in the labor force are associated with perceived well-being among persons with disabilities." (p.1) Data were utilized from the 2006 Participation and Activity Limitation Survey (PALS) conducted by Statistics Canada in developing six categories of employment status. Hypotheses were tested using OLS regression analysis. Findings in the study are reported to have indicated "fully utilized permanent employees show the highest level of life satisfaction while unemployed persons searching for work have the lowest levels of life satisfaction and the highest levels of perceived workplace discrimination. Permanent employees whose skills are greatly underutilized show the second-lowest level of life satisfaction and equally high perceived workplace discrimination as unemployed persons." (p.1) It is reported that Non-participants in the labor force "show life satisfaction levels similar to those of permanent moderately underutilized employees as well as temporary employees, but report relatively little workplace discrimination." (Konrad, et al., nd, p.1)
The International Labor Office reports that individual with disabilities often end up in passive assistance programs and receive disability benefits. The International Labor Office reports "Productivity is a relationship between outputs and inputs. It rises when an increase in output occurs with a less than proportionate increase in inputs, or when the same output is produced with fewer inputs." (2008, p.1) Productivity can be measured "in terms of all factors of production combined" or by measuring productivity of labor. Objectives of skill development focused on productivity include meeting skills demand related to quality and relevance. Policies are designed to meet skills demand towards contributing to productivity, employability of workers since: (1) businesses can utilize technologies in an efficient manner and exploit productivity possibilities fully; (2) employable skills are acquired by young people that assists their transition from school to the labor force; (3) workers improve and grow their competencies and develop their career while being lifelong learners; (4) the disadvantaged and disabled population has access to needed education, training and entry into the labor market. (International Labor Office, 2008, p.9)
The work of Drydakis (2011) reports that the Athens Area Study (AAS) data set was used in the investigation of four aspects of satisfaction of workers with their job: (1) compensation; (2) possibilities for promotion; (3) supervisor respect; and (4) overall job satisfaction. The study reports that employees with impaired health were found to be less satisfied on all job measures even when controls exist for various productivity features and characteristics of the job. The outcomes report that women are generally more satisfied with their job than are men without health status as a factor. Findings shown that employees with impaired health is impacted more than employees with good health by adverse mental health issues. Over time, health impaired employees did gain in the level of job satisfaction they reported. Finally, the study indicates that employees with impaired health hold higher expectations about what they will receive from their work and that they have to make adjustments for job satisfaction.
The work of Malo and Pagan (nd) reports that Burke (1999) analyses the relationship of disability status and work experiences and satisfaction for women in Ontario, Canada. The descriptive analysis carried out reveals that working women with disabilities report lower levels of job satisfaction, poor psychological health, higher job insecurity, and lower levels of income."
The work of McAfee and McNaughton (1997a and 1997b), used a reduced sample of people working in occupations for several U.S. states and state findings that the workers with disabilities "…report moderated levels of overall job satisfaction, strong dissatisfaction with pay and promotions and high satisfaction with co-workers and supervision." (cited in Malo and Pagan, nd)
Uppal (2005) has examined the levels of job satisfaction of disabled individuals and the effects of certain workplace characteristics on them and utilized data gained from telephone interviews. The report states that individuals with all kinds of disabilities, except that of speech "have lower levels of job satisfaction as compared to those able-bodied. However, when introducing into the model the workplace characteristics the negative effect for individuals with a mobility disability disappears, whereas for the other types of disabilities the magnitude decreases. He concludes that the absence of assistive technology or job accommodations at the workplace may be the cause of the unexplained differences in the levels of job satisfaction between workers with and without disabilities.' (Cited in Malo and Pagan, nd)
In a study reported by Unger (2002) the following findings were stated in regards to people with disabilities (PWD) and hiring of those individual:
(1) Type and/or severity of a particular disability can have an impact on the employer's perception of hireability of the person with the disability.
(2) Employers hold stereotypes regarding PWDs that are not substantiated by direct experience.'
(3) Employers are increasingly seeing the benefit of a positive social corporate image in their community through the hiring of PWDs.
(4) Employers that have had previous experience or contact with PWDs report more favorable attitudes toward hiring PWDs.
(5) No direct relationship can be substantiated between employer size and hiring PWDs.