references to famous philosophers and well-known individuals in the world give a strong argument to his positions in the letter.
In conclusion, it is apparent that the elements of pathos and ethos were used in King's letter to argue and defend his position about the black American segregation in America. At the initial part of his letter, King uses ethos, or appeals based on King's character and validity as a defender of the black American cause. This is evident in his use of his position and the name is organization and his use of his position as a political and religious activist to effectively argue and make his point to his three main audience: the white American political and religious community, and the black American society. Pathos, or appeals based on emotions, are used to his argument addressed to his fellow black Americans, and also accompanies his logical arguments (logos) about the black American individual rights, freedom, and the equality of every man/individual. Through these three important elements of rhetoric, King was able to make a passionate, and very argumentative position and refutation against the criticisms thrown at him and his organization regarding their demonstrations admonishing the practice of racial prejudice, segregation, and slavery. Thus, the primary purpose of King's letter, which is to advocate for the abolishment of racial segregation and pushing for the freedom of black Americans in his white American- dominated society, is achieved through his broad knowledge and authority over issues of racial segregation, through his effective emotional appeals to the people regarding inequality and injustices to the black American society, and the presentation of "hard, brutal, unbelievable facts" to support his statements regarding the serious and dangerous effects of racial prejudice in the American society. In effect, King's position/stance against racial segregation is a strong one, because of the balanced and effective use of these primary rhetoric elements, which is dominantly present in his rhetorical letter from the Birmingham Jail.