Comparing Characteristics of Leaders and Managers
The term leader and manager is often used in an interchangeable manner and it is likely that at some point most leaders have undertaken a management role. However, when looking at leaders and managers there are some distinct differences. These can be considered in terms of their characteristics and the way these characteristics manifest. A common theme in much literature is the way in which leaders may be identified as they have followers and inspire others
This refers to the concept of leaders having charisma. In this context there are many examples of leaders both good and bad. Leaders which fit in with this context include, John F. Kennedy former U.S. President, Nelson Mandela the South African leader, Richard Branson founder of the Virgin empire and Howard Schultz the CEO and inspiration behind Starbucks. These are all examples of charismatic leaders
. They have been able to inspire and gain support, but the subject of leadership is not limited to only those who have used the power they gain for positive ends. Other examples of charismatic leaders include Adolf Hitler whose political regime lead to the deaths of millions in Nazi Germany, David Koresh who was leader of the Branch Dividians well-known for the Waco siege and Charles Manson, who was the leader of the Mason family were also charismatic leaders. These leaders may be compared and contrasted, as despite their classifications of being charismatic leaders indicating commonalities, they have some obvious differences. In their role they are more than managers, but this variety of leaders indicate even the way leadership characteristics may vary. To assess the different characteristics between leaders and managers the paper will start by looking at the different characteristics of leaders with particular attention to the role played by charisma and then compare the characteristics of managers with those seen in different types of leader.
When examining the concept of leadership and how it may be defined and described has been the subject on a great deal of study. One of the earliest approaches which dates back to the nineteenth century looks at great leaders in order to asses their commonalities
This was referred to as 'Great Man Theory'
. The approach looked at great mean such as Alexander the Great and later Winston Churchill, this is still an approach that is seen today, with theorists such as Mintzberg looking at the way these leaders would lead and manage their followers, inspiring trust. However, while anecdotal evidence produced was interesting, it did not create useful theories as the leaders, many of whom were charismatic, were found to have different personality types
Trait theory was the next development in leadership theory, which looked at the traits of leaders
. Traits may be defined as a distinguishing quality or characteristic of a particular person
. Charisma may be seen as a trait and it is a feature in the way Drucker looks at leadership. Drucker looks at personality looking at what makes leaders as well as what differentiates them from managers
. The view of Drucker is that leader will have followers and will set examples. This not only refers to the way they different from mangers, who take a more passive approach, but refers to the way charisma may manifest. In this context the good and bad leaders at the beginning of this paper all comply with this approach; they all have inspired followers. The political leaders Kennedy and Mandela were able to gain and retain public support, in the case of Kennedy this was despite the controversial womanizing behavior; the charismatic leadership overcame the challenges. Ironically, it may be argued that in the case of the bad leaders; Hitler and Koresh in particular, they were able to exert charismatic leadership to the extent that it was able to influence people in a manner that was detrimental for themselves or others, and in many cases overrode their personal values.
Drucker does not see leaders just in terms of this trait, he also looks at other characteristics he sees necessary in leadership, these include the need for vision, to be self-reliant and to subject oneself to a mirror test to review ones own performance
. Once again, many of these aspects may be applied to the charismatic leaders. The issue of values is obviously different, but these are perspective issues rather than actual traits; they had different values.…
Leadership Training The Leader is interested in aligning the beliefs and values of people with the overall goals and vision of the organization. In the Leadership role one can bring about change by providing direction, by setting an example, by motivating through inspiration, and by building teams based on respect and trust. A leader is focused on results rather than methods, systems and procedures. Leaders ask themselves "For what purpose?" And
Nursing Leadership Theories NURSING LEADERSHIP: COMPARISON AND ANALYSIS OF CONCEPTS & THEORIES The work of Cherie and Gebrekida (2005) report that there is both formal and informal leadership in that managers are formally "delegated authority, including the power to reward or punish. A manager is expected to perform functions such as planning, organizing, directing (leading) and controlling (evaluating)." On the other hand, informal leaders are "not always managers performing those functions required
Compare and Contrast Paper on Servant Leadership Servant Leadership Theory was given by Robert Greenleaf that focuses on the leaders being the servant of their people, serving them in every possible way (Burkus, 2010). The words' servant' and 'leader' are both contradictory to each other, but the subtleties of this relationship, in which the servant leads through serving others, is unique and distinctive, fulfilling the aspects of successful leadership (Rachmawati, 2014).
In the first instance, the research undertaken on this topic has attempted to be as inclusive as possible. To this end databases such as Ebscohost and Quesia were consulted for up-to-date sources and data. However the research was also limited to the ideas and objectives suggested in chapter one. The following review is indicative of the some of the most important studies within the parameter of the central questions
Leadership Theories The role of leadership in business organizations Many leadership theories have been applied, in different organizations, to help in attainment of the objectives of the organization. Leadership theories are many, but the most common include the trait theory, which assumes that different people inherit the qualities and also traits of leadership and later suit for the position of leadership. The characteristics related to the trait theory are behavioral and personality
Leadership, according to La Monica (1938), is when a person has authority that is recognized by others, and the person has followers/subordinates under them, who believe that the person will assist them in attaining certain goals (carrying out specific objectives for the followers). Furthermore, anyone that is willing to assist and help others could be referred to as a leader (p.8) Leaders see what others do not Most leaders have