Life Course Crime Factors Determining Term Paper

Excerpt from Term Paper :

The argument here is highly theoretical, ultimately defining crime as unskilled and essentially unrestrained activity -- supporting their later conclusions in a Genera Theory of Crime (Gottfredson & Hirschil 1986). Even here, however, some points of continuity with other research can be found.

The authors ultimately maintain that criminal behavior arises out of a failure to meet the standards of normal behavior in society, and that the image of the "career criminal" is a misleading research concept as all who exhibit consistent criminal patterns are essentially incapable of maintaining the intellectual and conscious through-line of a "career" (Gottfredson & Hirschil 1986). Though other findings suggest that rehabilitation is more possible than these conclusions indicate, even a minor adjustment in Gottfredson & Hirschil's (1986) theory makes it compatible with these other findings: if learning can continue in adulthood, than the persistent "incapabilities" of career-oriented behavior can eventually be taught these capabilities. Though the theories of Gottfredson & Hirschil (1986: 1990) and Sampson & Laub (1990; 1992; 1998) are incompatible as stated, their findings are not actually as mutually exclusive as is presented in the published results of their research.

Conclusion

Ultimately, there appear to be factors in both childhood and adulthood that influence criminality. If a new perspective that incorporates the findings of the various researchers in this area can be developed and solidified through further research, this assertion could be made more concrete, more objective, and more assertive. This is how research progresses, especially in the social sciences -- disparate methods and findings are coalesced by the development of new theories. It is time for such a new theory in criminology, and through such theories the development of criminal patterns can be better understood.

References

Gottfredson, M. & Hirschil, T. (1986). The true value of lambda would appear to be zero. Criminology 24(2), pp. 213-234.

Gottfredson, M. & Hirschil, T. (1990). A General Theory of Crime. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.

Laub, J.; Nagin, D. & Sampson, R. (1992). Trajectories of change in criminal offending. American Sociological Review 63, pp.…

Sources Used in Document:

References

Gottfredson, M. & Hirschil, T. (1986). The true value of lambda would appear to be zero. Criminology 24(2), pp. 213-234.

Gottfredson, M. & Hirschil, T. (1990). A General Theory of Crime. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.

Laub, J.; Nagin, D. & Sampson, R. (1992). Trajectories of change in criminal offending. American Sociological Review 63, pp. 225-238.

Sampson, R. & Laub, J. (1990). Crime and Deviance over the Life Course: The Salience of Adult Social Bonds. American Sociological Review 55(5), pp. 609-627

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